nep-cse New Economics Papers
on Economics of Strategic Management
Issue of 2007‒01‒02
47 papers chosen by

  1. Alliances between competitors and consumer information By Paolo Giorgio GARELLA; Martin PEITZ
  2. B2C - Bubble to Cluster: The Boom, Spin-off Entrepreneurship, and Regional Industry Evolution By G. Buenstorf; D. Fornahl
  3. Competition for Viewers and Advertisers in a TV Oligopoly By Hans Jarle Kind; Tore Nilssen; Lars Sørgard
  4. Entrepreneurship and the Process of Firms’ Entry, Survival and Growth By Enrico Santarelli; Marco Vivarelli
  5. Post-MFA Adjustments in India's Textile and Apparel Industry: Emerging Issues and Trends By Meenu Tewari
  6. Merge and Compete. Strategic incentives for vertical integration By Filippo VERGARA CAFFARELLI
  7. Decomposing the Sources of Earnings Inequality Assessing the Role of Reallocation By Fredrik Andersson; Elizabeth E. Davis; Matthew L. Freedman; Julia I. Lane; Brian P. McCall; L. Kristin Sandusky
  8. Global Power from the 18th to 21st century : Power potential (VIP2), strategic assets & actual power (VIP) By Arvind Virmani
  9. Infrastructure and Public Utilities Privatization in Developing Countries By Auriol, Emmanuelle; Picard, Pierre M
  10. Structural Reforms and Growth: Product and Labor Market Deregulations By Eijffinger, Sylvester C W; Rossi, Alberto
  11. The Evolution of Entrepreneurial Spirit and the Process of Development By Galor, Oded; Michalopoulos, Stelios
  12. Evolving agglomeration in the U.S. auto supplier industry By Thomas H. Klier; Daniel McMillen
  13. Internet y sus aplicaciones al sector turístico By Matilde Alonso; Elies Furio Blasco
  14. Beyond Trade Costs: Firms' Endogenous Access to International Markets By Garcia Pires, Armando José
  15. The competitive effects of risk-based bank capital regulation: an example from U.S. mortgage farkets By Diana Hancock; Andreas Lehnert; Wayne Passmore; Shane M. Sherlund
  16. Integración Vertical: El caso de la Explotación de Aeropuertos By Marcos Gallacher; Alfredo Sesé
  17. Learning at the boundaries for industrial districts between exploitation of local resources and the exploration of global knowledge flows By Fiorenza BELUSSI; Luciano PILOTTI; Silvia Rita SEDITA
  18. Policy regimes, growth and poverty in India : Lessons of government failure and entrepreneurial success By Arvind Virmani
  19. Inter-industry wage differentials and the gender wage gap: evidence from European countries By Tojerow, Ilan; Rycx, François; Plasman, Robert; Gannon, Brenda
  20. Tax Competition and the International Distribution of Firm Ownership: An Invariance Result By Ferrett, Ben; Wooton, Ian
  21. Licensing Complementary Patents and Vertical Integration By Schmidt, Klaus M.
  22. Micro-Insurance in India: Trends and strategies for further extension By Rajeev Ahuja; Basudeb Guha-Khasnobis
  23. Oligopoly dynamics with barriers By Jaap H. Abbring; Jeffrey R. Campbell
  24. The Role of Price and Cost Competitiveness in Apparel Exports, Post-MFA: A Review By Meenu Tewari
  25. Corporate Tax Policy, Entrepreneurship and Incorporation in the EU By Ruud de Mooij; Gaetan Nicodème
  26. The competitive environment of the european electricity sector in the post-kyoto scenarios By JAVIER CARRILLO
  27. When target CEOs contract with acquirers: evidence from bank mergers and acquisitions By Elijah Brewer, III; William E. Jackson, III; Larry D. Wall
  28. A New-Growth Perspective on Non-Renewable Resources By Christian Groth
  29. Informed and strategic order flow in the bond markets By Paolo Pasquariello; Clara Vega
  30. Market-oriented innovation: When is it profitable? An abstract agent-based study By Tanya Araujo; R. Vilela Mendes
  31. Are Airlines' Price-Setting Strategies Different? By Volodymyr Bilotkach; Yuriy Gorodnichenko; Oleksandr Talavera; Igor Zubenko
  32. Vertical Integration and Dis-integration of Computer Firms: A History Friendly Model of the Co-evolution of the Computer and Semiconductor Industries By Franco Malerba; Richard Nelson; Luigi Orsenigo; Sidney Winter
  33. Revealed comparative advantage: An analysis for India and China By Amita Batra; Zeba Khan
  34. The Macroeconomics of the Labor Market: Three Fundamental Views By Marika Karanassou; Hector Sala; Dennis J. Snower
  35. Measuring Competitiveness By Neary, J Peter
  36. Critical issues in India's services-led growth By Rashmi Banga
  37. Role of Services in the Growth Process: A Survey By Rashmi Banga
  38. Modelling Term-Structure Dynamics for Risk Management: A Practitioner's Perspective By David Jamieson Bolder
  39. Which Factors Determine the Grades of Undergraduate Students in Economics? Some Evidence from Spain By Juan J. Dolado; Eduardo Morales
  40. Bankrtuptcy in Russia: External Management Performance By Zakolyukina Anastasia
  41. An Analysis of Business Cycles and Mortality on Swedish Regional Data By Svensson, Mikael
  42. Where to Work? The Role of the Household in Explaining Gender Differences in Labour Market Outcomes By Ralitza Dimova; Ira N. Gang; John Landon-Lane
  43. Are Financial Distortions an Impediment to Economic Growth? Evidence from China By Alessandra Guariglia; Sandra Poncet
  44. Political Effects on the Allocation of Public Expenditures : Empirical Evidence from OECD Countries By Niklas Potrafke
  45. An Examination of the relationship between Health and Economic Growth By Garima Malik
  46. Domestic Market Integration By Arvind Virmani; Surabhi Mittal
  47. Higher Education as a Form of European Integration: How Novel is the Bologna Process? By Anne Corbett

  1. By: Paolo Giorgio GARELLA; Martin PEITZ
    Abstract: Alliances between competitors in which established firms provide access to proprietary resources, e.g. their distribution channels, are important business practices. We analyze a market where an established firm, firm A, produces a product of well-known quality, and a firm with an unknown brand, firm B, has to choose to produce high or low quality. Firm A observes firm B's quality choice but consumers do not. Hence, firm B is subject to a moral hazard problem which can potentially be solved by firm A. Firm A can accept or reject to form an alliance with firm B, which is observed by consumers. If an alliance is formed, firm A implicitly certificies the rival's product. Consumers infer that firm B is a competitor with high quality, as otherwise why would the established firm accept to form an alliance? The mechanism we discover allows for an economic interpretation of several types of business practices
    Keywords: alliances, brand sharing, asymmetric information, signaling, exclusion, moral hazard, entry assistan
    JEL: L15 L13 L24 L42 M21 M31 D43
    Date: 2006–12
  2. By: G. Buenstorf; D. Fornahl
    Abstract: This article studies entrepreneurial activities emerging out of one of Germany’s most prominent firms: Intershop, a maker of e-commerce software. We show that Intershop spawned at least 30 spin-offs. The majority entered locally, giving rise to a small but growing software cluster and counteracting the job losses accompanying the parent firm’s drastic downsizing after 2000. We trace the knowledge transfer from Intershop to the spin-offs and relate it to recent theorizing on the spin-off process as well as spin-off-based cluster formation. The Intershop case suggests that temporarily successful dot.coms could exert lasting effects on regional development. Length 30 pages
    Date: 2006–12
  3. By: Hans Jarle Kind; Tore Nilssen; Lars Sørgard
    Abstract: We consider a model of a TV oligopoly where TV channels transmit advertising and viewers dislike such commercials. We show that advertisers make a lower profit the larger the number of TV channels. If TV channels are sufficiently close substitutes, there will be underprovision of advertising relative to social optimum. We also find that the more viewers dislike ads, the more likely it is that welfare is increasing in the number of advertising financed TV channels. A publicly owned TV channel can partly correct market distortions, in some cases by having a larger amount of advertising than private TV channels. It may even have advertising in cases where advertising is wasteful per se.
    Keywords: television industry, advertising
    JEL: L82 M37
    Date: 2006
  4. By: Enrico Santarelli (University of Bologna, Max Planck Institute of Economics Jena, ENCORE Amsterdam, and IZA Bonn); Marco Vivarelli (Università Cattolica Piacenza, CSGR Warwick, Max Planck Institute of Economics Jena, and IZA Bonn)
    Abstract: This survey paper aims at critically discussing the recent literature on firm formation and survival and the growth of new-born firms. The basic purpose is to single out the microeconomic entrepreneurial foundations of industrial dynamics (entry and exit) and to characterise the founder’s ex-ante features in terms of likely ex-post business performance. The main conclusion is that entry of new firms is heterogeneous with innovative entrepreneurs being found together with passive followers, over-optimist gamblers and even escapees from unemployment. Since founders are heterogeneous and may make "entry mistakes", policy incentives should be highly selective, favouring nascent entrepreneurs endowed with progressive motivation and promising predictors of better business performance. This would lead to the least distortion in the post-entry market selection of efficient entrepreneurs.
    Keywords: entrepreneurship, new firm, survival, post-entry performance
    JEL: L10 M13
    Date: 2006–12
  5. By: Meenu Tewari (Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations)
    Date: 2005–07
  6. By: Filippo VERGARA CAFFARELLI (Bank of Italy)
    Abstract: Vertical integration followed by quantity competition is studied. In the first stage of the game downstream firms simultaneously decide whether to integrate with one of the upstream suppliers. If firms are not able to observe whether their vertically integrated competitor enters the intermediate-good market then they are indifferent about vertical integration. If the entry choice of the integrated firm is observable then the unique equilibrium involves vertical integration and in-house production of the intermediate good. The importance of entry observability sheds light on the strategic importance of information exchange institutions such as the internet and business fairs.
    Keywords: Vertical integration, Cournot competition, Market entry
    JEL: L13 L22
    Date: 2006–12
  7. By: Fredrik Andersson; Elizabeth E. Davis; Matthew L. Freedman; Julia I. Lane; Brian P. McCall; L. Kristin Sandusky
    Abstract: This paper uses matched employer-employee data from the Longitudinal Employer Household Dynamics database to investigate the contribution of worker and firm reallocation to within industry changes in wage inequality between 1992 and 2003. We find that the entry and exit of firms and the sorting of workers and firms based on underlying worker "skills" are important determinants of changes in industry earnings distributions over time. Our results suggest that the underlying dynamics of earnings inequality are complex and are due to factors that cannot be measured in standard crosssectional data.
  8. By: Arvind Virmani (Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations)
    Date: 2005–11
  9. By: Auriol, Emmanuelle; Picard, Pierre M
    Abstract: The paper analyses governments’ trade-off between fiscal benefits and consumer surplus in privatization reforms of noncompetitive industries in developing countries. Under privatization, the control rights are transferred to private interests so that public subsidies decline. This benefit for tax-payers comes at the cost of price increases for consumers. In developing countries, tight budget constraints imply that privatization may be optimal for low profitability segments. For highly profitable public utilities, the combination of allocative inefficiency and critical budgetary conditions may favour public ownership. Finally, once a market segment gives room for more than one firm, governments prefer to regulate the industry. In the absence of a credible regulatory agency, regulation is achieved through public ownership.
    Keywords: developing countries; government budget constraint; infrastructure; privatization; public utilities; regulation
    JEL: H54 L33 L43
    Date: 2006–12
  10. By: Eijffinger, Sylvester C W; Rossi, Alberto
    Abstract: The paper focuses on labor and product market deregulations, as fundamental elements in the passage from an investment to an innovation-based economy. The approach undertaken is prominently empirical. After a very brief description of the regulatory levels on the two sides of the Atlantic, we take two cornerstone theoretical models: one developed by Robert Gordon (1997), the other developed by Blanchard and Giavazzi (2003) and we observe how well their theoretical predictions are supported by hard data. We conclude with an independent study on the accuracy of the IMD competitiveness index in predicting the overall economic performance of countries close to the technological frontier.
    Keywords: employment; growth; IMD competitiveness index; productivity; regulation; unemployment; wages
    JEL: D24 E24 J50 L16
    Date: 2006–12
  11. By: Galor, Oded; Michalopoulos, Stelios
    Abstract: This research suggests that the evolution of entrepreneurial spirit played a significant role in the process of economic development and the evolution of inequality within and across societies. The study argues that entrepreneurial spirit evolved non-monotonically in the course of human history. In early stages of development, the rise in income generated an evolutionary advantage to entrepreneurial, growth promoting traits and their increased representation accelerated the pace of technological advancements and the process of economic development. Natural selection therefore had magnified growth promoting activities in relatively wealthier economies as well as within the upper segments of societies, enlarging the income gap within as well as across societies. In mature stages of development, however, non-entrepreneurial individuals gained an evolutionary advantage, diminishing the growth potential of advanced economies and contributing to the convergence of the intermediate level economies to the advanced ones.
    Keywords: evolution; growth; natural Selection; risk Aversion; technological progress
    JEL: J11 J13 O11 O14 O33 O40
    Date: 2006–12
  12. By: Thomas H. Klier; Daniel McMillen
    Abstract: Using nonparametric descriptive tools developed by Duranton and Overman (2005), we show that both new and old auto supplier plants are highly concentrated in the eastern United States. Conditional logit models imply that much of this concentration can be explained parametrically by distance from Detroit, proximity to assembly plants, and access to the interstate highway system. New plants are more likely to be located in zip codes that are close to existing supplier plants. However, the degree of clustering observed is still greater than implied by the logit estimates.
    Date: 2006
  13. By: Matilde Alonso (ECONOMIA, TREBALL I TERRITORI - Economia Aplicada - Grup d'Investigació Nº 19 - [Universitat de Valencia]); Elies Furio Blasco (ECONOMIA, TREBALL I TERRITORI - Economia Aplicada - Grup d'Investigació Nº 19 - [Universitat de Valencia])
    Abstract: El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar las aplicaciones que Internet tiene en el sector turístico. Para su desarrollo se ha partido de una serie de cuestiones. En primer lugar, qué es Internet y cuáles son sus aplicaciones y sus implicaciones para la actividad económica y el mundo de la empresa. En segundo lugar, se ha pasado a ver sus aplicaciones al sector turísticos, las cuales se estudian tanto desde la perspectiva de los servicios de Internet como desde el punto de vista de las aplicaciones que Internet ofrece a los actores que participan en el negocio turístico. Desde el primer punto de vista, destaca el análisis de los portales turísticos o de Internet y la TV interactiva. Desde la perspectiva de los actores, cabe destacar el análisis relativo a las cadenas hoteleras, las compañías aéreas y las agencias de viajes.
    Keywords: Internet; Turismo
    Date: 2006–12–24
  14. By: Garcia Pires, Armando José
    Abstract: Contrary to what has been standard in the international trade literature, we argue that firms' access to international markets should not be just reduced to exogenous factors such as trade costs. Instead, we defend that market access can also be endogenous, since firms can affect international trade patterns by acting strategically against rivals. In particular, we endogenize firms' competitiveness through commitment power advantages of R&D. In this setting we show that: (1) higher efficiency of R&D (like low trade costs) makes trade more easy (given that R&D increases the profitability of exports); (2) firms with higher commitment power in R&D are more competitive (since they have larger incentives to innovate) and as a result these firms also have better access to export markets.
    Keywords: commitment power; endogenous asymmetric firms; market access; R&D investment
    JEL: F12 L13 L25 O31
    Date: 2006–12
  15. By: Diana Hancock; Andreas Lehnert; Wayne Passmore; Shane M. Sherlund
    Abstract: Basel II bank capital regulations are designed to be substantially more risk sensitive than the current regulations. In the United States, only the largest banks would be required to adopt Basel II; other depositories could choose to adopt such standards or to remain under the Basel I capital standards. We consider possible effects of this two-pronged or "bifurcated" approach on the market for residential mortgages. Specifically, we analyze whether those institutions that adopt Basel II will enjoy lower costs than nonadopters and whether they have an incentive to retain mortgages in their own portfolios. We find that (1) despite the large differences in regulatory capital requirements between adopters and nonadopters, it is unlikely that there will be any measurable effect of Basel II implementation on most mortgage rates and, consequently, any direct impact on the competition between adopters and nonadopters for originating or holding residential mortgages; (2) the most significant competitive impact may be felt among mortgage securitizers; and (3) adopters might have increased profits from some mortgages relative to nonadopters because they will capture some of the deadweight losses that occur under the current regulatory regime, but nonadopters would likely retain their market shares.
    Date: 2006
  16. By: Marcos Gallacher; Alfredo Sesé
    Abstract: The provision of airport services results in a web of contractual relationships between the main contractor and other firms. The existence of multiple services offered in airports allows several contractual alternatives to be chosen. In particular, the main contractor may choose to carry out these under his own management (“vertical integration”) or alternatively transfer them so they are under the control of another firm (“dis-integration”). The advantages of either alternatives depends on a host of factors. This paper analyzes the impact on vertical integration of: (a) difficulties in controlling labor and (b) the need for specialized knowledge on specific business processes. The paper shows that, in general, the decision to integrate a process is inversely related to the above two factors. The paper also analyzes the relevance of dis-integration as a tool for the reduction of business risks. We find that – for this industry – decisions relative to dis-integration do not appear to be justified as a tool for managing risks (income variability) of the firm.
    JEL: L2 D2 L8
    Date: 2006–12
  17. By: Fiorenza BELUSSI; Luciano PILOTTI; Silvia Rita SEDITA
    Abstract: The work offers an integrated view on how knowledge is developed in localised systems of specialised firms (industrial districts - IDs), through informal social networks (communities of practice - CoPs), and firms networks, in an osmotic process between the internal to the district knowledge and the external to the district knowledge. Contrary to the Marshallian consolidated tradition, we describe the functioning of the modern industrial district emphasising not just the role of the local “industrial atmosphereâ€, but the modern aspect of “learning at the boundariesâ€, where local actors mix sources of knowledge located inside the district (exploitation of local resources) with external sources (exploration of global knowledge). Our empirical work, based on the analysis of three Italian industrial districts, shows that, in relation to the aspect of exploitation of local resources, the investment (both direct and indirect) of firms in augmenting their capabilities is juxtaposed to the activity organised by the district meta-organisers of cultivating local resources; furthermore, in relation to the exploration of global knowledge, internal/external switchers allow the exploration of global knowledge flows. It is a process that combines forms of localised learning with learning at the boundaries, through the access to pipelines (FDI, firms networks, distant KIBS) and boundary spanning actors (external CoPs).
    Keywords: Industrial Districts, Learning, Communities of Practice, Networks
    JEL: D83 M54 R12
    Date: 2006–12
  18. By: Arvind Virmani (Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations)
    Date: 2005–10
  19. By: Tojerow, Ilan; Rycx, François; Plasman, Robert; Gannon, Brenda
  20. By: Ferrett, Ben; Wooton, Ian
    Abstract: Intuition suggests that the international distribution of firm ownership ought to affect tax/subsidy competition for mobile plants. One might expect that the greater the share of a firm owned within a potential host country that offers a relatively profitable production location, the more that nation will be prepared to pay to attract the firm's production facility. We show this intuition to be false. In equilibrium, both plant location and the tax/subsidy offers are independent of the international distribution of ownership. The reason is that the tax/subsidy competition equalises the firm's post-tax profits across countries, making owners of capital indifferent towards the location of production.
    Keywords: foreign direct investment; international distribution of firm ownership; tax/subsidy competition
    JEL: F12 F23 H25 H73
    Date: 2006–12
  21. By: Schmidt, Klaus M.
    Abstract: In this paper we investigate the pricing incentives of IP holders and compare the equilibrium royalty rates charged by vertically integrated IP holders with those of non- integrated IP holders. We show that under many circumstances non-integrated companies are likely to charge lower royalties than their vertically integrated counterparts. The results of this paper are of special relevance for the analysis of competition in CDMA and WCDMA technology licensing, where some IP holders are not vertically integrated into handset and infrastructure manufacturing, while others are.
    Keywords: complementary patents; IP rights; licensing; vertical integration
    JEL: D43 L15 L41
    Date: 2006–12
  22. By: Rajeev Ahuja (Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations); Basudeb Guha-Khasnobis (Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations)
    Date: 2005–06
  23. By: Jaap H. Abbring; Jeffrey R. Campbell
    Abstract: This paper considers the effects of raising the cost of entry for potential competitors on infinite-horizon Markov- perfect industry dynamics with ongoing demand uncertainty. All entrants serving the model industry incur sunk costs, and exit avoids future fixed costs. We focus on the unique equilibrium with last- in first-out expectations: a firm never exits before a younger rival does. When an industry can support at most two firms, we prove that raising barriers to a second producer’s entry increases the probability that some firm will serve the industry and decreases its long-run entry and exit rates. In numerical examples with more than two firms, imposing a barrier to entry stabilizes industry structure.
    Date: 2006
  24. By: Meenu Tewari (Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations)
    Date: 2005–11
  25. By: Ruud de Mooij; Gaetan Nicodème
    Abstract: In Europe, declining corporate tax rates have come along with rising tax-to-GDP ratios. This paper explores to what extent income shifting from the personal to the corporate tax base can explain these diverging developments. We exploit a panel of European data on firm births and legal form of business to analyze income shifting via increased entrepreneurship and incorporation. The results suggest that lower corporate taxes exert an ambiguous effect on entrepreneurship. The effect on incorporation is significant and large. It implies that the revenue effects of lower corporate tax rates – possibly induced by tax competition -- partly show up in lower personal tax revenues rather than lower corporate tax revenues. Simulations suggest that between 10% and 17% of corporate tax revenue can be attributed to income shifting. Income shifting is found to have raised the corporate tax-to-GDP ratio by some 0.2%-points since the early 1990s.
    Keywords: corporate tax, personal tax, entrepreneurship, incorporation, income shifting
    JEL: H25 M13
    Date: 2006
  26. By: JAVIER CARRILLO (Instituto de Empresa)
    Abstract: This paper shows how the uncertainty associated to the absence of a post-Kyoto regime regarding Greenhouse Gas mitigation is affecting investments in mitigation activities in the EU electricity sector and, thus, future emissions levels. Based on a wide survey of EU power companies, the paper identifies the most likely post-Kyoto scenarios considered by these firms and how they are coping with such uncertainty in their current investment decisions. The major conclusion is that the non-existence of a post-Kyoto regime is having a negative effect on current business investment decisions in mitigation activities, increasing risk premiums and financing costs.
    Keywords: Investment decisions, Post-Kyoto scenarios
    Date: 2006–12
  27. By: Elijah Brewer, III; William E. Jackson, III; Larry D. Wall
    Abstract: This paper investigates the impact of the target chief executive officer’s (CEO) postmerger position on the purchase premium and target shareholders’ abnormal returns around the announcement of the deal in a sample of bank mergers during the period 1990–2004. We find evidence that the target shareholders’ returns are negatively related to the postmerger position of their CEO. However, these lower returns are not matched by higher returns to the acquirer’s shareholders, suggesting little or no wealth transfers. Additionally, our evidence suggests that the target CEO becoming a senior officer of the combined firm does not boost the overall value of the merger transaction.
    Date: 2006
  28. By: Christian Groth (Department of Economics, University of Copenhagen)
    Abstract: This article reviews issues related to the incorporation of non-renewable resources in the theory of economic growth and development. As an offshoot of the new growth theory of the last two decades a series of contributions have studied endogenous technical change in relation to resource scarcity. We discuss the main approaches within this literature and consider questions like: How is the new literature related to the wave of resource economics of the 1970s? What light is thrown on the limits-to-growth issue? Does the existence of non-renewable resources have implications for the controversies within new growth theory?
    Keywords: endogenous growth; innovation; non-renewable resources; knife-edge conditions; robustness; limits to growth
    JEL: O4 Q3
    Date: 2006–10
  29. By: Paolo Pasquariello; Clara Vega
    Abstract: We study the role played by private and public information in the process of price formation in the U.S. Treasury bond market. To guide our analysis, we develop a parsimonious model of speculative trading in the presence of two realistic market frictions -- information heterogeneity and imperfect competition among informed traders -- and a public signal. We test its equilibrium implications by analyzing the response of two-year, five-year, and ten-year U.S. bond yields to order flow and real-time U.S. macroeconomic news. We find strong evidence of informational effects in the U.S. Treasury bond market: unanticipated order flow has a significant and permanent impact on daily bond yield changes during both announcement and non-announcement days. Our analysis further shows that, consistent with our stylized model, the contemporaneous correlation between order flow and yield changes is higher when the dispersion of beliefs among market participants is high and public announcements are noisy.
    Date: 2006
  30. By: Tanya Araujo; R. Vilela Mendes
    Keywords: agent-based models, innovation, artificial societies
  31. By: Volodymyr Bilotkach; Yuriy Gorodnichenko; Oleksandr Talavera; Igor Zubenko
    Abstract: Using a sample of fare quotes for non-stop travel from New York to London, this paper investigates the dynamics of offered fares as the departure date nears. We find that the general trend is toward fare increase at an accelerated rate as the departure date approaches. Clear differences in price-setting strategies among the carriers competing on a particular route are documented.
    Keywords: airline industry, price dynamics
    JEL: L93 D21
    Date: 2006
  32. By: Franco Malerba; Richard Nelson; Luigi Orsenigo; Sidney Winter
    Abstract: In this paper we present a history-friendly model of the changing vertical scope of computer firms during the evolution of the computer and semiconductor industries. The model is "history friendly", in that it attempts at replicating some basic, stylized qualitative features of the evolution of vertical integration on the basis of the causal mechanisms and processes which we believe can explain the history. The specific question addressed in the model is set in the context of dynamic and uncertain technological and market environments, characterized by periods of technological revolutions punctuating periods of relative technological stability and smooth technical progress. The model illustrates how the patterns of vertical integration and specialization in the computer industry change as a function of the evolving levels and distribution of firms’ capabilities over time and how they depend on the co-evolution of the upstream and downstream sectors. Specific conditions in each of these markets - the size of the external market, the magnitude of the technological discontinuities, the lock-in effects in demand - exert critical effects and feedbacks on market structure and on the vertical scope of firms as time goes by. Length 32 pages
    Date: 2006–12
  33. By: Amita Batra (Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations); Zeba Khan (Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations)
    Date: 2005–08
  34. By: Marika Karanassou (Queen Mary, University of London and IZA Bonn); Hector Sala (Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona and IZA Bonn); Dennis J. Snower (Institute for World Economics, University of Kiel, CEPR and IZA Bonn)
    Abstract: We distinguish and assess three fundamental views of the labor market regarding the movements in unemployment: (i) the frictionless equilibrium view; (ii) the chain reaction theory, or prolonged adjustment view; and (iii) the hysteresis view. While the frictionless view implies a clear compartmentalization between the short and long run, the hysteresis view implies that all the short-run fluctuations automatically turn into long-run changes in the unemployment rate. We assert the problems faced by these conceptions in explaining the diversity of labor market experiences across the OECD labor markets. We argue that the prolonged adjustment view can overcome these problems since it implies that the short, medium, and long runs are interrelated, merging with one another along an intertemporal continuum.
    Keywords: unemployment, interactive labor market dynamics, interplay of lags and shocks, frictional growth, growth drivers
    JEL: E22 E24 J21 J30
    Date: 2006–12
  35. By: Neary, J Peter
    Abstract: This paper reviews alternative approaches to measuring an economy's cost competitiveness and proposes some new measures inspired by the economic theory of index numbers. The indices provide a theoretical benchmark for estimated real effective exchange rates, but differ from standard measures in that they are based on marginal rather than average sectoral shares in GDP or employment. The use of the new indices is illustrated by some simple calculations which highlight the potential exposure of the Irish economy to fluctuations in the euro-sterling exchange rate.
    Keywords: competitiveness; economic theory of index numbers; European Monetary Union (EMU); real effective exchange rates (REERs)
    JEL: C43 F40
    Date: 2006–12
  36. By: Rashmi Banga (Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations)
    Date: 2005–10
  37. By: Rashmi Banga (Indian Council for Research on International Economic Rela)
    Date: 2005–03
  38. By: David Jamieson Bolder
    Abstract: Modelling term-structure dynamics is an important component in measuring and managing the exposure of portfolios to adverse movements in interest rates. Model selection from the enormous term-structure literature is far from obvious and, to make matters worse, a number of recent papers have called into question the ability of some of the more popular models to adequately describe interest rate dynamics. The author, in attempting to find a relatively simple term-structure model that does a reasonable job of describing interest rate dynamics for risk-management purposes, examines two sets of models. The first set involves variations of the Gaussian affine term-structure model by modestly building on the recent work of Dai and Singleton (2000) and Duffee (2002). The second set includes and extends Diebold and Li (2003). After working through the mathematical derivation and estimation of these models, the author compares and contrasts their performance on a number of in- and out-of-sample forecasting metrics, their ability to capture deviations from the expectations hypothesis, and their predictions in a simple portfolio-optimization setting. He finds that the extended Nelson-Siegel model and an associated generalization, what he terms the "exponential-spline model," provide the most appealing modelling alternatives when considering the various model criteria.
    Keywords: Interest rates; Econometric and statistical methods; Financial markets
    JEL: C0 C6 E4 G1
    Date: 2006
  39. By: Juan J. Dolado (Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, CEPR and IZA Bonn); Eduardo Morales (Harvard University)
    Abstract: This paper analyses the determinants of grades achieved in three core subjects by first-year Economics undergraduate students at Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, over the period 2001-2005. Gender, nationality, type of school, specialization track at high school and the grades at the university entry exam are the key factors we examine. Our main findings are that those students who did a technical track at high school tend to do better in mathematics than those who followed a social sciences degree and, that the latter do not perform significantly better than the former in subjects with less degree of formalism and more economic content. Moreover, students from public schools are predominant in the lower (with social sciences or humanities tracks) and upper (with a technical track) parts of the grade distribution, and females tend to perform better than males.
    Keywords: grade achievement, school type, gender, multinomial logit, quantile regressions
    JEL: I21 I29
    Date: 2006–12
  40. By: Zakolyukina Anastasia
    Abstract: The project examines the performance of the external management procedure on the data set from the arbitration court of the Udmurt Republic and the unique data set of politically connected firms that went bankrupt 1995–2004 in Russia. We use a narrow definition of political connections: a CEO or a member of an executive board being a member of par-liament or a top executive at the federal, regional, or municipal level. We show that political connections matter for the timing of bankruptcy procedures. Also, political connections do not result in efficiency-enhancing bankruptcies; in line with a politicians-and-firms story, politically connected firms preserve employment rather than increase productivity. Based on the court level data, we find that debt concentration increases likelihood of external management initiation, whereas external management itself decreases the share of total debt repaid. However, there is no evidence of adminis-trative expenses inflation in favor of a particular unsecured creditor under the assumption of a tradeoff between inflation of administrative expenses and main debt repayment.
    Keywords: Russia, bankruptcy, external management, liquidation, political connections
    JEL: G33 G38 P16
    Date: 2006–12–18
  41. By: Svensson, Mikael (Department of Business, Economics, Statistics and Informatics)
    Abstract: Several recent papers in the literature have documented a pro-cyclical effect between business cycles and mortality: increased mortality in short-term economic upturns. In this paper I explore the relationship between business cycles and mortality in Sweden. The sample consists of 21 Swedish regions during the period 1976 to 2003. Results from the fixed effects panel data estimations indicate that the business cycle effect is insignificant on overall rates of mortality. However, robust results indicate that ischemic heart disease mortality decreases during short-term economic upturns. A one percentage point increase in the employment rate is predicted to decrease ischemic heart disease mortality with approximately 0.8 percent. And the medium-term effects indicates that a one percentage point increase in the average employment rate during the last five years is predicted to decrease ischemic heart disease mortality with approximately 2 percent, which implies an economic value of the decreased mortality from this of about $1,690 million.
    Keywords: Determinants of Health; Mortality; Business cycles
    JEL: E32 I12
    Date: 2006–12–14
  42. By: Ralitza Dimova (Brunel University and IZA Bonn); Ira N. Gang (Rutgers University and IZA Bonn); John Landon-Lane (Rutgers University)
    Abstract: With the use of panel data constructed from the 1995 and 1997 Bulgarian Integrated Household Surveys, this paper explores the sectoral reallocation of labour by gender. In Bulgaria, men and women started the transition on an almost equal standing, allowing us to concentrate our attention on the impact of individual and household characteristics in explaining gender differences in the labour market. We find that household characteristics, rather than alternative explanations such as differences in individual characteristics or pure gender discrimination, better explain the observed gender differences in labour market outcomes.
    Keywords: employment, mobility, gender, household
    JEL: J21 J23 J31 J62 P2
    Date: 2006–12
  43. By: Alessandra Guariglia; Sandra Poncet
    Abstract: Using data for 30 Chinese provinces over the period 1989-2003, this study examines the relationship between the level of financial intermediary development, and real GDP growth, physical capital accumulation, and total factor productivity (TFP) growth. We find that traditionally used indicators of financial development and China-specific indicators measuring the level of state interventionism in finance are generally negatively associated with growth and its sources, while indicators measuring the degree of market driven financing in the economy are positively associated with GDP and TFP growth, and capital accumulation. These effects have gradually declined over time and are weaker for high FDI recipients.
    Keywords: Financial intermediation; economic growth; capital accumulation; productivity growth; China
    JEL: E44 G21 N15 O16 O40
    Date: 2006–12
  44. By: Niklas Potrafke
    Abstract: This paper examines the effects of political determinants on the allocation of public expenditures. Analyzing an OECD panel from 1990 to 2004, a SURE model controls for the contemporaneous correlation between the different expenditure categories (COFOG). I find that left governments set other priorities than right governments: In particular, they increase spending for "Environment protection", "Recreation; Culture and Religion" and "Education". The number of coalition partners as well as minority governments affects the allocation of public expenditures, too. In contrast, there are no election and pre-election year effects.
    Keywords: Allocation of public expenditures, partisan politics
    JEL: D72 E62 H50
    Date: 2006
  45. By: Garima Malik (Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations)
    Abstract: This paper attempts to examine the relationship between health and economic growth. The rate of growth is measured using gross national income [GNI] and health status is measured using infant mortality rate, life expectancy rate and crude health rate. The above relationships are measured using a multivariate framework controlling for other background variables. Thus we have modelled the macroeconomic impact of health. A theoretical framework has been developed to model this linkage between health and growth and this is further tested using a regression model which tests the causality between these variables of interest. These models are tested using pooled data. We have also assumed in this analysis that these variables are affected by state-specific unobservable fixed effects, since there are other cultural, political and social factors at work here.
    Keywords: Health, Economic Growth
    JEL: C21
    Date: 2006–09
  46. By: Arvind Virmani (Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations); Surabhi Mittal (Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations)
    Abstract: The paper looks into the level of integration of commodity markets in India, across centres and states using consumer price data. It measures the extent to which domestic markets for goods in India are integrated, and recommends policy options to facilitate integration. The paper addresses questions: Are domestic markets for goods integrated across states? Has market integration increased over time? What are the policy options to facilitate integration? The paper tests the methodology proposed by Bradford and Lawrence (2004) on the consumer prices of goods in major states across India. This is then repeated using consumer price data at two points in time (1994 and 2004), allowing an assessment of whether Indian markets have integrated over time. Market integration is also tested for individual commodities across markets. The annual consumer prices for commodities were compiled from the Labour Bureau series of average monthly consumer prices of commodities for Industrial workers across 70 constituent centres in 18 states and monthly data was compiled from the Indian Labour Journal, a monthly publication from Labour Bureau, Ministry of Labour Government of India. Authors are thankful to Labour Bureau, Shimla for providing data on consumer prices at the disaggregated level. This study was commissioned by The World Bank as the background paper on market integration in The World Bank Development Policy Review: Inclusive Growth and Service Delivery: Building on India's Success. July 2006
    Keywords: Market Integration, Consumer Prices, Primary Food, Manufactured Goods, India
    JEL: E3 L22
    Date: 2006–07
  47. By: Anne Corbett
    Keywords: multilevel governance; institutionalism; Europeanization; educational policy
    Date: 2006–12–18

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