nep-cse New Economics Papers
on Economics of Strategic Management
Issue of 2006‒07‒15
four papers chosen by
Bernardo Batiz-Lazo
Bristol Business School

  1. Competition Policy and the Swedish Model By Lundqvist, Torbjörn
  2. China’s Competitive Performance: A Threat To East Asian Manufactured Exports? By Sanjaya Lall and Manuel Albaladejo (QEH)
  3. The Decline of Syrian Industry: An Assessment of Performance and Capabilities During the 1990s By Sanjaya Lall and Manuel Albaladejo (QEH)
  4. China's Competitive Threat to Latin America: An Analysis for 1990-2002 By Sanjaya Lall (QEH) and John Weiss

  1. By: Lundqvist, Torbjörn (Institute for Futures Studies)
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to present some findings from a study on the development of competition policy in Sweden since 1945. The comprehensive questions are about the view on knowledge in competition policy, the trust to the Swedish model, the change of the model and what has replaced it, and the attitudes to competition and co-operation in politics, authorities and interest groups. The study is basically built on government bills and directives to committees, committee reports, and comments on the later from authorities and interest groups.<p> Typical signs of the Swedish model were a consensus and co-operative attitude towards interest conflict, with institutional arrangements aimed for negotiations and pragmatism. This was also typical for competition policy. During the 1990s we find a change to an EU-model. It meant a transition to a more legalistic and theoretic view on competition.<p> When it comes to attitudes they changed successively in the direction of favouring competition before co-operation. The change was however radical when it comes to politicians and competition authorities. Not least the later came to argue for an “antitrust” view on competition. However, business interests were sceptical to the new competition law copying the EU-model.
    Keywords: competition policy; Swedish model
    JEL: N00
    Date: 2006–05
  2. By: Sanjaya Lall and Manuel Albaladejo (QEH)
    Abstract: There is growing concern in Southeast and East Asia about the competitive threat posed by China’s burgeoning exports, exacerbated by its accession to the WTO. The threat is not confined to labour-intensive products but spans the whole technological and skill range. At the same time, China is rapidly raising its imports from the region, and it is not clear whether its burgeoning exports will damage its neighbours. We examine the dimensions of China’s competitive threat in the 1990s, benchmarking competitive performance by technology and market, and finds that market share losses are so far mainly in low technology products, with Japan being the most vulnerable market. We analyse market share changes and highlight product groups that are directly or indirectly exposed to a competitive threat. We examine intra-regional trade and find that China and its neighbours are raising high technology exports in tandem: the nature of the international production systems involved lead to complementarity rather than confrontation. China is thus acting as an engine of export growth for its neighbours in terms of direct trade. However, this will change as China moves up the value chain and takes on the activities that have driven East Asian export growth
  3. By: Sanjaya Lall and Manuel Albaladejo (QEH)
    Abstract: Syrian manufacturing industry has several advantages: it has a long history and a strong entrepreneurial base, relatively low wages and a good location to serve large markets in oil-rich neighbours and Europe. It has not, however, performed well. This paper focuses on its record in the 1990s, benchmarking indicators of performance and competitive capabilities against selected comparators. Manufacturing growth has been erratic and probably low; manufactured exports have declined dramatically and its composition has shifted towards primary products. The demise of the Soviet block, which provided a soft market for Syrian exporters, has exposed their competitive weaknesses. The competitive base of Syrian industry has been eroding. With greater openness, Syria faces enormous challenges in terms of building new technological capabilities to strengthen existing activities and diversifying into more dynamic non-oil manufactured exports
  4. By: Sanjaya Lall (QEH) and John Weiss
    Abstract: This paper explores China's competitive threat to Latin America in trade in manufactures. The direct threat in exports to third country markets appears small: LAC's trade structure is largely complementary to that of China. In bilateral trade, several LAC countries are increasing primary and resource-based exports to China. However, the pattern of trade, with LAC specializing increasingly in resource-based products and China in manufactures, seems worrying. Given cumulative capability building, China's success in increasingly technology-based products with strong learning externalities can place it on a higher growth path than specialisation in 'simpler' goods, as in LAC. China may thus affect LAC's technological upgrading in exports and industrial production. The issue is not so much current competition as the 'spaces' open for LAC in the emerging technology-based world.

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