nep-cna New Economics Papers
on China
Issue of 2007‒04‒09
eleven papers chosen by
Zheng Fang
Ohio State University

  1. An analysis of the travel motivation of tourists from the People’s Republic of China By Maren A. Lau
  2. Welfare comparison beyond GDP: An illustration from China and India Transport Flows By Sudip Ranjan Basu
  3. Inequality and Poverty in China during Reform By Sangui Wang; Dwayne Benjamin; Loren Brandt; John Giles; Yingxing Li; Yun Li
  4. Hot Money Inflows and Monetary Stability in China: How the People's Bank of China Took up the Challenge By Vincent Bouvatier
  5. Contested Capitalism: Financial Politics and Implications for China By Richard, Carney
  6. Differences in Technology Transfers to China Among European and Japanese Elevator Companies By Mizuno, Junko
  7. The financial integration of China: New evidence on temporally aggregated data for the A-share market By Eric Girardin; Zhenya Liu
  8. Substitutability and protectionism : Latin America ' s trade policy and imports from China and India By Willmann, Gerald; Silva, Peri; Olarreaga, Marcelo; Facchini, Giovanni
  9. Clusters and Innovation: Beijing's Hi-technology Industry Cluster and Guangzhou's Automobile Industry Cluster By Kuchiki, Akifumi
  10. The Causes of Chronic and Transient Poverty and Their Implications for Poverty Reduction Policy in Rural China By Shi Li; Pingping Wang; Ximing Yue
  11. How Does Geography Matter in Ethnic Labor Market Segmentation Process? A Case Study of Chinese Immigrants in the San Francisco CMSA By Qingfang Wang

  1. By: Maren A. Lau
    Abstract: Since the Chinese economic reforms, the government’s policy towards travelling and tourism activity has changed. The population of the People’s Republic of China gained significant rights and possibilities to travel in their own country and conquer the international tourism market by package tours. However, the literature so far neglected the motivation of Chinese travellers in choosing their holiday destination. We compiled a new database of the preferences of Chinese tourists in domestic tourism and foreign tourists in China. The identification of the specific preferences of Chinese travellers helps to assess in how far tourists’ preferences for attractions and regions are similar. Another aspect of investigation is about the impact of tourism promotion in China on destination choice. The results of an analysis of Chinese marketing strategies are translated into recommendations for foreign travel promotion that targets at Chinese tourists.
    Keywords: Tourism, China, travel motivation, pull factor, tourism promotion
    JEL: L83
    Date: 2006–06
  2. By: Sudip Ranjan Basu (IUHEI, The Graduate Institute of International Studies, Geneva)
    Abstract: The paper provides a welfare comparison between China and India. China outperforms India as a whole, but the gap is evidently being reduced. The preliminary results show that India has more regional variations. After controlling for state effects, however, economic development displays a pronounced effect on the improvement of welfare indicators in India, whereas in China, most variations are correlated with income differences across provinces. Another interesting finding is that over time, the income effect on social indicators is diminishing in China, calling for more alternative approaches. Our analysis strongly suggests that in India, state-level social policies play a key role.
    JEL: C43 O18
    Date: 2007–02–06
  3. By: Sangui Wang; Dwayne Benjamin; Loren Brandt; John Giles; Yingxing Li; Yun Li
    Abstract: This paper provides an overview of the evolution of income inequality and poverty in China from 1987 to 2002, documenting significant increases of inequality within China's urban and rural populations. In rural areas, increased inequality is primarily related to the disequalizing role of non-agricultural self-employment income and the slow growth in agricultural income from the mid-1990s onward. Poverty persists, and tied in part to slow growth in agricultural commodity prices. In urban areas, the declining role of subsidies and entitlements, the increase in wage inequality, and the layoffs during restructuring have fueled the growth in inequality within urban areas. Poverty levels, however, are very low. China should give more emphasis on education, training, and other human development efforts in its poverty reduction strategy since return to education increased rapidly and became a major source of inequality. A nationwide "social safety net" and an effective redistributive taxation system should be adopted and implemented to ensure that the poor can benefit from the fruits of rapid economic growth.
    Keywords: Income inequality, poverty, welfare, growth, reform, transition, policy, China
    JEL: D31 D63 I32 O18 O53
    Date: 2007
  4. By: Vincent Bouvatier (Universite Paris 1)
    Abstract: Non-foreign direct investment capital inflows in China were particularly strong in 2003 and 2004. They were even stronger than current account surpluses or net foreign direct investment inflows. As a result, the pace of international reserves accumulation in China increased significantly. This paper investigates if the rapid build up of international reserves in 2003 and 2004 was a source of monetary instability in China. The relationship between international reserves and domestic credit is examined with a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM), estimated on monthly data from March 1995 to December 2005. Empirical results show that this relationship was stable and consistent with monetary stability. Direct and indirect Granger causality tests are implemented to show how the People's Bank of China (PBC) achieved this monetary stability
    Keywords: hot money inflows, international reserves, VECM, Granger causality
    JEL: C32 E5
    Date: 2007–02–02
  5. By: Richard, Carney
    Abstract: As China's economy grows and matures, is it developing institutional patterns that resemble those of other wealthy countries? I offer an innovative theory that deduces the structure of nations' capitalist institutions based on distributive welfare gains to those actors representing an economy's main factors of production (land, labor, and capital), using the structure of a nation’s financial institutions as a proxy for its capitalist institutions. Based on statistical and qualitative evidence across countries and time, I then draw implications for China. I find that China resembles continental European capitalism far more than Anglo-American capitalism, and that it is likely to remain this way for the foreseeable future.
    Keywords: comparative finance; financial institutions; political economy; capitalism; China
    JEL: P00 N00 O10
    Date: 2007–03–14
  6. By: Mizuno, Junko
    Abstract: This report analyzes technology transfers and education for local engineers within overseas subsidiaries of Japanese and European companies that have advanced into China, and examines differences among them. Based on the assumption that if the quality of trained local engineers is different, the international division of labor is also different, I aim to clarify how they are different.
    Keywords: Technology transfers, Fostering local engineers, International division of labor, Mechanical industry, Holding company, Joint ventures, China, Japan, Europe
    JEL: O14 O30
    Date: 2007–03
  7. By: Eric Girardin (Chateau Lafarge GREQAM); Zhenya Liu (People's University of China)
    Abstract: In spite of high trade openness, existing empirical work, using daily data, has not found any evidence of international financial integration of China. In this paper we examine to what extent the Chinese A-share market, de jure protected from foreign influences by capital controls, is actually integrated with global or regional markets. We study a long sample (October 1992 through March 2005) of active trading, within the framework of a regime-switching error correction model. We confirm the role of temporal aggregation in cointegration tests. With daily or mid-week closing prices, we do not find any long run relationship with either the New York or the Hong Kong market, thus replicating previous findings. However, the use of weekly averaged prices implies that, up to late 1996, the Shanghai A-share market index was cointegrated with the S&P500. Subsequently, this relationship broke down and a long run relationship with the Hang Seng index gradually arose. Information flows, as well as the prospects of de jure financial opening, and the growing awareness of valuation concepts among Chinese domestic investors, in the presence of multiple listing of Mainland firms, help explain the evidence of financial integration in spite of capital controls
    Keywords: China's A-share market, Markov-switching ECM, temporal aggregation, international financial integration
    JEL: F36 G15
    Date: 2007–02–02
  8. By: Willmann, Gerald; Silva, Peri; Olarreaga, Marcelo; Facchini, Giovanni
    Abstract: The authors examine the trade policy response of Latin American governments to the rapid growth of China and India in world markets. To explain higher protection in sectors where a large share is imported from these countries, they extend the " protection for sale " model to allow for different degrees of substitutability between domestically produced and imported varieties. The extension suggests that higher levels of protection toward Chinese goods can be explained by high substitutability between domestically produced goods and Chinese goods, whereas lower levels of protection toward goods imported from India can be explained by low substitutability with domestically produced goods. The data support the extension to the " protection for sale " model, which performs better than the original specification in terms of explaining Latin America ' s structure of protection.
    Keywords: Economic Theory & Research,Markets and Market Access,Free Trade,Globalization and Financial Integration,International Trade and Trade Rules
    Date: 2007–04–01
  9. By: Kuchiki, Akifumi
    Abstract: This paper proposes a flowchart approach to the automobile industry cluster policy and the hi-technology industry cluster policy to prioritize policy measures. First, in the automobile industry cluster, suppliers of parts and components to anchor firms such as Honda, Nissan and Toyota of Japanese assembly makers in Guangzhou, China, can innovate partly because the suppliers have become independent of their anchor firms in the Japanese Keiretsu system. Second, concerning the hi-technology industry clustering in Beijing, we show that the existence of universities is a precondition for the industrial cluster policy and that the leadership of the Zhongguancun Science Park Management Committee of Beijing Municipality is crucial to the success of the industrial cluster policy. The flowchart for the hi-technology industry is different from the one for the automobile industry cluster.
    Keywords: Flowchart approach, Prioritization, Innovation, Guangzhou, Beijing, Universities, Local government, China, Industrial estate, Industrial policy, Research organization, ・
    JEL: O18 R11
    Date: 2007–02
  10. By: Shi Li; Pingping Wang; Ximing Yue
    Abstract: The study focuses on two components of total poverty: chronic and transient poverty, and investigates their relative importance in total observed poverty, as well as the determinants of each components. We found that transient poverty accounts for a large proportion of total poverty observed in the poor rural areas of China. By analyzing the determinants of the two types of poverty, we found that household demographic characteristics, such as age of the head of households, family sizes, labour participation ratio, and educational level of the head of the households, are very important to the poverty status of households. These factors matter more to chronic poverty than transient poverty, and have greater impacts on the poverty measured by consumption than that measured by income. Besides the demographic factors of households, other household factors like physical stocks, the composition of income, and the amount of cultivated lands also have significant effects on both chronic and transient poverty. It is also confirmed that change in cash holding and saving and borrowing grain are used by rural households to cope with income variation and smooth their consumption. Attributes of community where the households reside are also important to poverty. With very few exceptions, we did not find that poverty programs have significant impact on poverty reduction at the households' level. We interpreted this as the poverty programs benefiting the wealthy more than the poor in a given poor area. The main reason for this could be that the implementation design of these programs fails to target the poor.
    Keywords: Income risk, chronic poverty, transient poverty, poverty program evaluation, China
    JEL: H54 O22 O53
    Date: 2007
  11. By: Qingfang Wang
    Abstract: In the context of continuing influxes of large numbers of immigrants to the United States, urban labor market segmentation along the lines of race/ethnicity, gender, and class has drawn considerable growing attention. Using a confidential dataset extracted from the United States Decennial Long Form Data 2000 and a multilevel regression modeling strategy, this paper presents a case study of Chinese immigrants in the San Francisco metropolitan area. Correspondent with the highly segregated nature of the labor market as between Chinese immigrant men and women, different socioeconomic characteristics at the census tract level are significantly related to their occupational segregation. This suggests the social process of labor market segmentation is contingent on the immigrant geography of residence and workplace. With different direction and magnitude of the spatial contingency between men and women in the labor market, residency in Chinese immigrant concentrated areas is perpetuating the gender occupational segregation by skill level. Whereas abundant ethnic resources may exist in ethnic neighborhoods and enclaves for certain types of employment opportunities, these resources do not necessarily help Chinese immigrant workers, especially women, to move upward along the labor market hierarchy.
    Keywords: Chinese immigrants, ethnic niches, gender, residence, workplace, San Francisco
    Date: 2007–03

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