nep-cse New Economics Papers
on Economics of Strategic Management
Issue of 2010‒12‒18
fifteen papers chosen by
Joao Jose de Matos Ferreira
University of the Beira Interior

  1. How Do Different Motives for R&D Investment in Foreign Locations Affect Domestic Firm Performance? An Analysis Based on Swiss Panel Micro Data By Spyros Arvanitis; Heinz Hollenstein
  2. Do cooperative R&D subsidies stimulate regional innovation efficiency? Evidence from Germany By Tom Broekel
  3. What Determines the Innovation Capability of Firm Founders? By Spyros Arvanitis; Tobias Stucki
  4. Entrepreneurship education in Italian universities: trend, situation and opportunities By Donato Iacobucci; Alessandra Micozzi
  5. The University as a knowledge reservoir - the comparative study of bussines and engineering undergraduate students' profile of the Federal University of Goiás (UFG) By Paula Andréa Marques do Valle; Dnilson Carlos Dias
  6. Backward linkages and the export;performance of business services.;Evidence from a sample of Italian firms By Giuliano CONTI; Alessia LO TURCO; Daniela MAGGIONI
  7. Knowledge Production in European Union: Evidence from a National Level Panel Data By Pinto, Hugo
  8. The determinants of growth for SMEs. A longitudinal study from French manufacturing firms By Nadine Levratto; Luc Tessier; Messaoud Zouikri
  9. Insights into the Determinants of Innovation of Energy Efficiency By Marius Ley
  10. Universities as Research Partners: Entrepreneurial Explorations and Exploitations By Link, Al; Wessner, Charles
  11. Universities look beyond the patent policy discourse in their intellectual property strategies By Andersen Birgitte; Rossi Federica
  12. The Information and Communication Technology Sector in India: Performance, Growth and Key Challenges By OECD
  13. Analysing the Employability of Business and Administration Study Programs in Portugal By Luísa Ferreira Lopes
  14. Intellectual Property Governance and Knowledge Creation in UK Universities By Andersen Birgitte; Rossi Federica
  15. Strategic planning in road transport - operational instrument of strategic management By Cernaianu, Nicolae

  1. By: Spyros Arvanitis (KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich, Switzerland); Heinz Hollenstein (KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich, Switzerland)
    Abstract: The aim of this article is to investigate the differences between specific motives of R&D investment in foreign locations with respect to the factors influencing the likelihood of foreign R&D and to the impact of foreign presence on the parent firms’ innovativeness and productivity. An econometric analysis of Swiss firm panel data shows, firstly, that factors related to firm-specific knowledge-oriented advantages are more important for explaining the likelihood of foreign R&D activities than factors reflecting disadvantages related to home location. Secondly, knowledge-oriented motives of foreign R&D are positively correlated to innovation performance of domestic firms, whereas market-oriented and resource-oriented strategies correlate positively with productivity.
    Keywords: Research and development (R&D), Foreign R&D, Motives of foreign R&D, Home effects of foreign R&D, Firm performance
    JEL: O31 F23
    Date: 2010–05
  2. By: Tom Broekel
    Abstract: The paper investigates the impact of R&D subsidies on regional innovation efficiency. Building on a rich panel data set covering 270 German labor market regions and four industries, it is particularly shown that subsidies for R&D cooperation are a suitable policy measure for stimulating the innovation efficiency of regions. The empirical findings moreover suggest that regions with low innovation capacities benefit from subsidized inter-regional cooperation involving partners with diverse industrial and sectoral backgrounds. Establishing inter-regional cooperation that give access to related knowledge and skills is more important for regions with large innovation capacities.
    Keywords: innovation policy, regional innovation efficiency, R&D subsidies, cooperation networks, knowledge networks
    JEL: O18 O38 R58 R12
    Date: 2010–12
  3. By: Spyros Arvanitis (KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich, Switzerland); Tobias Stucki (KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich, Switzerland)
    Abstract: Innovative start-ups, not start-ups in general, seem to be important drivers of economic growth. However, little is known about how such firms look like. As activities of start-ups are strongly related to firm founders, we investigate this question focusing on the innovation capability of firm founders. We find that the combination of different founder characteristics such as university education (at best a combination of technical and commercial education), prior experience in R&D, and strong motivation to realize own innovative ideas increases innovative activities of start-ups by more than 40%.
    Keywords: Start-ups, innovation, founder characteristics
    JEL: M13 L26 O30
    Date: 2010–09
  4. By: Donato Iacobucci (Dipartimento di Ingegneria Informatica, Gestionale e dell’Automazione, Università Politecnica delle Marche); Alessandra Micozzi (Dipartimento di Ingegneria Informatica, Gestionale e dell’Automazione, Università Politecnica delle Marche)
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to provide an analysis of the present situation and recent evolution in entrepreneurship courses and curricula in Italian universities. The analysis is based on a census of entrepreneurship courses and curricula run by Italian universities in 2004 and 2010. Entrepreneurship education in Italian universities is in its early development. Up to 2004 only a few universities had courses dedicated to entrepreneurship and the majority of them dealt with the development of the business plan. This situation has only slightly improved in the following years. Courses and curricula are mostly within business schools while very few exist in engineering and science schools. This situation contrasts with the need for entrepreneurship education in the Italian economy. Given the importance of traditional sectors in Italian industry we need to stimulate start-up in high-tech sectors: the development of entrepreneurship courses in engineering and in other science curricula could play an important role in this sense. At the same time we need to favor the growth process of small firms; this requires people who are able to play an entrepreneurial role in established firms.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship education, university courses, intrapreneurship, entrepreneurial competences.
    Date: 2010–11
  5. By: Paula Andréa Marques do Valle (FACE-UFG, Ciências Econômicas); Dnilson Carlos Dias (FACE-UFG, Ciências Econômicas)
    Abstract: This study aims to identify the characteristics of groups of students in business and engineering, in a comparative way, which qualifies them as future innovative professionals, spreading the knowledge frontier. Five factors were highlighted: assertiveness, leadership, risk tolerance/accessibility, dedication and competence in information. The focus was on identifying the presence of entrepreneurial characteristics, contrasting the ranks of engineering and business, and the relationship of these characteristics with age and gender of respondents, allowing a comparative analysis of their educational backgrounds. To discuss that, this paper made use of a data set obtained from a research applied to students of the Federal University of Goiás. This study is part of an ongoing research that will investigate students’ profiles for a period of ten years, understanding the role carried out by institutions of higher education, through this case study. The research main instrument is a questionnaire developed by the University of Northern Iowa (USA) and applied to students of business (economics, business administration and accounting) as well as engineering majors (civil engineers) of the Federal University of Goiás. To analyze the data the study will make use of multivariate analysis, such as factor analysis (FA) via PCA (principal component analysis), followed by a logistic regression of gender in relation to the entrepreneurial profile of students, as well as an OLS linear regression of age in relation to these same factors. The results pointed out that both groups presented innovative traces in common, such as: assertiveness, dedication, leadership and informational competence; and, individually, the engineer group showed accessibility to be a major factor, versus risk tolerance for the business group. In the logistic regression analysis the innovative characteristics were assertiveness and leadership for the business majors; versus dedication and accessibility for the engineering majors. This allowed the considerations that the assertiveness was associated with the female students, while leadership was consistent with the male respondents, for the business students; as for the engineers it was identified a higher dedication trait for women in face of a more pronounced accessibility for men. Regarding the age analysis it was only possible to identify significance for the business group, which presented a higher dedication for older students.
    Keywords: Production of knowledge, education, entrepreneurship.
    Date: 2010–12
  6. By: Giuliano CONTI (Universita' Politecnica delle Marche, Dipartimento di Economia); Alessia LO TURCO (Universita' Politecnica delle Marche, Dipartimento di Economia); Daniela MAGGIONI (Universita' Politecnica delle Marche, Dipartimento di Economia)
    Abstract: We provide evidence on backward linkages between downstream manufacturing sectors and the export performance of Italian business service firms. Combining input-output coefficients from the National Accounts with region-level information on the international involvement and market thickness of downstream manufacturing sectors, we build some measures of local spillovers and we test them as determinants of the business service firms' export status. Our results show that the export activity of downstream manufacturing sectors is positively related to the services firms' probability of exporting to the same foreign market. Also downstream market thickness bears the same positive effect, even if the latter turns to be non-significant for KIBS sectors. Finally, our evidence confirms that the scope of export spillovers is essentially local.
    Keywords: Services, back-ward linkages, firms' internationalisation, spillovers
    JEL: F14 L25 L80
    Date: 2010–12
  7. By: Pinto, Hugo
    Abstract: The knowledge production function framework is used to understand how territories transform specific inputs into knowledge outputs. This article focuses knowledge production function estimation at European Union with twenty five member-states using a data panel analysis between 1999 and 2003. The importance of different variables in knowledge production is tested. The econometric results give relevant insights for EU decision-makers and the creation of a more integrated European Research Area and innovation cooperation within Europe.
    Keywords: Knowledge Production Function; Panel Data; European Union
    JEL: C3 O3
    Date: 2010–12–07
  8. By: Nadine Levratto; Luc Tessier; Messaoud Zouikri
    Abstract: This paper investigates the structural and strategic determinants of firm growth using a unique data set for French firms employing between 10 and 250 employees in 1997 and active over the period 1997-2007. Starting from the idea that firm growth is not only a random process but that some regularities may be emphasized, we consider a growth model that combines different elements presented as determinant in the firm’s growth path. Results based on two families of multinomial logit model do not confirm the conclusions about the exclusive role played by the previous size. In addition, thanks to the references to legal structure, market share and localization, one observes these variables shape strongly the individual growth path. However environment and structural elements are not the only elements to focus on in order to provide an explanation of the employment growth rate at the firm level. Strategic factors matter too. In particular we demonstrate the crucial role of labor costs and financial structure as explanatory variables of firm growth.
    Keywords: Firm growth, SMEs, Gibrat’s law, French manufacturing, multinomial logistic regression
    JEL: L25 C1
    Date: 2010
  9. By: Marius Ley (KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich, Switzerland)
    Abstract: Given the increasing interest in understanding (and supporting by means of public policy) innovative activity related to energy efficient technology (EET), I attempt to identify firm-level determinants of innovation and research in this field. A novel dataset of Swiss firms has been assembled by means of a survey in 2009, resulting in more than 2300 observations featuring various indicators of innovative activity and success. Applying standard econometric methodology, I find sizeable differences of the explaining factors of energy efficiency related innovation as compared to overall innovation. In particular, market environment related variables important for overall innovative activity seem to have little explanatory power for EET related innovation, raising the question whether such innovation sufficiently responds to current and potential future demand.
    Keywords: Innovation, Energy, Energy Efficiency
    JEL: O31 Q49
    Date: 2010–09
  10. By: Link, Al (University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics); Wessner, Charles (University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: N/A
    Keywords: university; universities; entrepreneur
    JEL: O30
    Date: 2010–12–09
  11. By: Andersen Birgitte; Rossi Federica (University of Turin)
    Abstract: In recent years, much emphasis has been placed in the policy discourse on the patenting of academic research outcomes. However, universities produce a wide variety of IP, not all of which is suitable to be patented, or which universities may choose not to patent. The present article, building upon an original survey of 46 universities (about 27% of total) in the United Kingdom, investigates universities’ knowledge transfer processes through the exchange of a variety of forms of IP: patents, copyright, open source and non-patented innovations. The analysis concerns: (i) the extent to which universities exchange these forms of IP; (ii) whether they are used in a complementary or substitute way; and how relatively (iii) strategic effective and (iv) market efficient they are, in allowing universities to reach certain objectives (relating to knowledge transfer, competitive positioning, innovation and financial gain). We find that most universities perceive a variety of types of IP to be effective, usually in order to reach different strategic objectives. Certain forms of IP are use more than others for particular purposes, and no IP exchanges in the marketplace are exempt from institutional problems. Our results challenge the Bayh-Dole Act (now adopted in many OECD countries and elsewhere); i.e. whether patents and patent markets are the best tool for knowledge dissemination from research base into use, and other benefits, and whether instead it would be more appropriate to encourage universities to a variety of IP
    Date: 2010–11
  12. By: OECD
    Abstract: apid growth in globally competitive Indian information technology services has helped to transform the Indian economy.
    Date: 2010–06–30
  13. By: Luísa Ferreira Lopes (Universidade Nova de Lisboa and CEFAGE-UE)
    Abstract: In searching for improvements in the measurement of innovation, in this paper we suggest the idea of conceiving innovation as a latent variable or concept, i.e., one that cannot be accurately defined or directly measured. We propose the use of multivariate statistical analysis (a combination of cluster and discriminant analysis) as a possible way to develop indirect measures of innovation that are more appropriate to the intrinsically imprecise nature of the concept to be measured. In this way, the problem of using an ambiguous and subjective ‘innovation definition’ is limited, reducing measurement errors. We obtain an ‘innovation intensity index,’ which is a weighted average of ten different predictors.
    Keywords: Measurement; Innovation; Multivariate; Discriminant analysis; Cluster analysis; Latent variable, innovation index.
    JEL: O32
    Date: 2010
  14. By: Andersen Birgitte; Rossi Federica (University of Turin)
    Abstract: The public discourse advocating increased patenting of academic discoveries, which has led to the approval of legislative measures (such as the Bayh Dole Act, which is now adopted world-wide in various forms) is based on a set of theoretical arguments, mainly related to knowledge transfer and financial reward. Using an original survey of 46 universities (about 27%) in the United Kingdom, we investigate whether some of these arguments are supported by evidence. We focus on the extent to which patents, as opposed to other forms of intellectual property (IP) protection mechanisms, enhance knowledge circulation, and especially contribute to universities’ own knowledge creation processes. We also investigate whether universities consider the markets for ideas and creative expressions to function efficiently. We find that universities use all forms of IP intensively in order to transfer their knowledge to industry or government. However, they mainly rely on non-proprietary IP (open source and no-patent strategies) when aiming to enhance their own knowledge creation processes. Also, universities do not find that markets for patents or copyrights function more smoothly than non-proprietary IP marketplaces. The results challenge the orthodox theories on the rationales for patents and other proprietary intellectual property rights (IPRs). Thus, we question the assumptions and arguments underpinning the implementation of patents on academic research outcomes via political reforms since the 1980s
    Date: 2010–11
  15. By: Cernaianu, Nicolae
    Abstract: Increased transportation demand creates new problems specialists, putting them in a position to find practical solutions to match. Analysis of the current structure of Romanian road transport process involves an analytical approach that exceed the basis of their decisions only experience and intuition. Romanian transport movement by way of such analysis and planning leads to strategic directions of their more robust.
    Keywords: Strategic Planning; Strategic Management; Traffic Plans; Accessibility; Intermodality; Sustainable Development
    JEL: H54 F41
    Date: 2010

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