nep-cse New Economics Papers
on Economics of Strategic Management
Issue of 2006‒12‒09
twelve papers chosen by

  1. The strategic support of CRM in the governance of the relationships between data and knowledge: the Balanced Score Card approach. By Antonio Lorenzon; Luciano Pilotti; Peter Van Baalen
  2. Horizontal Innovation-Based Growth and Product Market Competition By Alberto Bucci; Carmelo Parello
  3. Trade Policy, Market Leaders and Endogenous Competition Intensity By Jan Boone; Delia Ionascu; Kresimir Zigic
  4. Outsourcing, Complementary Innovations and Growth By Naghavi, Alireza; Ottaviano, Gianmarco I P
  5. Multi-Product Firms and Flexible Manufacturing in the Global Economy By Eckel, Carsten; Neary, J Peter
  6. Postmaterialism Influencing Total Entrepreneurial Activity across Nations By Uhlaner, L.M.; Thurik, A.R.
  7. Can financial infrastructures foster economic<br />development? By Jean-Bernard Chatelain; Bruno Amable
  8. Strategic pricing of commodities By Jörnsten, Kurt; Ubøe, Jan
  9. Managing Flexible Load Contracts: Two simple strategies By Bjerksund, Petter; Myksvoll, Bjarte; Stensland, Gunnar
  10. Multinational Enterprises and Manufacturing for Export in Developing Asian Countries: Emerging Patterns and Opportunities for Latecomers By Prema-chandra Athukorala
  11. IT Adoption Strategies and their Application to e-filing Self-Assessment Tax Returns: The Case of the UK By Ann Hansford, Andrew Lymer and Catherine Pilkington
  12. Upgrading Japan's Innovation System to Sustain Economic Growth By Randall Jones; Tadashi Yokoyama

  1. By: Antonio Lorenzon (University of Milano); Luciano Pilotti (Department of Economics, Business and Statistics); Peter Van Baalen (RSM-Rotterdam School of Management)
    Abstract: The term CRM, Customer Relationship Management, is one of the most used word both in Marketing and IT literature and applications. This term is most of the time used as a replacement of a misleading narrow term: Relationship Management (RM). Operations, Customer Service, Sales, human resources, credit controls are essential ingredients in the customer satisfaction blender. So, as a matter of fact, we can conclude that the definition of CRM is also its objective: the development and maintenance of mutually beneficial long-term relationships with strategically significant customers. All this focus on customers and their needs comes from a shift from a mass marketing approach, through market segmentation, to an individualised marketing. This one-to-one marketing strategy is connected also with a more and more delocalised access to the markets from the logistics and distribution partners that implicates much more real-time expectations of the customers. So the market started to move from a product oriented structure to a customer oriented one but, unfortunately not all the companies haven't adapted their organization to the new requests of the new "customer centric era". This new approach is completely aligned with the strategic introduction of a Balanced Scorecard (Norton, Kaplan, 1999) solution where the customer management processes are one of four basic assets in the development of new business philosophy where the dynamic development of a company can't be measure with static indicator but it has to be conceptualized as a whole organizational growing where knowledge management is key capital factor.
    Keywords: Customer Relationship Management, Knowledge Management, Marketing, Balanced Score Card,
    Date: 2006–09–18
  2. By: Alberto Bucci (Department of Economics, Business and Statistics, University of Milan); Carmelo Parello (Catholic University of Louvain)
    Abstract: The influence of the degree of competition in the goods market on growth is analyzed by developing an endogenous growth model with horizontal innovation. Product market competition is measured by (1- Lerner index) and depends on both the share of factor inputs in total income and on the elasticity of substitution across goods. We find that the shape of the relationship between competition and growth can change dramatically according to which proxy of competition is used. We interpret our results in terms of the interplay between the resource allocation and the profit incentive effects.
    Keywords: Innovation, Product Market Competition, Endogenous Growth, Scale Effects,
    Date: 2006–07–18
  3. By: Jan Boone; Delia Ionascu; Kresimir Zigic
    Abstract: It is well known that tariff policy can alleviate the negative consequences of breaching intellectual property rights by foreign firms. Yet, the positive effect of tariff protection is thought to be the benefit firms get at the expense of consumers (at least in the short run). Using a set-up in which the intensity of market competition is endogenous, we argue that consumers can benefit from tariffs even in the short run. A high level of tariff protection alters the firms’ cost efficiency distribution and induces tougher market competition. Consumers benefit from the tariff policy, and governments that assign a high enough weight to the consumer surplus set positive tariff levels. Under protection the innovation level remains the same as under free trade but the average industry efficiency increases.
    Keywords: Tariff protection, supergames, cost asymmetries, market conduct, leadership, consumer welfare
    JEL: F12 F13
    Date: 2006–10
  4. By: Naghavi, Alireza; Ottaviano, Gianmarco I P
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the organization of firms in a dynamic setting with endogenous growth to shed light on the link between economic growth and the parallel creation and adoption of complementary innovations by independent labs and plants. In the presence of search friction and incomplete outsourcing contracts, we show that the ex-post bargaining power of upstream and downstream parties at the production stage feeds back into innovation and growth. Our dynamic perspective reveals a tension between the static and dynamic effects of outsourcing. The reason is that firms make their organizational choices weighting the higher searching and contracting costs of outsourcing against the higher entry and foregone specialization costs of vertical integration. In so doing, they neglect the effects of their choices on innovation and growth. Hence, when outsourcing is selected, the static gains from specialized production may at times be associated with relevant dynamic losses for consumers.
    Keywords: complementary innovations; growth; incomplete contracts; organization of firms; outsourcing; welfare
    JEL: D91 L14 L23 O32
    Date: 2006–11
  5. By: Eckel, Carsten; Neary, J Peter
    Abstract: We present a new model of multi-product firms (MPFs) and flexible manufacturing and explore its implications in partial and general equilibrium. International trade integration affects the scale and scope of MPFs through a competition effect and a demand effect. We demonstrate how MPFs adjust in the presence of single-product firms and in heterogeneous industries. Our results are in line with recent empirical evidence and suggest that MPFs in conjunction with flexible manufacturing play an important role in the impact of international trade on product diversity.
    Keywords: flexible manufacturing; general oligoplistic equilibrium (GOLE); international trade; multi-product firms; product diversity
    JEL: F12 L13
    Date: 2006–11
  6. By: Uhlaner, L.M.; Thurik, A.R. (Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM), RSM Erasmus University)
    Abstract: The relative stability of differences in entrepreneurial activity across countries suggests that other than economic factors are at play. The objective of this paper is to explore how postmaterialism may explain these differences. A distinction is made between nascent entrepreneurship, new business formation and a combination of the two, referred to as total entrepreneurial activity, as defined within the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM). The model is also tested for the rate of established businesses. The measure for postmaterialism is based upon Inglehart?s four-item postmaterialism index. A set of economic, demographic and social factors is included to investigate the independent role postmaterialism plays in predicting entrepreneurial activity levels. In particular, per capita income is used to control for economic effects. Education rates at both secondary and tertiary levels are used as demographic variables. Finally, life satisfaction is included to control for social effects. Data from 27 countries (GEM, World Values Survey and other sources) are used to test the hypotheses. Findings confirm the significance of postmaterialism in predicting total entrepreneurial activity and more particularly, new business formation rates.
    Keywords: Comparative Analysis of Economies;Cultural Economics;Entrepreneurship;Self-employment;Macro-economic Analyses of Economic Development;
    Date: 2006–11–28
  7. By: Jean-Bernard Chatelain (PSE - Paris-Jourdan Sciences Economiques - [CNRS : UMR8545] - [Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales][Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées][Ecole Normale Supérieure de Paris], EconomiX - [CNRS : UMR7166] - [Université de Paris X - Nanterre]); Bruno Amable (PSE - Paris-Jourdan Sciences Economiques - [CNRS : UMR8545] - [Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales][Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées][Ecole Normale Supérieure de Paris])
    Abstract: In this paper, financial infrastructures increase the efficiency of the banking sector: they decrease the market power due to horizontal differentiation of the financial intermediaries,<br />lower the cost of capital, increase the number of depositors and the amount of intermediated<br />savings, factors which in turn increase the growth rate and may help countries to take off<br />from a poverty trap. Taxation finances financial infrastructures and decreases the private<br />productivity of capital. Growth and welfare maximising levels of financial infrastructures<br />are computed.
    Keywords: Endogenous growth; Imperfect competition; Financial infrastructures
    Date: 2006–11–30
  8. By: Jörnsten, Kurt (Dept. of Finance and Management Science, Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration); Ubøe, Jan (Dept. of Finance and Management Science, Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration)
    Abstract: In this paper we will consider a setting where a large number of agents are trading commodity bundles. Assuming that agents of the same type have a certain utility attached to each transaction, we construct a statistical equilibrium which in turn implies prices on the different commodities. Our basic question is then the following: Assume that some commodities come out with prices that are socially unacceptable. Is it possible to change these prices systematically if a new type of agents is paid to enter the market? In the paper we will consider explicit examples where this can be done.
    Keywords: Agent preferences; efficient markets; statistical equilibria; commodity prices; arbitrageurs
    JEL: D40 D50 G10
    Date: 2006–12–01
  9. By: Bjerksund, Petter (Dept. of Finance and Management Science, Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration); Myksvoll, Bjarte (Viz Risk Management); Stensland, Gunnar (Dept. of Finance and Management Science, Norwegian School of Economics and Business Administration)
    Abstract: A flexible load contract is a type of swing option where the holder has the right to receive a given quantity of electricity within a specified period, at a fixed maximum effect (delivery rate). The contract is flexible, in the sense that delivery (the take hours) is called one day in advance. We investigate two simple strategies for managing flexible load contracts, where both use price information from the forward market. For 10 contracts traded in the period 1997-2001, we calculate the performance of the two strategies and compare with the reported performance of one complex dynamic programming approach as well as the actual results obtained by three anonymous market participants. The comparison indicates that our simple computer-efficient strategies perform better on average and produces more stable results.
    Keywords: Flexible Load Contracts; computer-efficient strategies; dynamic programming
    JEL: C61
    Date: 2006–12–01
  10. By: Prema-chandra Athukorala
    Abstract: This paper examines the role of multinational enterprises (MNEs) is the expansion of manufacturing exports from developing countries, in the light of the Asia experience. First a typology of MNE-export nexus is developed in the context changes in patterns of international production over the past two decades. The typology is then applied to empirical evidence from newly industrialized countries (NICs) and latecomer exporting countries in Asia. The evidence suggests that the share of MNEs in manufactured exports from all these countries has recorded a significant increase from about the mid 1970s and the entry of MNEs is virtually essential for the export success of latecomers.
    Keywords: multinational enterprises, manufacturing exports, Asia, newly industrialized countries
    Date: 2006–12
  11. By: Ann Hansford, Andrew Lymer and Catherine Pilkington
    Abstract: This article considers Information Technology (IT) adoption strategies as applied to the particular circumstances of e-filing UK Self Assessment (SA) Tax returns . It reports the findings from a study that involved three interested groups in the UK; tax advisers, tax authorities and software providers. IT adoption issues, as applied to a wide range of business situations, are considered in detail in order to set the study into context. The current study, which builds on the findings of a previous UK quantitative study, involved ten in-depth interviews with representatives from the three interested groups – tax advisers, tax authorities and software providers - in order to consider broader aspects of e-filing SA tax returns. The interviews identified that IT adoption is usually a ‘top-down’ decision. The availability of suitable and developing IT tax software is important for tax advisers; as is the perception of the user-friendliness of the HM Revenue and Customs (HMRC) IT system. Pre-adoption concerns for tax advisers mainly centred on how e-filing would fit in with their current practice and the benefits, or otherwise of introducing IT. Post-adoption discussion centred on the wider benefits of IT adoption and the ease of use of the e-filing systems. Tax advisers in the study were clear about areas that could influence their decisions to e-file SA tax returns. Getting over the apprehensiveness of the reluctant IT adopters required good software products that fitted in with other office functions, overcoming any reluctance to trust HMRC IT capabilities and operational efficiencies. Security and privacy were of significant concern to tax advisers but visibility was of little importance. Overall, there was a positive assessment of e-filing SA tax returns. The study showed that e-filing was expected to expand to all but the most reluctant tax adviser practices within the next five years.
    Keywords: e-filing, tax, tax law, self-assessment, tax returns, IT, UK, tax administration
    Date: 2006–10–17
  12. By: Randall Jones; Tadashi Yokoyama
    Abstract: Increasing productivity growth through innovation is a key to raising living standards. Although R&D intensity in Japan is the third highest in the OECD area, the benefits do not appear to have been commensurate with the level of investment. The innovation system, which developed during the catchingup process, is largely input-driven and focused on incremental innovation based on closed and stable corporate and employment systems. However, this approach is less appropriate in the current global environment that favours risk-taking and a more open system relying on external linkages. To improve the innovation system, a broad-based strategy is needed, including a reform of framework conditions in the product and labour markets to strengthen competition and mobility, enhance international R&D links and improve the environment for venture business. Education and public research should be upgraded through stronger competition. The effectiveness of science and technology policy should be increased by strengthening its link to economic framework policies. This Working Paper relates to the 2006 OECD Economic Survey of Japan ( <P>Améliorer le système d'innovation pour assurer une croissance économique durable <BR>Accroître la productivité grâce à l'innovation est l'un des principaux moyens d'élever le niveau de vie. Alors que le Japon se place au troisième rang des pays de l'OCDE pour ce qui est de l'intensité de R-D, les résultats obtenus ne paraissent pas à la hauteur des investissements. Le système d'innovation, qui s'est développé au cours du processus de rattrapage, est orienté dans une large mesure par l'investissement et met l'accent sur les innovations progressives fondées sur des structures d'entreprise et d'emploi fermées et stables. Or, cette approche est moins adaptée à l?environnement mondial actuel, qui favorise la prise de risque et des systèmes plus ouverts fondés sur des liens externes. Pour améliorer le système d'innovation, il importe de mettre en oeuvre une vaste stratégie consistant notamment à réformer les conditions cadres qui régissent les marchés de produits et du travail, afin de renforcer la concurrence et la mobilité, de favoriser les relations internationales en matière de R-D et d'améliorer l'environnement des entreprises innovantes. Il faudrait par ailleurs rendre l'éducation et la recherche publique plus performantes grâce à une concurrence plus intense. Il y aurait lieu également d'accroître l'efficacité de la politique scientifique et technologique en renforçant ses liens avec les politiques économiques générales. Ce Document de travail se rapporte à l'Étude économique du Japon 2006 (
    Keywords: innovation, innovation
    JEL: I2 O31 O33 O34 O38 O39 O53
    Date: 2006–11–29

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