nep-cse New Economics Papers
on Economics of Strategic Management
Issue of 2009‒06‒03
eight papers chosen by
Joao Jose de Matos Ferreira
University of the Beira Interior

  1. Standard-Setting and Knowledge Dynamics in Innovation Clusters By Julian P. Christ; André P. Slowak
  2. Innovation Promotion and Learning in International Trade: the Case of Colombian Manufacturing Exports By Simon Teitel
  3. Innovation and market dynamics in the EPO market By Sorisio, Enrico; Strøm, Steinar
  4. Networks and innovation: the role of social assets in explaining firms' innovative capacity By Uwe Cantner; Elisa Conti; Andreas Meder
  5. Determinantes Principais de Inovação na Indústria Brasileira: Uma Análise Preliminar By Luiz Dias Bahia
  6. Which Portuguese firms are more innovative? The importance of multinationals and exporters By Armando Silva; Ana Paula Africano; Oscar Afonso
  7. Planejamento Estratégico do Desenvolvimento e as Políticas Macroeconômicas By João Sicsú
  8. The international competitiveness of cava: success of a particular firm or the district ? By Francesc Valls-Junyent

  1. By: Julian P. Christ (Universität Hohenheim); André P. Slowak (Universität Hohenheim)
    Abstract: Extensive research has been conducted on how firms and regions take advantage of spatially concentrated assets, and also why history matters to regional specialisation patterns. In brief, it seems that innovation clusters as a distinctive regional entity in international business and the geography of innovation are of increasing importance in STI policy, innovation systems and competitiveness studies. Recently, more and more research has contributed to an evolutionary perspective on collaboration in clusters. Nonetheless, the field of cluster or regional innovation systems remains a multidisciplinary field where the state of the art is determined by the individual perspective (key concepts could, for example, be industrial districts, innovative clusters with reference to OECD, regional knowledge production, milieus & sticky knowledge, regional lock-ins & path dependencies, learning regions or sectoral innovation systems). According to our analysis, the research gap lies in both quantitative, comparative surveys and in-depth concepts of knowledge dynamics and cluster evolution. Therefore this paper emphasises the unchallenged in-depth characteristics of knowledge utilisation within a cluster’s collaborative innovation activities. More precisely, it deals with knowledge dynamics in terms of matching different agents´ knowledge stocks via knowledge flows, common technology specification (standard-setting), and knowledge spillovers. The means of open innovation and system boundaries for spatially concentrated agents in terms of knowledge opportunities and the capabilities of each agent await clarification. Therefore, our study conceptualises the interplay between firm- and cluster-level activities and externalities for knowledge accumulation but also for the specification of technology. It remains particularly unclear how, why and by whom knowledge is aligned and ascribed to a specific sectoral innovation system. Empirically, this study contributes with several descriptive calculations of indices, e.g. knowledge stocks, GINI coefficients, Herfindahl indices, and Revealed Patent Advantage (RPA), which clearly underline a high spatial concentration of both mechanical engineering and biotechnology within a European NUTS2 sample for the last two decades. Conceptually, our paper matches the geography of innovation literature, innovation system theory, and new ideas related to the economics of standards. Therefore, it sheds light on the interplay between knowledge flows and externalities of cluster-specific populations and the agents’ use of such knowledge, which is concentrated in space. We find that knowledge creation and standard-setting are cross-fertilising each other: although the spatial concentration of assets and high-skilled labour provides new opportunities to the firm, each firm’s knowledge stocks need to be contextualised. The context in terms of ‘use case’ and ‘knowledge biography’ makes technologies (as represented in knowledge stocks) available for collaboration, but also clarifies relevance and ownership, in particular intellectual property concerns. Owing to this approach we propose a conceptualisation which contains both areas with inter- and intra-cluster focus. This proposal additionally concludes that spatial and technological proximity benefits standard-setting in high-tech and low-tech industries in very different ways. More precisely, the versatile tension between knowledge stocks, their evolution, and technical specification & implementation requires the conceptualisation and analysis of a non-linear process of standard-setting. Particularly, the use case of technologies is essential. Related to this approach, clusters strongly support the establishment of technology use cases in embryonic high-tech industries. Low-tech industries in contrast rather depend on approved knowledge stocks, whose dynamics provide better and fast accessible knowledge inputs within low-tech clusters.
    Keywords: innovation clusters, standard-setting, knowledge externalities and flows, knowledge alignment, mechanical engineering, biotechnology
    JEL: D89 L22 M20 O32
    Date: 2009–01
  2. By: Simon Teitel
    Abstract: Colombian manufacturing exporting firms survey results are analyzed highlighting innovation, promotion, and learning, as well as the influence of factors such as: size, ownership, output objectives, destination of exports, competition and pricing, export incentives, and firm configuration, in their export performance.
    Keywords: Manufacturing exports, learning, Colombia, export incentives, preferences, industrialization, import substitution, innovation, international trade, industrial organization.
    JEL: D21 D24 D40 F10 F13 L10 L52 O10 O14 O24
    Date: 2008–06
  3. By: Sorisio, Enrico (PharmaNess scarl; University of Turin); Strøm, Steinar (University of Oslo; The Frisch Centre, Oslo; University of Turin)
    Abstract: In this paper we study the demand and supply of erythropoietin in four Nordic countries, using an econometric model based on discrete choice and a random utility model. It measures the effect of price changes as well as the loyalty of patients and physicians to a drug. Our main aims are to estimate demand for EPO and to determine the degree of competition in this Nordic market. The main motivation for this paper is to analyze the impact of product innovation on market power and welfare, e.g. on consumer and producer surplus. The product innovation is the entry of Aranesp in the Nordic market.
    Keywords: Discrete choice; demand for pharmaceuticals; monopolistic competition; EPO
    JEL: C35 D43 I18 L11
    Date: 2009–06–04
  4. By: Uwe Cantner (Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Department of Economics and Business Adminstration); Elisa Conti (IULM University, Department of Economics and Marketing); Andreas Meder (Graduate College EIC, Friedrich Schiller University Jena and Thuringian Ministry of Economic Affairs)
    Abstract: The claim of a positive association between a firm's social assets and its innovative capacity is a widely debated topic in the literature. Although controversial, such an argument has informed recent innovation policy across Germany, increasingly directed to cluster formation. In the light of the growing attention and financial efforts that cluster-based innovation policies are receiving, it is worth answering two main questions. First, are firms with a relatively high level of social capital likely to be more innovative? Second, do companies pursuing innovation in partnership innovate more? This paper empirically answers these questions by exploring a cross-sectoral sample of 248 firms based in the Jena region. On the one hand, the extent to which a firm is integrated in its community life does not contribute to an explanation of its innovative performance. On the other hand, directed cooperation with the specific goal of innovating shows a positive impact on innovative performance. However, the correlation between the extent of the network of co-innovators and firms' innovative capacity presents an inverted U-shaped relation: there is a threshold in the number of co-innovators justified by the costs of innovating by interacting. A policy lesson can be drawn from these findings: cluster-based policies are to be treated with caution as firms face costs of networking and not merely benefits.
    Keywords: innovation, social capital, innovation network, innovation cooperation, cluster-based policy.
    JEL: O33 L14 R5
    Date: 2009–06–02
  5. By: Luiz Dias Bahia
    Abstract: Este artigo investiga se o global sourcing é significativo como fator causador de inovação na indústria brasileira. A principal conclusão é que este fator tem importância apenas nos setores intensivos em escala. Além disso, o Sistema Nacional de Inovações parece ser fraco e sem efeito robusto como determinante da inovação brasileira. This paper investigates whether global sourcing is significant as a causative factor to explain innovation in the Brazilian industry. The main conclusion is that this factor is important only in the scale intensive industrial sectors. Besides the National Innovation System seems to be weak and without strong effect as a Brazilian innovation determinant.
    Date: 2009–02
  6. By: Armando Silva (Faculdade de Economia, Universidade do Porto); Ana Paula Africano (CEF.UP, Faculdade de Economia, Universidade do Porto); Oscar Afonso (CEFUP, OBEGEF, Faculdade de Economia, Universidade do Porto)
    Abstract: In this study we test the trade Global Engagement hypothesis in which firms more globally engaged – either multinationals or exporters – are more innovative. The test is applied to 4818 Portuguese enterprises´ data for the period 2002-2004 through the use of the fourth Portuguese Community Innovation Survey. We estimated several Knowledge Production Functions assuming that knowledge outputs result from the combination of some knowledge inputs with the flow of ideas coming from existing stock of knowledge. We found that more internationally exposed firms create more knowledge output, than their domestic counterparts; indeed, more globalized firms use more inputs and have the opportunity to use a larger stock of knowledge. Notwithstand, the observed superiority of more internationally exposed firms is also the result of their globalized nature, not directly connected with knowledge inputs or information flows.
    Keywords: Multinational firms, exporting, knowledge-production functions, Portugal
    JEL: F14 F23 O31
    Date: 2009–06
  7. By: João Sicsú
    Abstract: Este artigo busca apresentar as bases de uma estratégia de desenvolvimento para o Brasil. Para tanto, parte de algumas premissas básicas. A primeira é a de que não haverá desenvolvimento sem mobilização social. A segunda é que o desenvolvimento é fruto do planejamento, no qual o Estado tem papel fundamental. Ademais, uma estratégia de desenvolvimento deve conter pelo menos três partes: a descrição do Brasil que queremos, a definição de uma política macroeconômica para atingi-lo, e um conjunto de políticas públicas para realizar objetivos sociais abrangentes. Por fim, o texto destaca algumas intervenções macroeconômicas necessárias para atingir os objetivos propostos: política monetária de juros baixos, política cambial de taxas competitivas e política fiscal de tipo keynesiana. This paper aims to outline the basis for a development strategy for Brazil. Therefore, it starts from some basic premises. First, there will be no development without social mobilization. Second, development is a planning result, in which the Government plays a key role. Besides, a development strategy must be consisted of three parts, at least: the description of the Brazil we want, the definition of a macroeconomic policy in order to reach it, and a set of public policies to accomplish broad social goals. Finally, the paper outlines some macroeconomic interventions necessary to achieve the proposed goals: low interest rate monetary policy, exchange rate policy to promote economic growth, and a fiscal policy in the Keynesian tradition.
    Date: 2008–08
  8. By: Francesc Valls-Junyent (Universitat de Barcelona)
    Abstract: First of all, the author wonders about the degree of success of the Catalan sparkling wine industry in the recent past. The comparison with the Italian sparkling spumante and also with the case of the most celebrated sparkling wine in the world, champagne, shows a very positive trend of the cava production and exports in the last three decades of the XXth century. Secondly, this paper focuses on the agent or cause responsible of this success. Is it due to a particular firm or should it be attributed to the whole industrial cava cluster around the area of Sant Sadurni dAnoia? More than two thirds of the exports correspond to a particular firm. In this sense, we should attribute the success to it. However, the historical explanation of the development of the industrial cava cluster in the main and well-kwown viticultural Catalan area of Penedes, shows that all producers have benefit from the Marshalian external economies due to this concentration. And the paper shows that the leading export firm would never have succeeded in the international market without the existence of this kind of invisible advantages.
    Keywords: skilled labor, wine industry, wine trade, spumante, cava, cluster, champagne, sparkling wine, protectionism
    JEL: N64 N34 D23 O14 L66 L23 J24 F16 F14
    Date: 2009

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