nep-cna New Economics Papers
on China
Issue of 2016‒04‒30
twenty-six papers chosen by
Zheng Fang
Ohio State University

  1. Urbanization, Agricultural Water Use, and Regional and National Crop Production in China By Yah, Tingting; Wang, Jinxia; Huang, Jikun
  2. Technical Efficiency and Its Determinants in China's Hog Production By Tian, Xu; Sun, Feifei; Zhou, Yingheng
  3. Understanding farmer cooperatives’ self-inspection behavior to guarantee agri-product safety in China By Zhou, Jie-hong; Yan, Zhen; Li, Kai
  4. Individual and Social Optima of Rural Land Allocation by Stakeholders: A Case Study on Eco-fragile Areas of Nothern China By Liu, Min; Heijman, Wim; Zhu, Xueqin; Dries, Liesbeth; Huang, Jikun
  5. The Economics of Healthy Ageing in China By Heshmati, Almas
  6. Long Term Effects of Experience During Youth: Evidence From Consumptions in China By K. Sudhir; Ishani Tewari
  7. The Co-movement between Non-GM and GM Soybean Price in China: Evidence from China Futures Market By Wang, Nanying; Houston, Jack E.
  8. China’s Pursuit of Environmentally Sustainable Development: Harnessing the New Engine of Technological Innovation By Jin, Wei; Zhang, ZhongXiang
  9. Chinese Consumer Willingness to Pay for Pork with Credence Quality Attributes By Dong, Hao; Hu, Wuyang
  10. Institutional Innovation and Policy Support to Facilitate Small-Scale Farming Transformation in China By Huang, Jikun; Ding, Jiping
  11. Impacts of Surface Ozone Pollution on Crop Productivity: Evidence from Winter Wheat in China By Yi, Fujin; Jiang, Fei; Zhong, Funing; Ding, Aijun; Zhou, Xun
  12. Amount of Information and consumers' willingness to pay for food traceability in China By Jin, Shaosheng; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Yining
  13. The Political and Economic Dynamics of Foreign Aid in Africa: A case study of United States and Chinese Aid to Sub -Sahara Africa By Kafayat Amusa, Nara Monkam, Nicola Viegi
  14. Feed Conversion Ratio, Profitability and Farm Size in China’s Pig Industry By Wang, Dan; Huang, Jikun; Lohmar, Brian
  15. The Impact of Non-Agricultural Employment on Farmland Transfer and Investment in Agricultural Assets: Evidence from China By Qian, Wenrong; Li, Baozhi; Zheng, Liyi
  16. Why Does the Poor Become Poorer? An Empirical Study on Income Growth, Inequality and Poverty Reduction in Rural China By Yu, Lerong; Li, Xiaoyun
  17. Future Perspective of China's Feed Demand and Supply During its Fast Transition Period of Food Consumption By Dong, Wanlu; Wang, Xiaobing; Yang, Jun
  18. Heterogeneous firms and cost sharing in China's marketplaces By Ding, Ke; Gokan, Toshitaka; Zhu, Xiwei
  19. Fairness, Reciprocity and Informal Lending in Farming Communities: A Comparative Study of China and India By Turvey, Calum G.; Kumar, Chandra; Rong, Kong
  20. Cash Transfers and Multiplier Effect: Lessons from the Grain Subsidy Program in China By Yi, Fujin; Lu, Wuyi; Zhou, Yingheng
  21. Deal or no deal : strictly business for China in Kenya ? By Sanghi,Apurva; Johnson,Dylan Conte
  22. Interaction between Dietary Knowledge and Exercise Knowledge in Leading to Healthier Diet after Hypertension Diagnosis: Evidence from China By Shimokawa, Satoru
  23. India's merchandise trade with China: growth, prospects and future potential? By haq wani, Nassir ul; dhami, Jasdeep kaur
  24. Extracting the Kyoto Rents: Nitrogen Efficient GMO Rice in China By Karantininis, Kostas; Hajderllari, Eliona
  25. The Asian Gold Rush: a Critique of the Win-Win Chinese Strategy Towards Africa By Camilla Crovella
  26. What to Expect When China Liberalizes Its Capital Account By Mark Kruger; Gurnain Pasricha

  1. By: Yah, Tingting; Wang, Jinxia; Huang, Jikun
    Abstract: The overall goal of this paper is to analyze the impacts of the urbanization on regional and national agricultural production through its impact on water use in agriculture in China. Given the historical trend of water use in agriculture and its correlation with urbanization, the change in agricultural water use due to urbanization is estimated. Then the impacts of this change on regional crop production are simulated based on the China Water Simulation Model (CWSM). Within CWSM, a positive mathematical programming (PMP) optimizes water allocation among crops and between irrigated and rainfed areas within a crop in each of ten river basins in China. The results show that water use in China has an obvious increasing trend, particularly in the industrial and domestic sectors, while the share of water use in agricultural sector has been dropping. A 1-percentage-point increase in urbanization can result in a 0.47 percentage-point decline in share of water use. Based on the model simulation, this will lead to the further decrease of irrigated areas and the increase of rainfed areas at both the national and river basin levels, particularly for water intensive crops (such as rice and wheat). Accordingly, average yields and total production will also decrease. A river basin with large production of either rice or wheat (or both) decreases more in irrigated area as urban area expands. Adaptation measures are recommended for both authorities and farmers to ensure food security, such as providing incentive for farmers to adopt water saving technology, implementing appropriate institutional and policy innovations (e.g, water use association, water pricing and water use rights).
    Keywords: Urbanization, Agricultural Water Use, Crop Areas, Crop Production, Regional and National Level in China, Community/Rural/Urban Development,
    Date: 2015
  2. By: Tian, Xu; Sun, Feifei; Zhou, Yingheng
    Abstract: China’s hog production is undergoing a great transformation due to the soaring demand and changing raising system. Regarding the essential role of pork in Chinese diet, a systematic analysis on the productivity and efficiency of hog production can provide significant implications for policy makers. This paper investigates the productivity and efficiency of hog production and determinants of technical efficiency in China using a household level panel data (2004-2010). A stochastic frontier translog production function with scaling property in inefficiency term is adopted for hog production analysis, and the determinants of technical efficiency are incorporated in a one-step estimation using maximum likelihood estimation. Our results show that the average technical efficiency of hog production in China is 0.5914. More importantly, we find that specialized farmers have higher technical efficiency than others, and technical efficiency in the eastern region is higher than that in central and west China.
    Keywords: Technical efficiency, Hog production, China, International Development, Livestock Production/Industries,
    Date: 2015
  3. By: Zhou, Jie-hong; Yan, Zhen; Li, Kai
    Abstract: The presence of toxic agri-products, and chemical contamination remain for the existence of smallholder farmers, who are not educated to use agricultural inputs correctly. This inability raises the issue of safety control in the agricultural sector. We proposes that cooperatives’ self-inspection of agricultural products before they enter the market can better organize small farmers to utilize a standardized production and safety management system. An Ordered Logistic Regression Model is employed to estimate the factors that influence cooperatives' choices of inspection frequency. The results show that the respondents expressed a medium to high level of implementing self-inspection but a lower level of concern in testing products by batch. The regression results indicate that subjective norms, the perceived behavioral control of managers, input management, and production documentation significantly affect cooperatives’ self-inspection behavior. The future implementation of safety inspection depends on the extent to which subjective norms, ability, and internal rules can improve agri-product safety in China.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, International Development, Land Economics/Use,
    Date: 2015
  4. By: Liu, Min; Heijman, Wim; Zhu, Xueqin; Dries, Liesbeth; Huang, Jikun
    Abstract: This paper analyses the degree of divergences among different groups of stakeholders in allocation of the four types of rural land: cultivated, range, forest and other land, and the optimal allocation from the social perspective of balancing economic and ecological benefits. The preference of stakeholders stemming from stakeholders’ different ecological and economic interests on four types of rural land was quantified by the Analytic Hierarchy Process. Weights for stakeholders in the social welfare function were derived for three social-economic scenarios. Welfare economics was employed then to determine the ‘individual’ or ‘private’ optimal allocation of each stakeholder by maximizing its utility function, and social optimal allocation by maximizing the social welfare function. A county located in the eco-fragile areas of Northern China was taken as a case to present the empirical analysis. Our results provide policy insights on how to regulate the divergences and achieve an efficient allocation of rural land.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Land Economics/Use,
    Date: 2015
  5. By: Heshmati, Almas (Jönköping International Business School (JIBS), Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies (CESIS),& Department of Economics, Sogang University, Seoul, South Korea)
    Abstract: Healthy ageing is a challenge for many countries with significant shares of elderly people. Literature refers to China’s ageing population as a ticking time bomb which paradoxically is both a challenge and an opportunity for the country. Health is considered an important determinant of economic growth and competitiveness. The health of the elderly population determines its need for resources and care. Thus, investing in healthy ageing contributes to economic and social well-being. This study is a review of literature on the social and economic aspects of healthy ageing. It summarizes alternative approaches presented in literature to ease pressures of a rapidly growing ageing population. The main focus is on strategies for healthy ageing, policy practices and measures, organization, finances and manpower resources to promote healthy ageing in China. Up-to-date theories and methods applied to household surveys and population statistics are used to quantify the problem, resource requirements and estimating the social and economic benefits of having policies and measures for healthy ageing. Conclusions are drawn with respect to conditions of healthy ageing in China and about the state policy in this regard.
    Keywords: Healthy ageing; ageing in China; active ageing; challenges and opportunities; economics of healthy ageing
    JEL: H75 I15 I18 I38 P36
    Date: 2016–04–05
  6. By: K. Sudhir (Cowles Foundation & School of Management, Yale University); Ishani Tewari (School of Management, Yale University)
    Abstract: We test for the long-term effects of experience during youth on consumption in nontraditional taste-forming categories. A unique dataset that tracks individuals over twenty years from 1992-2011, residing in nine Chinese provinces that vary widely in both income levels and rate of economic growth, helps us identify cohort and intra-cohort “prosperity-inyouth” (PIY) effects on consumption. We first demonstrate that non-traditional category consumption increases strongly among cohorts that entered adulthood during China’s boom years. We then show evidence of the intra-cohort PIY effect, controlling for individual level experience by leveraging the heterogeneity in the timing and rate of growth in prosperity across Chinese provinces. We find that the PIY effect has two dimensions– a direct effect of one’s own prosperity and an indirect effect of the prosperity of one’s province during youth. The indirect effects suggest that norms and aspirations created by the consumption of nontraditional categories by the surrounding rich during one’s youth have significant impact on long-term consumption—almost the same magnitude as the direct effect. We conduct a large number of robustness checks; in particular, we rule out potential supply side and attitude based explanations for the PIY effect. Our results imply that segmentation and consumption forecasts based on birth cohorts and experience of prosperity can be effective for taste forming non-traditional products in emerging markets.
    Keywords: Cohort effects, Lifecycle effects, Emerging markets, China, Prosperity in youth, Impressionable years hypothesis, Long-term effects
    JEL: M31 D12 F61
    Date: 2015–10
  7. By: Wang, Nanying; Houston, Jack E.
    Abstract: The price variability of agricultural commodities reached record levels in 2008, and again more recently in 2010, raising concerns about this increased price volatility would be temporal or structural. The Chinese soybean futures market is the second largest in the world in terms of trading volume. There are two soybean futures contracts in China: non-GM and GM. This study examines the volatility determinants as well as seasonality of non-GM and GM soybean futures prices traded in Dalian Commodity Exchange from 2005 to 2014. Also, we test the co-movement between these two soybeans markets. We analyze the volatility by incorporating changes in important economic variables into the Dynamic Conditional Correlation-Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedastic (DCC-GARCH) model. This research provides statistical evidence that the futures prices of soybeans in China are being influenced by the increasing consumption of soybeans, the import quantity of soybean, the trading volume in futures market and weather.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, Environmental Economics and Policy, International Development,
    Date: 2015
  8. By: Jin, Wei; Zhang, ZhongXiang
    Abstract: Whether China continues its business-as-usual investment-driven, environment-polluting growth pattern or adopts an investment and innovation-driven, environmentally sustainable development holds important implications for both national and global environmental governance. Building on a Ramsey-Cass-Koopmans growth model that features endogenous technological change induced by R&D and knowledge stock accumulation, this paper presents an exposition, both analytically and numerically, of the mechanism underlining China’s economic transition from an investment-driven, pollution-intensive to an investment and innovation-driven, environmentally sustainable growth path. We show that if R&D technological innovation is incorporated into China’s growth mechanism, then at some tipping point in time when marginal welfare gain of R&D for knowledge accumulation becomes equalized with that of investment for physical asset deployment, China’s economy will launch capital investment and R&D simultaneously and make a transition to a sustainable growth path along which consumption, capital investment, and R&D have a balanced share of 5: 4: 1, consumption, capital stock, and knowledge stock all grow at a rate of 4.9%, and environmental quality improves at a rate of 2.5%. In contrast, if R&D technological innovation is not harnessed as a new growth engine, then China’s economy will follow its business-as-usual investment-driven growth path along which standalone accumulation of dirty physical capital stock will lead to an more than 200-fold increase in environmental pollution.
    Keywords: Endogenous Technological Change, Sustainable Development, Economic Growth Model, China’s Economic Transition, Resource /Energy Economics and Policy, Q55, Q58, Q43, Q48, O13, O31, O33, O44, F18,
    Date: 2016–03–18
  9. By: Dong, Hao; Hu, Wuyang
    Abstract: Food labeling has become increasingly important in pork marketing. Various labels such as local production, organic, and non-GMOs are reported as being valued by consumers across different countries and cultures. China is the largest pork consumer and producer in the world. However, studies on Chinese consumer perception and willingness to pay for various pork attributes are scarce. This study examines how credence attributes related to pork quality may affect Chinese consumers’ pork consumption. Results show that Chinese consumers are particularly responsive to pork’s food safety information and they also attach value to authenticity of the product information.
    Keywords: Willingness To Pay, Consumer Preference, Pork, China, Credence Quality Attributes, Consumer/Household Economics,
    Date: 2016
  10. By: Huang, Jikun; Ding, Jiping
    Abstract: While Asian food economy has been experiencing significant transitions, little transformation occurs in farm land operation. However, recent rapid emergence of middle and large farms in many regions of China is striking. Overall goal of this paper is to understand small-scale farm transformation in China based on a unique dataset surveyed in Northeast and North China. The results show that the institutional innovation through establishing land transfer service center to activate land rental market, supporting policies to incentivize and speed up land consolidation, and farm mechanization services are major driving forces in recent evolution of China’s farm operations. The paper concludes with policy implications on small-scale farming transformation in China and the rest of world and identifies remaining research issues for further study.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Farm Management, International Development,
    Date: 2015
  11. By: Yi, Fujin; Jiang, Fei; Zhong, Funing; Ding, Aijun; Zhou, Xun
    Abstract: The impact of surface ozone pollution on the yield of winter wheat is empirically estimated by considering socio-economic and climatic determinants. This research is the first to use an economic framework to estimate the ozone impact, and a unique county-level panel is employed to examine the impact of the increase of surface ozone concentration on the productivity of winter wheat. In general, the increment of surface ozone concentration during the ozone-sensitive period of winter wheat is found harmful to its yield, and the damage to China’s grain supply and economic values are non-negligible. This study also confirms that other stress conditions, such as drought and air particles, can potentially mitigate the adverse effect of surface ozone exposure on the yield of winter wheat.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, Environmental Economics and Policy, International Development,
    Date: 2015
  12. By: Jin, Shaosheng; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Yining
    Abstract: This study employs random nth price auction to investigate consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP) for food traceability system with both abbreviated and detailed information. Results show that consumers have a positive WTP for both kind of food traceability systems, and on average the premium for apples with detailed information is 10 percent higher than that of apples with abbreviated information. Males, the married and those with relatively low level of education have high premiums for detailed traceability information, while the self-reported healthy consumers would not like to pay much more premium for detailed information. The results also show that consumers show much interest in information of quality certificate and chemical fertilizers/pesticides used in food production provided by food traceability system. Implications for implementing food traceability system were discussed.
    Keywords: Consumer, information, food traceability system, willingness to pay, China, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Food Security and Poverty, L15, Q18, D1,
    Date: 2015
  13. By: Kafayat Amusa, Nara Monkam, Nicola Viegi
    Abstract: The foreign aid arena as it pertains to the African continent has traditionally been dominated by the Organization of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries, however over the last three decades non-traditional donors such as the China, South Africa and Brazil have emerged in the donor field. The increasing importance of non-traditional donors has meant that the economic and political stronghold of Western and OECD countries in sub-Sahara African (SSA) has gradually ebbed, due to increased competition amongst donors on the continent. Specifically, as the economic and political reach of the United States (USA), the second largest bilateral donor to SSA has diminished, amongst the group of emerging donors, China has become the largest contributor of aid to SSA countries. There appears to be a political - economic dynamic that points to the existence of two competing reasons underpinning the foreign aid trend in SSA. Using a comparative approach, this study examines the determinants of aid allocation by China and the United States to SSA countries. The study finds that both donor motives and recipient need are factors in US and Chinese aid allocation to SSA. Additionally, the study finds differences in US aid allocation determinants pre and post China’s entry into SSA’s aid field. Furthermore, evidence of income and population bias is observed for both donor countries.
    Keywords: foreign aid allocation, donor motives, recipient need, Sub-Saharan Africa
    JEL: F35
    Date: 2016
  14. By: Wang, Dan; Huang, Jikun; Lohmar, Brian
    Abstract: The paper is based on a survey we have designed to document the feeding practices in China’s hog industry. We estimate the live weight FCR to be 2.99, in which commercialized farms (>500 head/year) are the most efficient with FCR of 2.73, followed by specialized farms (50-499 head/year) of 2.90, and the main inefficiency in feeding comes from backyard (<10 head/year) and small household farms (10-49 head/year), with FCRs to be 3.03 and 3.99.The FCRs and the farm size have a clear inverse relationship, but the correlation between profit and farm size is not significant, suggesting further structural change toward larger operations will be slow. In addition, managerial variables have significant impacts on FCRs: participating training in disease control and using compound feed in the grower/finisher phase can lower the FCR significantly.
    Keywords: Feed conversion ratio, farm size, Farm Management, Land Economics/Use, Livestock Production/Industries, C83, Q12, L110,
    Date: 2015
  15. By: Qian, Wenrong; Li, Baozhi; Zheng, Liyi
    Abstract: This study aimed to determine the impact of non-agricultural employment of peasants on their farmland transfer and investment in agricultural assets by using theoretical models and empirical analysis. The Heckman two-step approach and ordinary least squares method of econometric estimation were used to analyze the questionnaire survey data collected from Jiangxi Province in China. Non-agricultural employment led to reduction of investment in agricultural assets and renting of land. The remittance flows from non-farm income were mainly used to improve the current quality of life, particularly housing condition, rather than to invest in agricultural assets. Migration of laborers caused farmers to rent out farmland, but the inflow of remittances from non-farm income, which increased the capital stock, did not increase the renting in of farmland.
    Keywords: Non-agricultural employment, Agricultural asset investment, Farmland transfer, Farm Management, Land Economics/Use, C83, J43, J61,
    Date: 2015
  16. By: Yu, Lerong; Li, Xiaoyun
    Abstract: Based on the provincial data on annual per capita net income, inequality and poverty incidence since 2000, this paper attempts to analyze the impacts of the income growth and distribution on poverty reduction in rural China and further explores changes and causes of rural income inequality by means of econometric model and Gini coefficient decomposition. The results show that the income growth of China’s peasants still plays a significant role in reducing rural poverty, but the deterioration of income inequality will partially offset the positive effects of income growth on poverty reduction; the extent of income inequality in rural areas is obviously higher than that in urban areas; income from wage and salary is one of the most important determinants which causes rural income inequality, followed by the income from household operations, but the ratio of contribution of the income from property and transfer to inequality is relatively low.
    Keywords: Consumer/Household Economics, International Development,
    Date: 2015
  17. By: Dong, Wanlu; Wang, Xiaobing; Yang, Jun
    Abstract: China has experienced the dramatic change of food consumption pattern in the last three decades. However, there are different opinions toward the future change of this process. By adopting the well-developed Chinese agricultural partial equilibrium model-CAPiM model, the demands on livestock products and main feed crops in 2011-2031 are predicted and analyzed. It is found that China's per capita consumption of livestock products will continue to rise in 2011-2031, even though its growth rate will slow down gradually. Meanwhile, the expansion of livestock production will pose great challenges on feed supply in China. More accurately, it is feed security instead of grain security confronted by China in the future. Based on the findings, the related policy implications are proposed.
    Keywords: feed demand, food consumption pattern, partial equilibrium model, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Livestock Production/Industries,
    Date: 2015
  18. By: Ding, Ke; Gokan, Toshitaka; Zhu, Xiwei
    Abstract: This study extends Melitz's model with heterogeneous firms by introducing shared fixed costs in a marketplace. It aims to explain heterogeneous firms' choice between traditional marketplaces and modern distribution channels on the basis of their productivities. The results reveal that the co-existence of a traditional marketplace and modern distribution channels improves social welfare. In addition, a deregulation policy for firm entry outside a marketplace and accumulation of human capital are factors that contribute to improve the social welfare.
    Keywords: China, Business enterprises, Costs, Econometric model, Market, Heterogeneous firms, Marketplace, Cost sharing, Multiplicity
    JEL: R12 D04
    Date: 2016–03
  19. By: Turvey, Calum G.; Kumar, Chandra; Rong, Kong
    Abstract: Though informal lending and borrowing are widely prevalent among close acquaintances in rural areas of developing economies, these informal transactions have not been extensively researched. As it stands, a risk sharing motive has been advanced as an important explanation of such informal exchanges. However, this fails to incorporate social preferences such as altruism, trust, reciprocity and fairness. The primary contribution of this paper is to investigate fairness reciprocity as an important motive underlying informal financial transactions among relatives and friends. Evidence from China and India suggests that fairness can be advanced as an important motive in informal financial transactions.
    Keywords: Fairness, Reciprocity, Mutual-min, Mutual-max, Informal Lending, Familial lending, Agriculture, China and India, Agribusiness, Farm Management,
    Date: 2015
  20. By: Yi, Fujin; Lu, Wuyi; Zhou, Yingheng
    Abstract: This study examines the multiplier effects of the grain subsidy program in China, which is a large food self-sufficiency project that is implemented as a cash transfer program. Income multiplier effects have not been examined in the evaluation of the grain subsidy program although increasing the income of farmers is the original goal of this project. A large number of household-level observations are employed to measure the program’s income multiplier. Results show that the grain subsidy program has an unrealized high income multiplier, and the income promotion effect of the transferred subsidies is from agricultural production derived by intensifying various input uses for each unit of land. The multiplier effect can be particularly utilized by households with good education and poor farmers in less developed regions. Hence, to maximize the income multiplier effect, the grain subsidy distribution method should consider these criteria instead of retaining the prevalent standard that is based on contracted land areas.
    Keywords: Crop Production/Industries, International Development,
    Date: 2015
  21. By: Sanghi,Apurva; Johnson,Dylan Conte
    Abstract: Existing work on China's economic influence in Africa refers to Africa in broad terms, thereby generalizing the results to an extent that is unhelpful for policy-makers in a specific country. Moreover, the emphasis is on oil exporters. This paper remedies this by focusing on a single, oil-importing country: Kenya. The paper examines China's economic presence in Kenya and some of the popular myths surrounding Chinese economic activity. The first myth is that Chinese companies do not employ local workers. In fact, 78 percent of full-time and 95 percent of part-time employees in Chinese companies are locals. Second, although China represents a large potential market for local exporters, the study finds that China has a better chance of expanding its exports to Kenya than Kenya does to China based on existing specializations. This may change with recent oil discoveries in Kenya, increasing the space for Kenyan exports to China, as well as from China's shift to a consumption-driven economy which will increase demand for services, a growing strength of Kenya's economy (World Bank Country Economic Memorandum 2016). The paper emphasizes that Kenyan policy makers should be less concerned about bilateral trade imbalances and worry about Kenya's overall trade balance. However, the Standard Gauge Railway and Thika superhighway experiences suggest that Chinese firms offer relatively few technology transfer or supplier opportunities for local firms and academia. Third, the popular focus of Chinese competition is on the impact on well-organized Kenyan producers and not on consumers, thereby underestimating the benefits Kenyan consumer derive from the availability of more affordable Chinese goods. The paper concludes with policy directions for improving export competitiveness and transparency in infrastructure projects, and local content.
    Keywords: Debt Markets,E-Business,Banks&Banking Reform,Economic Theory&Research,Emerging Markets
    Date: 2016–03–23
  22. By: Shimokawa, Satoru
    Abstract: This paper examines how dietary knowledge and exercise knowledge are interacted each other in leading to healthier diet after hypertension diagnosis. It uses a sharp regression discontinuity design that exploits the exogenous cut-point of systolic blood pressure in the hypertension diagnosis. Using data from China, the results demonstrate that the influence of hypertension diagnosis on improving diet is significant only among people with good dietary knowledge; and within the people with good dietary knowledge, the influence is much larger among the people who do not believe the importance of exercise for health. The findings may imply that an equal emphasis on both diet and exercise might result in reducing the effect of dietary education on improving diet.
    Keywords: diet, exercise, hypertension, China, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Food Security and Poverty, I12, I18, Q18,
    Date: 2015
  23. By: haq wani, Nassir ul; dhami, Jasdeep kaur
    Abstract: India and China are the two important emerging economies of the world with strong history of intimacy. After liberalization both have made rapid progress. Owing to large size and amalgamated composition of economies, the economies are looks as the upcoming global leaders on the international arena. The bilateral trade between the nations has definitely impact on the economic scenario of global trade. The trade relation in terms of trade between India and China is developing its own impetus and dynamism. India’s share in China’s exports and Imports increased from 0.51 per cent and 0.30 per cent in 1995 to 2.66 per cent and 1.34 per cent in 2011 respectively. During the period of 1995-1999, the actual growth rates of Indian exports to and imports from China, i.e. 3.07 per cent and 6.05 per cent respectively. The political relations between India and China turned to be good one, which positively affected their trade relations. The trade between these two giant economies has been identified as the most sensible and reliable instrument, in recognizing the impact on the dynamism of the global economy and its vibrant growth speed. It is in this context of their changing behavior, the current paper makes an endeavor to appraise that how the bilateral trade between the two economies becomes as a tool in intensifying their partnership for their joint advantages in the future time.
    Keywords: India: China: Economic Performance: EII and III
    JEL: F14 F17
    Date: 2016–03–20
  24. By: Karantininis, Kostas; Hajderllari, Eliona
    Abstract: This paper investigates the market potential for a new technology such as a genetically modified crop, which produces both a private and a public good. A theoretical framework is developed, based on vertically differentiated products and heterogeneous producer returns. Our setting corresponds to a system composed of a biotech firm, individual farm, consumer and the government. We claim that coordination among every single stage of the system is needed in order for the adoption process to be successful and beneficial to all those involved. Our results indicate that the market adaption of a genetically modified product depends on the magnitude effect of the new technology on the incremental savings and costs as well as consumers’ aversion and the carbon emission market price. In particular we consider the carbon emissions market as an important instrument associated with the reduction of the two negative parameters of production costs and consumers aversion..
    Keywords: GMO, China, GHG, Public Good, Crop Production/Industries, O34, Q17, Q56,
    Date: 2015
  25. By: Camilla Crovella
    Abstract: Africa has observed an impressively growing Chinese presence in the last 20 years. Signals of this can be identified in the strong investments the Asian country has carried out on the continent, always depicting such attitude as a business partnership, where the former exploits African raw materials and favours the economic and social development of the latter in return. Indeed, China supports its interest in the African continent on the ground of the win-win strategy, as this partnership would bring advantages to both parties. However, several voices have raised on the international scene, denouncing a Chinese predatory attitude and a form of exploitation, which can be compared to the Western Colonialism. Even if it can be stated that the current situation is not comparable to colonialism in Western conception, it is also undeniable that Africa is being shaped by the Chinese following the model of their own economic, financial and social system. So stated, it is clear that the win-win strategy does no longer suit to such scenery. For this reason, it should be renamed as a win-through strategy, to describe how China is making this partnership successful by turning Africa into a big reproduction of its own system.
    Keywords: China; Africa; Sino-African relationship; win-win strategy; going out strategy; non-interference.
    JEL: Y8
    Date: 2015–10
  26. By: Mark Kruger; Gurnain Pasricha
    Abstract: When China joined the World Trade Organization in December 2001, it marked a watershed for the world economy. Ten years from now, the opening of China’s capital account and the financial integration that will unfold will be viewed as a milestone of similar importance. This paper discusses the benefits, to China and the rest of the world, of deepening China’s capital account liberalization. We assess China’s current level of de jure and de facto integration, in relation to other G20 economies. We update the Pasricha et al. (2015) data on capital control actions to 2015 for China, to assess China’s international financial integration. We also look at its relative international investment position to gauge its de facto integration. We then estimate the size and composition of capital flows likely to ensue assuming that China’s further capital account liberalization results in its gross international investment position converging to that of the G20 average. In addition, we discuss the risks involved with the further opening of China’s capital account and how they can best be managed. We also emphasize the potentially stabilizing effects of residents’ flows and the importance of liberalizing inflows and outflows in a balanced way and at the same time.
    Keywords: Balance of payments and components, Exchange rate regimes, International topics
    JEL: F31 F32 G18
    Date: 2016

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