nep-cmp New Economics Papers
on Computational Economics
Issue of 2022‒08‒22
sixteen papers chosen by
Stan Miles
Thompson Rivers University

  1. Machine Learning: An Introduction for Economists By Zarak Jamal Khan
  2. Comparative Effectiveness of Machine Learning Methods for Causal Inference in Agricultural Economics By Badruddoza, Syed; Fuad, Syed M.; Amin, Modhurima
  3. Supervised similarity learning for corporate bonds using Random Forest proximities By Jerinsh Jeyapaulraj; Dhruv Desai; Peter Chu; Dhagash Mehta; Stefano Pasquali; Philip Sommer
  4. AlphaMLDigger: A Novel Machine Learning Solution to Explore Excess Return on Investment By Jimei Shen; Zhehu Yuan; Yifan Jin
  5. Reinforcement Learning Portfolio Manager Framework with Monte Carlo Simulation By Jungyu Ahn; Sungwoo Park; Jiwoon Kim; Ju-hong Lee
  6. The dynamics of the prices of the companies of the STOXX Europe 600 Index through the logit model and neural network By Federico Mecchia; Marcellino Gaudenzi
  7. Balancing Profit, Risk, and Sustainability for Portfolio Management By Charl Maree; Christian W. Omlin
  8. Changing Electricity Markets: Quantifying the Price Effects of Greening the Energy Matrix By Emanuel Kohlscheen; Richhild Moessner
  9. Program Targeting with Machine Learning and Mobile Phone Data: Evidence from an Anti-Poverty Intervention in Afghanistan By Emily Aiken; Guadalupe Bedoya; Joshua Blumenstock; Aidan Coville
  10. Deep Bellman Hedging By Hans Buehler; Phillip Murray; Ben Wood
  11. Estimating Continuous Treatment Effects in Panel Data using Machine Learning with an Agricultural Application By Sylvia Klosin; Max Vilgalys
  12. Uncover Drivers Influencing Consumers' WTP Using Machine Learning: Case of Organic Coffee in Taiwan By Man-, ZuyiKeunZuyi Wang; Takagi, Chifumi; Kim, Man-Keun; Chung, Anh
  13. Optimal Multi-Dimensional Auctions: Conjectures and Simulations By Alexey Kushnir; James Michelson
  14. Government Intervention in Catastrophe Insurance Markets: A Reinforcement Learning Approach By Menna Hassan; Nourhan Sakr; Arthur Charpentier
  15. The Virtue of Complexity Everywhere By Bryan T. Kelly; Semyon Malamud; Kangying Zhou
  16. Learning Mutual Fund Categorization using Natural Language Processing By Dimitrios Vamvourellis; Mate Attila Toth; Dhruv Desai; Dhagash Mehta; Stefano Pasquali

  1. By: Zarak Jamal Khan (M.Phil Scholar, PIDE)
    Abstract: The objective of this webinar is to provide a brief and non-technical overview of; What Machine learning is and its recent applications in economic literature. This webinar deals with an important aspect of the usage of machine learning and discusses why machine learning tools needed to be incorporated in academic and policy-relevant research in Pakistan.
    Keywords: Machine Learning,
    Date: 2021
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:pid:wbrief:2021:62&r=
  2. By: Badruddoza, Syed; Fuad, Syed M.; Amin, Modhurima
    Keywords: Research Methods/Statistical Methods, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, Agricultural and Food Policy
    Date: 2022–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea22:322452&r=
  3. By: Jerinsh Jeyapaulraj; Dhruv Desai; Peter Chu; Dhagash Mehta; Stefano Pasquali; Philip Sommer
    Abstract: Financial literature consists of ample research on similarity and comparison of financial assets and securities such as stocks, bonds, mutual funds, etc. However, going beyond correlations or aggregate statistics has been arduous since financial datasets are noisy, lack useful features, have missing data and often lack ground truth or annotated labels. However, though similarity extrapolated from these traditional models heuristically may work well on an aggregate level, such as risk management when looking at large portfolios, they often fail when used for portfolio construction and trading which require a local and dynamic measure of similarity on top of global measure. In this paper we propose a supervised similarity framework for corporate bonds which allows for inference based on both local and global measures. From a machine learning perspective, this paper emphasis that random forest (RF), which is usually viewed as a supervised learning algorithm, can also be used as a similarity learning (more specifically, a distance metric learning) algorithm. In addition, this framework proposes a novel metric to evaluate similarities, and analyses other metrics which further demonstrate that RF outperforms all other methods experimented with, in this work.
    Date: 2022–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:arx:papers:2207.04368&r=
  4. By: Jimei Shen; Zhehu Yuan; Yifan Jin
    Abstract: How to quickly and automatically mine effective information and serve investment decisions has attracted more and more attention from academia and industry. And new challenges have been raised with the global pandemic. This paper proposes a two-phase AlphaMLDigger that effectively finds excessive returns in the highly fluctuated market. In phase 1, a deep sequential NLP model is proposed to transfer blogs on Sina Microblog to market sentiment. In phase 2, the predicted market sentiment is combined with social network indicator features and stock market history features to predict the stock movements with different Machine Learning models and optimizers. The results show that our AlphaMLDigger achieves higher accuracy in the test set than previous works and is robust to the negative impact of COVID-19 to some extent.
    Date: 2022–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:arx:papers:2206.11072&r=
  5. By: Jungyu Ahn; Sungwoo Park; Jiwoon Kim; Ju-hong Lee
    Abstract: Asset allocation using reinforcement learning has advantages such as flexibility in goal setting and utilization of various information. However, existing asset allocation methods do not consider the following viewpoints in solving the asset allocation problem. First, State design without considering portfolio management and financial market characteristics. Second, Model Overfitting. Third, Model training design without considering the statistical structure of financial time series data. To solve the problem of the existing asset allocation method using reinforcement learning, we propose a new reinforcement learning asset allocation method. First, the state of the portfolio managed by the model is considered as the state of the reinforcement learning agent. Second, Monte Carlo simulation data are used to increase training data complexity to prevent model overfitting. These data can have different patterns, which can increase the complexity of the data. Third, Monte Carlo simulation data are created considering various statistical structures of financial markets. We define the statistical structure of the financial market as the correlation matrix of the assets constituting the financial market. We show experimentally that our method outperforms the benchmark at several test intervals.
    Date: 2022–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:arx:papers:2207.02458&r=
  6. By: Federico Mecchia; Marcellino Gaudenzi
    Abstract: The aim of the present work is analysing and understanding the dynamics of the prices of companies, depending on whether they are included or excluded from the STOXX Europe 600 Index. For this reason, data regarding the companies of the Index in question was collected and analysed also through the use of logit models and neural networks in order to find the independent variables that affect the changes in prices and thus determine the dynamics over time.
    Date: 2022–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:arx:papers:2206.09899&r=
  7. By: Charl Maree; Christian W. Omlin
    Abstract: Stock portfolio optimization is the process of continuous reallocation of funds to a selection of stocks. This is a particularly well-suited problem for reinforcement learning, as daily rewards are compounding and objective functions may include more than just profit, e.g., risk and sustainability. We developed a novel utility function with the Sharpe ratio representing risk and the environmental, social, and governance score (ESG) representing sustainability. We show that a state-of-the-art policy gradient method - multi-agent deep deterministic policy gradients (MADDPG) - fails to find the optimum policy due to flat policy gradients and we therefore replaced gradient descent with a genetic algorithm for parameter optimization. We show that our system outperforms MADDPG while improving on deep Q-learning approaches by allowing for continuous action spaces. Crucially, by incorporating risk and sustainability criteria in the utility function, we improve on the state-of-the-art in reinforcement learning for portfolio optimization; risk and sustainability are essential in any modern trading strategy and we propose a system that does not merely report these metrics, but that actively optimizes the portfolio to improve on them.
    Date: 2022–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:arx:papers:2207.02134&r=
  8. By: Emanuel Kohlscheen; Richhild Moessner
    Abstract: We analyse the drivers of European Power Exchange (EPEX) retail electricity prices between 2012 and early 2022 using machine learning. The agnostic random forest approach that we use is able to reduce in-sample root mean square errors (RMSEs) by around 50% when compared to a standard linear least square model − indicating that non-linearities and interaction effects are key in retail electricity markets. Out-of-sample prediction errors using machine learning are (slightly) lower than even in-sample least square errors using a least square model. The effects of efforts to limit power consumption and green the energy matrix on retail electricity prices are first order. CO2 permit prices strongly impact electricity prices, as do the prices of source energy commodities. And carbon permit prices’ impact has clearly increased post-2021 (particularly for baseload prices). Among energy sources, natural gas has the largest effect on electricity prices. Importantly, the role of wind energy feed-in has slowly risen over time, and its impact is now roughly on par with that of coal.
    Keywords: carbon permit, CO2 emissions, commodities, electricity market, energy, EPEX, machine learning, natural gas, oil, wind energy
    JEL: C54 D40 L70 Q02 Q20 Q40
    Date: 2022
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ces:ceswps:_9807&r=
  9. By: Emily Aiken; Guadalupe Bedoya; Joshua Blumenstock; Aidan Coville
    Abstract: Can mobile phone data improve program targeting? By combining rich survey data from a "big push" anti-poverty program in Afghanistan with detailed mobile phone logs from program beneficiaries, we study the extent to which machine learning methods can accurately differentiate ultra-poor households eligible for program benefits from ineligible households. We show that machine learning methods leveraging mobile phone data can identify ultra-poor households nearly as accurately as survey-based measures of consumption and wealth; and that combining survey-based measures with mobile phone data produces classifications more accurate than those based on a single data source.
    Date: 2022–06
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:arx:papers:2206.11400&r=
  10. By: Hans Buehler; Phillip Murray; Ben Wood
    Abstract: We present an actor-critic-type reinforcement learning algorithm for solving the problem of hedging a portfolio of financial instruments such as securities and over-the-counter derivatives using purely historic data. The key characteristics of our approach are: the ability to hedge with derivatives such as forwards, swaps, futures, options; incorporation of trading frictions such as trading cost and liquidity constraints; applicability for any reasonable portfolio of financial instruments; realistic, continuous state and action spaces; and formal risk-adjusted return objectives. Most importantly, the trained model provides an optimal hedge for arbitrary initial portfolios and market states without the need for re-training. We also prove existence of finite solutions to our Bellman equation, and show the relation to our vanilla Deep Hedging approach
    Date: 2022–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:arx:papers:2207.00932&r=
  11. By: Sylvia Klosin; Max Vilgalys
    Abstract: This paper introduces and proves asymptotic normality for a new semi-parametric estimator of continuous treatment effects in panel data. Specifically, we estimate an average derivative of the regression function. Our estimator uses the panel structure of data to account for unobservable time-invariant heterogeneity and machine learning methods to flexibly estimate functions of high-dimensional inputs. We construct our estimator using tools from double de-biased machine learning (DML) literature. We show the performance of our method in Monte Carlo simulations and also apply our estimator to real-world data and measure the impact of extreme heat in United States (U.S.) agriculture. We use the estimator on a county-level dataset of corn yields and weather variation, measuring the elasticity of yield with respect to a marginal increase in extreme heat exposure. In our preferred specification, the difference between the estimates from OLS and our method is statistically significant and economically significant. We find a significantly higher degree of impact, corresponding to an additional $1.18 billion in annual damages by the year 2050 under median climate scenarios. We find little evidence that this elasticity is changing over time.
    Date: 2022–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:arx:papers:2207.08789&r=
  12. By: Man-, ZuyiKeunZuyi Wang; Takagi, Chifumi; Kim, Man-Keun; Chung, Anh
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Marketing, Research Methods/Statistical Methods
    Date: 2022–08
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:ags:aaea22:322150&r=
  13. By: Alexey Kushnir; James Michelson
    Abstract: We explore the properties of optimal multi-dimensional auctions in a model where a single object of multiple qualities is sold to several buyers. Using simulations, we test some hypotheses conjectured by Belloni et al. [3] and Kushnir and Shourideh [7]. As part of this work, we provide the first open-source library for multi-dimensional auction simulations written in Python.
    Date: 2022–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:arx:papers:2207.01664&r=
  14. By: Menna Hassan; Nourhan Sakr; Arthur Charpentier
    Abstract: This paper designs a sequential repeated game of a micro-founded society with three types of agents: individuals, insurers, and a government. Nascent to economics literature, we use Reinforcement Learning (RL), closely related to multi-armed bandit problems, to learn the welfare impact of a set of proposed policy interventions per $1 spent on them. The paper rigorously discusses the desirability of the proposed interventions by comparing them against each other on a case-by-case basis. The paper provides a framework for algorithmic policy evaluation using calibrated theoretical models which can assist in feasibility studies.
    Date: 2022–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:arx:papers:2207.01010&r=
  15. By: Bryan T. Kelly (Yale SOM; AQR Capital Management, LLC; National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER)); Semyon Malamud (Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne; Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR); Swiss Finance Institute); Kangying Zhou (Yale School of Management)
    Abstract: We investigate the performance of non-linear return prediction models in the high complexity regime, i.e., when the number of model parameters exceeds the number of observations. We document a "virtue of complexity" in all asset classes that we study (US equities, international equities, bonds, commodities, currencies, and interest rates). Specifically, return prediction R2 and optimal portfolio Sharpe ratio generally increase with model parameterization for every asset class. The virtue of complexity is present even in extremely data-scarce environments, e.g., for predictive models with less than twenty observations and tens of thousands of predictors. The empirical association between model complexity and out-of-sample model performance exhibits a striking consistency with theoretical predictions.
    Keywords: Portfolio choice, machine learning, random matrix theory, benign overfit, overparameterization
    JEL: C3 C58 C61 G11 G12 G14
    Date: 2022–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:chf:rpseri:rp2257&r=
  16. By: Dimitrios Vamvourellis; Mate Attila Toth; Dhruv Desai; Dhagash Mehta; Stefano Pasquali
    Abstract: Categorization of mutual funds or Exchange-Traded-funds (ETFs) have long served the financial analysts to perform peer analysis for various purposes starting from competitor analysis, to quantifying portfolio diversification. The categorization methodology usually relies on fund composition data in the structured format extracted from the Form N-1A. Here, we initiate a study to learn the categorization system directly from the unstructured data as depicted in the forms using natural language processing (NLP). Positing as a multi-class classification problem with the input data being only the investment strategy description as reported in the form and the target variable being the Lipper Global categories, and using various NLP models, we show that the categorization system can indeed be learned with high accuracy. We discuss implications and applications of our findings as well as limitations of existing pre-trained architectures in applying them to learn fund categorization.
    Date: 2022–07
    URL: http://d.repec.org/n?u=RePEc:arx:papers:2207.04959&r=

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