nep-cmp New Economics Papers
on Computational Economics
Issue of 2013‒01‒12
six papers chosen by
Stan Miles
Thompson Rivers University

  1. Agent based modeling for agricultural policy evaluation: A review By Dimitris Kremmydas
  2. Fiscal Union in Europe? Efficiency, Equity and Stabilizing Effects of an EU-Wide Income Tax By Neumann, Dirk; Bargain, Olivier; Dolls, Mathias; Fuest, Clemens; Peichl, Andreas
  3. Quantifying the role of alternative pension reforms on the Austrian economy By Sánchez-Romero, Miguel; Sambt, Jože; Prskawetz, Alexia
  4. Fast nonparametric classification based on data depth By Lange, Tatjana; Mosler, Karl; Mozharovskyi, Pavlo
  5. Growth, Poverty and Labor Market Rigidity in Indonesia: A General Equilibrium Investigation By Arief Anshory Yusuf; Ahmad Komarulzaman; Muhammad Purnagunawan; Budy P. Resosudarmo
  6. Constructing a Generator of Matrices with Pattern By Halkos, George; Tsilika, Kyriaki

  1. By: Dimitris Kremmydas (Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Development, Agricultural University of Athens, Iera Odos 75, Athens 11855, Greece)
    Abstract: In Agent-based computational economics economy is considered a complex system where the interactions between the economic agents are of ultimate importance. Simulating the economic system by modeling the behavior of the individual encompasses many advantages and certain epistemological issues are raised. In the analysis of Agricultural Policy, the agent based modeling (ABM) approach has been employed for studying Land Use Changes (LUCC), the dynamics of structural changes, the transmission of innovations, the simulation of water use management and for environmental modeling. This approach can help overcoming various simplifying assumptions of the traditional models (like the “homogenous agent” assumption) or the difficulty in modeling interactions. In this paper we initially do a short presentation of the principles of modeling economic systems with the ABM approach quoting its features, the advantages and disadvantages. Afterwards we make a discussion on the application of the ABM for modeling and evaluating agricultural policies and present four current application (Agripolis, Reg-MAS, MP-MAS, SWISSland). We finish this paper with some conclusions and suggestions.
    Keywords: Agent based modeling, Agricultural policy evaluation, Agripolis, Reg-MAS, MP-MAS, SWISSland
    JEL: Q12 Q18 C6
    Date: 2012
  2. By: Neumann, Dirk; Bargain, Olivier; Dolls, Mathias; Fuest, Clemens; Peichl, Andreas
    Abstract: One central lesson of the sovereign debt crisis is that the Eurozone (and the EU) needs institutional reform. Many observers argue that the monetary union should be complemented by a fiscal union . In this paper we provide the first quantitative analysis of important economic effects of an EU income tax. Using the European tax-benefit calculator EUROMOD, we simulate detailed individual budget curves in order to estimate an average EU tax system . Three key issues are analyzed: firstly, we assess the direct distributional implications of an EU tax (partly) replacing national tax systems. Applying different voting schemes, we especially investigate whether such a step could find political support in each country and the EU as a whole. Secondly, by using behavioral simulation techniques we analyze the impact of introducing a common tax on economic efficiency and adjust the distributional effects accordingly. Thirdly, we investigate the potential of an EU income tax to act as an automatic fiscal stabilizer in the event of an asymmetric shock. We derive crucial policy implications from our simulation exercise for the reform of the Eurozone and shed some light on a very important set of questions: How would further fiscal integration economically affect different households in the different member states? How would it affect automatic stabilizers in the EU? --
    JEL: H20 H31 J22
    Date: 2012
  3. By: Sánchez-Romero, Miguel; Sambt, Jože; Prskawetz, Alexia
    Abstract: This paper investigates the role of recent pension reforms for the development of the social security system and economic growth in Austria. We use a computable general equilibrium model that is built up of overlapping generations that differ by their household structure, longevity, educational attainment, and capital accumulation. Each household optimally decides over its consumption paths, work effort, and retirement age according to the life-cycle theory of labor, while they face survival risk. We find that the pension reforms implemented from 2000 to 2004, although in the correct direction, are not sufficient to solve the labor market distortion caused by the Austrian PAYG pension system. Using alternative policy options, our simulations indicate that a change to a notional defined contribution system and an increase in the educational distribution of the work force would increase the incentive for later retirement ages and thereby increase labor supply and economic growth. --
    Date: 2012
  4. By: Lange, Tatjana; Mosler, Karl; Mozharovskyi, Pavlo
    Abstract: A new procedure, called DD-procedure, is developed to solve the problem of classifying d-dimensional objects into q Ï 2 classes. The procedure is completely nonparametric; it uses q-dimensional depth plots and a very efficient algorithm for discrimination analysis in the depth space [0, 1]q . Specifically, the depth is the zonoid depth, and the algorithm is the procedure. In case of more than two classes several binary classifications are performed and a majority rule is applied. Special treatments are discussed for outsiders, that is, data having zero depth vector. The DD-classifier is applied to simulated as well as real data, and the results are compared with those of similar procedures that have been recently proposed. In most cases the new procedure has comparable error rates, but is much faster than other classification approaches, including the SVM. --
    Keywords: Alpha-procedure,zonoid depth,DD-plot,pattern recognition,supervised learning,misclassification rate
    Date: 2012
  5. By: Arief Anshory Yusuf (Department of Economics, Padjadjaran University); Ahmad Komarulzaman (Department of Economics, Padjadjaran University); Muhammad Purnagunawan (Department of Economics, Padjadjaran University); Budy P. Resosudarmo (Australian National University)
    Abstract: In this paper, we argue that the intensification of capital use and an acceleration of real wage growth can be the main culprits of the “jobless growth” in Indonesian manufacturing sector for the period of 1999-2008, a period of recovery from the Asian Crisis. This can also endanger the poverty reduction aspiration during the same period. We simulate the situation using a Computable General Equilibrium model and find that the effect of the increased capital utilization and the acceleration of real wage growth are equally important in explaining the jobless-growth phenomenon. Increased capital utilization help the economy recover and reduces poverty but when constrained with the increasing real wage, the recovery and the rate of poverty reduction is slower. The situation is in favor of the non-poor because first, the poor is mainly dependent on non-formal employment, hence do not benefit from the increased real wage; second, the slower expansion of the manufacturing sector affect the rest of the economy affecting the real wage of the labor employed in other sectors, such as unskilled non-formal labor and agricultural labor upon which the poor are heavily dependent; and third, the income rise from increased capital utilization mainly benefits the urban non-poor.
    Keywords: Growth, poverty, labor market, general equilibrium, Indonesia
    JEL: O53 J21 I38
    Date: 2013–01
  6. By: Halkos, George; Tsilika, Kyriaki
    Abstract: Computations with large matrices work out faster with computer software, even faster creating automatically the matrix of the size and pattern needed. In this paper we propose free computer algebra system Xcas resources to display particular matrices that can be called up directly. Our computer codes provide shortcuts for entering random block diagonal matrices, random triangular matrices, random and specialized band matrices, elementary matrices Eij, Fourier matrices. As for matrices needed in the study of mathematical issues concerning the properties of the roots of a polynomial, we create features with polynomial coefficients. We also propose codes for immediate construction of functional matrices such as Jacobian, bordered Hessian and Wronskian. The computer codes proposed provide visual representation of the matrix pattern (which is traditionally explained using indices and numerals), infinite number of examples using random numbers and immediate construction of large matrices of various forms.
    Keywords: Matrices with pattern; functional programming; computer software
    JEL: C63 C02 C88 C62
    Date: 2012

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