nep-cse New Economics Papers
on Economics of Strategic Management
Issue of 2009‒05‒09
five papers chosen by
Joao Jose de Matos Ferreira
University of the Beira Interior

  1. New challenges in competitiveness: knowledge development and coopetition By Ana Villar; César Camisón Zornoza; Montserrat Boronat
  2. The Evolution of Markets and the Revolution of Industry: A Quantitative Model of England's Development, 1300-2000 By Desmet, Klaus; Parente, Stephen
  3. New Network Goods By João Leão; Vasco Santos
  4. How Important is Export-Platform FDI? : Evidence from Multinational Activities in Poland By Geishecker, Ingo; Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Pawlik, Konrad
  5. Entrepreneurship Policies: Principles, Problems and Opportunities By Karlsson, Charlie; Andersson, Martin

  1. By: Ana Villar (Universitat Jaume I); César Camisón Zornoza (Universitat Jaume I); Montserrat Boronat (Universitat Jaume I)
    Abstract: The main aim of this paper is to suggest how collaboration with competitors -coopetition - established for the joint creation of knowledge, could be a new opportunity that managers must evaluate as a strategic option. The literature on strategic alliances and knowledge creation is considered, together with the specific trend of alliances with competitors. Then, the process continues with the discussion of circumstances and characteristics in which coopetition could be a superior option, making it possible to develop new knowledge. Our research shows that in the case of coopetition, the two sides of the behaviour -competitive and cooperative- provide greater incentives to improve knowledge development. As this is a theoretical paper, deeper analysis is required to prove whether the advantages of strategic alliances with competitors over other alternatives are superior forms of organizing the process of knowledge creation in high-technology industries. With regard to practical implications, managers must consider the option of this kind of inter-organizational agreement with competitors as an alternative and an opportunity for integrating knowledge faster than they would in isolation. The originality of this paper lies in showing that the objective of coopetition must be the joint creation of new knowledge by partners, and in differentiating this type of cooperation from another in which the aim is to absorb knowledge from one of the partners. We present this kind of coopetition as a new strategic option that managers must evaluate, and this is the first attempt to discuss and differentiate the two types of alliances in a coopetition environment. El principal objetivo de este trabajo es sugerir cómo la colaboración con competidores, conocida con el término coopetición, establecida para la creación conjunta de conocimiento, puede suponer una nueva oportunidad que los directivos deben evaluar como una opción estratégica. Para el desarrollo del trabajo se tiene en cuenta la literatura relacionada con la creación de conocimiento y con alianzas estratégicas, junto con las especificidades de las alianzas con competidores. El trabajo continúa con la discusión de las circunstancias y características en las que la coopetición puede ser una opción superior, haciendo posible el desarrollo de nuevo conocimiento. Nuestra investigación muestra que en el caso de la cooperación con competidores, las dos características de esta relación ¿ competitiva y cooperativa -, proveen mayores incentivos para mejorar el desarrollo de conocimiento. Al tratarse de un trabajo teórico, en futuras investigaciones se debería realizar un análisis más profundo para contrastar si las ventajas de las alianzas estratégicas con competidores son superiores efectivamente a otras formas de organizar el proceso de creación de conocimiento en industrias de alta tecnología. Con respecto a las implicaciones prácticas, los directivos deberían considerar esta opción de acuerdos inter-empresariales con los competidores como una alternativa y una oportunidad para integrar conocimiento más rápido que el desarrollo de manera aislada por una sola empresa. La originalidad de este trabajo residen en mostrar que el objetivo de la coopetición puede ser la creación conjunta de conocimiento por los socios, y en diferenciar este tipo de cooperación de otros en el que el objetivo es únicamente absorber conocimiento de los socios. Presentamos esta opción de coopetición como una nueva opción estratégica que los directivos deben evaluar, y esto supone el primer intento en diferenciar estos dos tipos de alianzas en un entorno de coopetición.
    Keywords: Coopetición, creación de conocimiento, alianzas estratégicas Coopetition, knowledge creation, strategic alliances,
    Date: 2009–03
  2. By: Desmet, Klaus; Parente, Stephen
    Abstract: This paper argues that an economy's transition from Malthusian stagnation to modern growth requires markets to reach a critical size, and competition to reach a critical level of intensity. By allowing an economy to produce a greater variety of goods, a larger market makes goods more substitutable, raising the price elasticity of demand, and lowering mark-ups. Firms must then become larger to break even, which facilitates amortizing the fixed costs of innovation. We demonstrate our theory in a dynamic general equilibrium model calibrated to England's long-run development and explore how various factors affect the timing of takeoff.
    Keywords: Competition; Industrial Revolution; Innovation; Market Revolution; Unified Growth Theory
    JEL: N33 O14 O33 O41
    Date: 2009–05
  3. By: João Leão (MIT - Department of Economics, ISCTE - Department of Economics and UNIDE-ERC); Vasco Santos (FE-UNL and INOVA)
    Abstract: New horizontally-differentiated goods involving product-specific network effects are quite prevalent. Consumers’ preferences for each of these new goods often are initially unknown. Later, as sales data begin to accumulate, agents learn market-wide preferences which thus become common knowledge. We call network goods’ markets showing these two features “new network markets.” For such markets, we pinpoint the factors determining whether the market-wide preferred firm reinforces its lead as time elapses, both when market-wide preferences are time invariant and when they may change. The latter case allows for the study of markets subject to consumer fads (unanticipated and fleeting consumers’ preference for one product). We show that in new network markets subject to such fads, the firm that benefits from a fad in a mature phase of the industry may be better off than one that benefits from an equal-strength fad at an earlier stage despite the presence of network effects. Moreover, we show that new network markets are more prone to increased sales dominance of the leading firm than are regular network markets. Finally, we characterize the social-welfare maximizing allocation of consumers to networks and use it to evaluate from a social-welfare viewpoint the market outcomes of both types of new network goods as well as regular network goods.
    Keywords: Network Effects, Learning, Horizontal Differentiation, Vertical Differentiation
    JEL: L14
    Date: 2008–05
  4. By: Geishecker, Ingo (Georg-August Universität Göttingen); Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller (Department of Economics, Aarhus School of Business); Pawlik, Konrad (Jagiellonian Institute)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the link between export performance and multinational enterprise presence utilizing trade and industry data for Polish manufacturing industries for the years 1994-2002. Decomposing trade into final and intermediate goods and assessing the impact of foreign-owned capital on the respective export performance of Polish industries, we suggest a significant role of export-platform FDI into Poland, while the importance of FDI for vertical integration is limited suggesting that the sourcing of intermediate goods from Poland primarily occurs through arm’s-length contractual outsourcing instead of in-house sourcing of multinational enterprises. The paper also suggests that over the sample period, where Poland has evolved into a relatively stable economic environment, the role of export-platform FDI has increased significantly.
    Keywords: Export-platform FDI; Vertically integrated multinational enterprises; Export performance; Poland; Contractual outsourcing
    JEL: F14 F23
    Date: 2008–01–01
  5. By: Karlsson, Charlie (Jönköping International Business School); Andersson, Martin (Jönköping International Business School)
    Abstract: In this paper, we discuss the current status of the literature on entrepreneurship policy. The purpose is to discuss and assess several fundamental questions pertaining to entrepreneurship policies, such as “What is the optimal rate of entrepreneurship?” and “What entrepreneurship policies to pursue to remedy market failures and to avoid policy failures?”. In the entrepreneurship policies literature several contributors make distinctions between five types of entrepreneurship policy: government intervention on the demand side, as well as on the supply side; government policies aiming at influencing the supply of input factors of entrepre¬neurship, plus the preferences of potential entrepreneurs; along with government policies directly targeting the decision-making processes of potential and actual entrepreneurs. We conclude in this paper, there is a need for both a broad and a narrow definition of entrepreneurship poli¬cies. A broad perspective implies that the anal¬ysis also must consider the general conditions for entrepreneurship in terms of, for instance, insti¬tu¬tions. If the general conditions are wrong it can be meaningless as well as a waste of time and re¬sources to develop sophisticated policies targeting entrepreneurs. In these cases, the im¬portant entrepreneurship polices are those directed towards the general conditions. When the general conditions are reasonable, then it might be appropriate to develop and apply narrow entrepreneurship policies. Furthermore it is important to analyze how entrepreneurship policies should be de¬signed for countries and regions with different economic histories, different levels of economic development, different economic specializations, and different institutions.
    Keywords: Entrepreneurship Policies; Rate of Entrepreneurship; Market Failures; Policy Failures; Government Intervention; Entrepreneurial Opportunities
    JEL: D40 L22 L52 O38
    Date: 2009–01–27

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