nep-cse New Economics Papers
on Economics of Strategic Management
Issue of 2010‒11‒20
fourteen papers chosen by
Joao Jose de Matos Ferreira
University of the Beira Interior

  1. Network dynamics in regional clusters: The perspective of an emerging economy By Elisa Giuliani
  2. The internationalization of firms in the service industries: channels, determinants and sectoral patterns By Castellacci, Fulvio
  3. The role of technological gatekeepers in the growth of industrial clusters: Evidence from Chile By Elisa Giuliani
  4. Regional Knowledge and the Emergence of an Industry: Laser Systems Production in West Germany, 1975Ð2005 By Guido Buenstorf; Michael Fritsch; Luis Medrano
  5. ICT and Innovation Activities: Evidence for UK SMEs By Dolores Añon Higón
  6. Inter-organisational projects in french innovation clusters: the construction of collaboration By L. Calamel; C. Defelix; T. Picq; D. Retour
  7. The Impact of University Research on Corporate Patenting By Christian Helmers; Mark Rogers
  8. Gazelle companies: growth drivers and an evolution analysis By Oriol Amat; Jordi Perramon
  9. Structural properties of cooperation networks in Germany: From basic to applied research By Tom Broekel; Holger Graf
  10. The impact of creativity on growth in German regions By Wedemeier, Jan
  11. Research Diary Visual Mapping : a reflective methodological tool for process and strategy-as-practice studies By A. Parmentier
  12. Strategic activities in support of young French SMEs By B. Branchet; B. Augier; J.P. Boissin; B. Quere
  13. Knowledge transfer in the Social Sciences and the Humanities: informal links in a Public Research Organization By Castro-Martínez, Elena; Molas-Gallart, Jordi; Olmos-Peñuela, Julia
  14. How Can SMES Become More Competitive On The Graduate Labour Market? By Muenzinger, Ina

  1. By: Elisa Giuliani
    Abstract: Regional clusters are spatial agglomerations of firms operating in the same or connected industries, which enable innovation and economic performance for firms. A wealth of empirical literature shows that one of key elements of the success of regional clusters is that they facilitate the formation of local inter-organizational networks, which act as conduits of knowledge and innovation. While most studies analyze the benefits and characteristics of regional cluster networks and focus on advanced economies and high tech Ôhot spotsÕ, this paper advances with the existing literature by analyzing network dynamics and taking an emerging economyÕs perspective. Using longitudinal data of a wine cluster in Chile and stochastic actor-oriented models for network dynamics, this paper examines what micro-level effects influence the formation of new knowledge ties among wineries. It finds that the coexistence of cohesion effects (reciprocity and transitivity) and the presence of inter-firm knowledge base heterogeneity contribute to the stability of an informal hierarchical network structure over time. Empirical results have interesting implications for cluster competitiveness and network studies, and for the burgeoning literature on corporate behavior in emerging economies.
    Keywords: Regional clusters, knowledge networks, network dynamics, wine industry, Chile
    Date: 2010–10
  2. By: Castellacci, Fulvio
    Abstract: The paper presents the results of a new survey on the international activities of Norwegian enterprises in the service industries. The survey focuses on three main internationalization channels: international sales, international cooperation and R&D outsourcing. The empirical analysis studies the relevance of these channels, and investigates the related strategies, objectives and determinants. International sales and collaborations emerge as the two most relevant channels, whereas the scope for R&D outsourcing seems to be far more limited. The analysis of the determinants of international activities leads to three main results: (1) the innovative capability of firms matters for their international performance; (2) the various internationalization channels seem to be complement, rather than substitute, strategies to compete in foreign markets; (3) sectoral specificities greatly affect firms’ internationalization strategies and performance.
    Keywords: internationalization; international cooperations; R&D outsourcing; innovation; service industries; survey data
    JEL: F0 O3 L1
    Date: 2010
  3. By: Elisa Giuliani
    Abstract: Industrial clusters are often associated with innovative success. However, there is very little research on what types of organizational models apply to clusters as they grow, to facilitate upgrading and innovation Ð and especially in emerging/developing countries. This paper uses longitudinal micro-level data for a wine cluster in Chile. They show that the most advanced firms in the cluster behave as Technological Gatekeepers Ð i.e. they acquire knowledge outside cluster boundaries and contribute to diffusing knowledge to other, potentially rival, local firms Ð and do so persistently over time. The results are explained by combining three theoretical perspectives: evolutionary economics theory; business studies on communities of practice and knowledge workersÕ know-how trade; and embeddedness theory.
    Keywords: Industrial clusters, technological gatekeepers, knowledge networks, wine industry, Chile
    Date: 2010–10
  4. By: Guido Buenstorf; Michael Fritsch; Luis Medrano
    Abstract: We analyze the emergence and spatial evolution of the German laser systems industry. Regional knowledge in the related field of laser sources, as well as the presence of universities with physics or engineering departments, is conducive to the emergence of laser systems suppliers. The regional presence of source producers is also positively related to entry into laser systems. One important mechanism behind regional entry is the diversification of upstream laser source producers into the downstream systems market. Entry into the materials processing submarket appears to be unrelated to academic knowledge in the region, but the presence of laser source producers and the regional stock of laser knowledge are still highly predictive in this submarket.
    Keywords: Innovation, regional knowledge, laser technology, emerging industries, diversification
    JEL: L22 L69 R11 O52
    Date: 2010–11
  5. By: Dolores Añon Higón (Departamento de Economía Aplicada II, Universidad de Valencia)
    Abstract: There is a continuous commitment of policy makers in the UK to supporting innovation in small and medium firms. For these policy initiatives to be successful, an understanding of the factors driving innovation activities is required. In this study, we focus on the role that Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) play in the innovation performance of UK small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). Using data drawn from the 2004 Annual Small Business Survey (ASBS) database, we show that ICT operate primarily as efficiency-enhancing technologies, although specific market oriented applications (i.e. website development) exhibit a potential to create competitive advantage through product innovation.
    Keywords: ICT, Product Innovation, Process Innovation, SME, Bivariate Probit
    JEL: D24 O30
    Date: 2010–11
  6. By: L. Calamel (CERAG - Centre d'études et de recherches appliquées à la gestion - CNRS : UMR5820 - Université Pierre Mendès-France - Grenoble II, MC - Management et Comportement - Grenoble Ecole de Management, UPMF Grenoble II - UNIVERSITE PIERRE MENDES FRANCE - Université Pierre Mendès-France - Grenoble II); C. Defelix (CERAG - Centre d'études et de recherches appliquées à la gestion - CNRS : UMR5820 - Université Pierre Mendès-France - Grenoble II, UPMF Grenoble II - UNIVERSITE PIERRE MENDES FRANCE - Université Pierre Mendès-France - Grenoble II, IAE GRENOBLE - IAE de Grenoble); T. Picq (CERAG - Centre d'études et de recherches appliquées à la gestion - CNRS : UMR5820 - Université Pierre Mendès-France - Grenoble II, Euristik - Equipe de Recherche en management stratégique - Centre de recherche Magellan de l'IAE - Université Jean Moulin - Lyon III); D. Retour (CERAG - Centre d'études et de recherches appliquées à la gestion - CNRS : UMR5820 - Université Pierre Mendès-France - Grenoble II)
    Abstract: Having received considerable attention from central government and local authorities, French innovation clusters (the so-called ‘pôles de compétitivité') are beginning to be studied by academic researchers and evaluated by consultants. The core of their activity consists of collaborative projects, which are characterised by specific management and HR practices located at the junction of different cultures and employment statuses. Almost four years after they were launched, what can we say about the dynamic of these collaborative projects? What is the reality of such collaboration when it involves multiple partnerships bringing together employees from different occupational cultures and HRM systems? The aim of this longitudinal research, which is based on observation of two collaborative projects in one of the most largest clusters in France,is to discuss management and HR issues in such a setting. A literature review highlights the need to open up the ‘black box' of collaboration within projects and encourages examination of both manager's coordination efforts and the actors' motivation to cooperate, as well as the role played by HRM practices. Thus observation of the conduct of the projects over two years reveals that collaboration, far from being a given within these projects, is the product of a process of social construction that might be fostered by better managerial support.
    Keywords: innovation cluster ; collaborative project ; coordination ; cooperation ; learning ; competences
    Date: 2010
  7. By: Christian Helmers; Mark Rogers
    Abstract: This paper analyses the association between the number of patenting manufacturing firms andthe quantity and quality of relevant university research across UK postcode areas. We showthat different measures of research `power' and `excellence' positively affect the patenting ofsmall firms within the same postcode area. Patenting by large firms, in contrast, is unaffectedby research undertaken in nearby universities. This confirms the commonly held view thatlocation matters more for small firms than large firms. We also investigate specific channelsof technology transfer, finding that university-industry knowledge transfer occurs throughboth formal and informal channels. From a methodological point of view, we contribute tothe existing literature by accounting for potential simultaneity between university researchand patenting of local firms by adopting an instrumental variable approach. Moreover, wealso allow for the effects of the presence of universities in neighbouring postcode areas toinfluence firms' patenting activity by incorporating spatial neighborhood effects.
    Keywords: Patents, universities, knowledge transfer, spillover, UK
    JEL: L22 L26 O34
    Date: 2010–09
  8. By: Oriol Amat; Jordi Perramon
    Abstract: Gazelle companies are relevant because they generate much more employment than other companies and deliver high returns to their shareholders. This paper analyzes their behavior in the years of high growth and their evolution in the following years. The main factors that explain their success are competitive advantages based on human resources, innovation, internationalization, the excellence in processes and a conservative financial policy. Nevertheless, as time goes by they can be divided in two groups: a group which continues having growth, but most of them with lower growth rates; and the rest which face great problems or even disappear. The present study identifies several key factors that explain this different evolution.
    Keywords: Gazelle companies, high-growth companies, financial information, business evolution, financial statements.
    JEL: L1 M41 M13
    Date: 2010–11
  9. By: Tom Broekel (Department of Economic Geography, Urban & Regional Research Centre Utrecht (URU), Faculty of Geosciences, Utrecht University); Holger Graf (School of Economics and Business Administration, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena)
    Abstract: Economists pay more and more attention to knowledge networks and drivers of their development. Consequently, a rich literature emerged analyzing factors explaining the emergence of intra-organizational links. Despite substantial work focusing on the dyad level, only little is known about how and why (global) network structures differ between technologies or industries. The study is based on a new data source on subsidized R&D cooperation in Germany, which is presented in detail and discussed with respect to other types of relational data. A comparison of networks within ten technologies allows us to identify systematic differences between basic and applied research networks.
    Keywords: R&D subsidies, network, cooperation, Foerderkatalog, Germany
    JEL: L14 I28 O38
    Date: 2010–11–12
  10. By: Wedemeier, Jan
    Abstract: The objective of this paper is to analyze the impact of the creative professions - technological employees and bohemians - on economic growth in Germany’s planning regions. It is concluded that technological employees and bohemians foster economic growth. We find that growth is particularly dynamic in agglomerated and urbanized regions. Among regional factors relevant to the location decisions of creative professionals, diversity is analyzed in particular, as it might stimulate growth because of its potential to increase the rate of interchange of different ideas and knowledge. Diversity is therefore a “knowledge production factor." The analysis of both - creative professions and diversity - is related to two current topics in regional economics, namely the knowledge based economy and its effects on city development, and the topic of creative cities.
    Keywords: Regional Economic Growth; Creativity; Diversity
    JEL: R1 O3 O4 R23
    Date: 2010
  11. By: A. Parmentier (CERAG - Centre d'études et de recherches appliquées à la gestion - CNRS : UMR5820 - Université Pierre Mendès-France - Grenoble II)
    Abstract: Balogun, Huff and Johnson (2003) highlight the growing paradox for researchers who must focus on context and details while favouring general lines of research. These authors focus their reflection around the collection of qualitative data, particularly those of discussion groups, collaborative research and of research journal redaction techniques. We propose, in the context of collaborative research, a new utilisation of the personal diary, fuelled by our doctoral experiences in collaborative research. While the personal diary in its usual form increases the level of reflectivity on an intervening process, it is nevertheless difficult to exploit for the work of interpreting and legitimizing research. We therefore propose personal diary mapping. In addition to the advantages of personal diary mapping as a methodological tool for viewing the phenomenon, it allows a process to be described by highlighting specifics that are not obvious in reading a text. Moreover, the process of personal diary mapping provides a contribution to the epistemic work in a constructivist reference because it helps make the relationship between knowledge and empirical information explicit (Martinet 2007). After a summary bringing process studies closer to SaP and a review of the modalities of action research and their implications in terms of ethics and researcher responsibility, we present the origins, principles and benefits of visual mapping as regards the researcher's responsibility. In a second step, we illustrate the normative elements of this approach through a case study on strategic competence development based on personal diary mapping.
    Keywords: Research Diary ; Visual Mapping ; methodological tool ; process ; strategy-as-practice
    Date: 2010
  12. By: B. Branchet (CERAG - Centre d'études et de recherches appliquées à la gestion - CNRS : UMR5820 - Université Pierre Mendès-France - Grenoble II); B. Augier (CERAG - Centre d'études et de recherches appliquées à la gestion - CNRS : UMR5820 - Université Pierre Mendès-France - Grenoble II); J.P. Boissin (CERAG - Centre d'études et de recherches appliquées à la gestion - CNRS : UMR5820 - Université Pierre Mendès-France - Grenoble II); B. Quere (CERAG - Centre d'études et de recherches appliquées à la gestion - CNRS : UMR5820 - Université Pierre Mendès-France - Grenoble II)
    Abstract: In this paper we closely study young French Small and Medium Enteprises (SMEs). We highlight the structure of this target firms and we build a typology of corresponding business models. The business models stemming from this typology are typical (to the greatest extent possible) and actionable. We are particularly intersted in indentifying groups of SMEs where gouvernement assistance would be particularly effective and strategically valuable for the national economy. One of our conclusins is that the typology is not based on a classical growth model that reflects progressive phases of developement in the life of a young firm. Furthermore, it is ineffective and wasteful to focus governement assistance efforts on firms based on their age. We identify groups of business models where assistance would be more effecient and strategically more effective.
    Keywords: SME ; growth ; growth model ; typology
    Date: 2010
  13. By: Castro-Martínez, Elena; Molas-Gallart, Jordi; Olmos-Peñuela, Julia
    Abstract: This study analyzes the characteristics of knowledge transfer in the Social Sciences and the Humanities in the Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC). CSIC is the largest public sector research organization in the country and has a substantial set of activities in the Social Sciences and Humanities. We analyze the variety of users and beneficiaries that access some of the results of CSIC ́s research in this field, and the different forms of use. We identify a wide range of transfer processes and discuss the organizational and analytical challenges that such variety poses. The study shows that a substantial number of research groups had links with non-academic beneficiaries and were looking for ways to increase such relationships. Many of these links were informal and occasional in nature, of limited reach, and invisible to the parent organization (CSIC). We derive some policy and management implications from these conclusions. The variety of transfer processes suggests that, to support efficient knowledge transfer, policies and knowledge transfer management processes must be differentiated and tailored to the specific characteristics of knowledge production and use in the Social Sciences and Humanities.
    Keywords: Knowledge transfer; Humanities; Social Sciences; Public Research Organization; Policy; Informality
    JEL: I23
    Date: 2010–11–11
  14. By: Muenzinger, Ina
    Abstract: Extensive research in strategic Human Resource Management demonstrates that an organisation's success is bound by its workforce knowledge, skills and abilities (Breaugh & Starke, 2000). Recruiting a highly talented workforce has therefore become recognised as a strategic business challenge (Gurtheridge et al, 2005) and this also applies to the recruitment of top graduates (Phillips, 2008). However, SMEs have as of yet remained greatly underrepresented within the graduate market and this dissertation aims to address the issue by exploring how SMEs can become more competitive within this field. Building on previous research on talent recruitment (Maurer and Liu, 2007) the dissertation suggests that recruiting SMEs need to act like marketers, closely attending to graduate work aspirations and employer expectations, fulfilling graduate needs, wants and desires - as long as the exchange also remains beneficial for the organisation. To avoid direct competition with recruiting TNCs in campus campaigns, SMEs are recommended to make use of more direct communication channels such as email and they are advised to attend to information content and specificity very carefully. To differentiate from the competition, SMEs are further advised to engage in employer branding. The recommendations are developed on the basis of primary data as obtained from interviews with prospective graduates.
    Date: 2010–03

This nep-cse issue is ©2010 by Joao Jose de Matos Ferreira. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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