nep-cmp New Economics Papers
on Computational Economics
Issue of 2012‒11‒24
ten papers chosen by
Stan Miles
Thompson Rivers University

  2. Terms-of-trade and the funding of adaptation to climate change and variability: An empirical analysis By Schenker, Oliver; Stephan, Gunter
  3. Is urban logistics pooling viable? A multistakeholder multicriteria analysis By Jesus Gonzalez-Feliu; Josep-Maria Salanova Grau
  4. Two-dimensional Fourier cosine series expansion method for pricing financial options By Marjon Ruijter; Kees Oosterlee (CWI)
  5. The Carousel Value-added Tax Fraud in the European Emission Trading System By Maria Berrittella; Filippo Alessandro Cimino
  6. The EU decarbonisation roadmap 2050: What way to walk? By Hübler, Michael; Löschel, Andreas
  7. Effects of biogas production on inter- and in-farm competition By Ostermeyer, Arlette; Schonau, Franziska
  9. Constructing a regional Social Accounting Matrix using non survey method for CGE Modeling By Martana, Kadim; Evison, David; Lennox, James A.; Manley, Bruce
  10. Cross-Compliance policies and EU Agriculture: Missing All The Targets at the Same Time? By Schou, Jesper S.; Rygnestad, Hild

  1. By: Latynskiy, Evgeny; Berger, Thomas
    Abstract: Recent empirical findings suggest that empowerment of producer organizations (POs) in agriculture requires an effective targeting and case-specific design of development interventions. By viewing PO as a socio-economic network, we develop an agent-based modeling approach for ex-ante impact assessment of PO support interventions. The paper demonstrates the application of the approach to the example of coffee producers from Uganda and analyzes one of their sub-county level networks more closely. The simulation model is implemented with stakeholder involvement through interactive net-map sessions. The simulation experiments reflect the interventions that are being implemented or considered for implementation by ongoing research of the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI). The predicted effects of interventions are displayed at the levels of the producer organization and individual farming households, emphasizing the importance of careful implementation of future motivation schemes.
    Keywords: Producer Organizations, Multi-agent Systems, Socioeconomic Networks, Participatory Approach, Decision Support Systems, Smallholder Farmers, Rural Development, Produzentenorganisationen, Multi-Agentensysteme, Sozioökonomische Netzwerke, Partizipativer Ansatz, Entscheidungsunterstützungssysteme, Kleinbauern, Ländliche Entwicklung, Institutional and Behavioral Economics,
    Date: 2012
  2. By: Schenker, Oliver; Stephan, Gunter
    Abstract: This paper analyses the interplay between international trade, regional adaptation and North-to-South transfers for funding adaptation within the framework of a dynamic computable gen-eral equilibrium model, where impacts of climate change depend on changes in precipitation and temperature. If all regions, even the least developed ones, own the necessary resources for adapting optimally to climate change and variability, by mid-century less than 10% of the regions' GDP would be invested for avoiding almost 40% of climate change damages. This has measurable effects on the regions' competitiveness as well as on the terms-of-trade. If, however, the developing world does not own sufficient resources for adapting optimally to climate change, as is to expected, funding of adaptation can make sense from an economic perspective. In particular the Hicks-Kaldor criterion is fulfilled as aggregated welfare gains at least compensate the costs of providing financial assistance for adaptation. --
    Keywords: funding of adaptation,climate change,international trade,multi-regional dynamic CGE model
    JEL: C68 D58 F18 Q56 Q54
    Date: 2012
  3. By: Jesus Gonzalez-Feliu (LET - Laboratoire d'économie des transports - CNRS : UMR5593 - Université Lumière - Lyon II - Ecole Nationale des Travaux Publics de l'Etat); Josep-Maria Salanova Grau (Hellenic Institute or Transport - Center of Research and Technologie Hellas)
    Abstract: Collaborative transportation and logistics pooling are relatively new concepts in research, but are very popular in practice. In the last years, collaborative transportation seems a good city logistics alternative to classical urban consolidation centres, but it is still in a development stage. This paper proposes a framework for urban logistics pooling ex-ante evaluation. This framework is developed with two purposes. The first is to generate comparable contrasted or progressive scenarios representing realistic situations; the second to simulate and assess them to make a "before-after" comparative analysis. In this framework, a demand generation model is combined with a route optimization algorithm to simulate the resulting routes of the proposed individual or collaborative distribution schemes assumed by each scenario. Then, several indicators can be obtained, mainly travelled distances, working times, road occupancy rates and operational monetary costs. To illustrate that framework, several scenarios for the urban area of Lyon (France) are simulated and discussed to illustrate the proposed framework possible applications.
    Keywords: urban logistics; resource sharing; freight transport pooling; collaborative multicriteria analysis
    Date: 2012–10–24
  4. By: Marjon Ruijter; Kees Oosterlee (CWI)
    Abstract: In financial markets, traders deal in assets and options. There exist many types of options and the best-known are the European call and put option. These options give holders the right to buy or sell assets at a specific future time for a predetermined price. This paper examines options of which the payoff depends on two or more different assets. It may involve, for example, an average or the maximum of several asset prices. For pricing options, different types of numerical methods are available, such as Monte Carlo simulation techniques and partial differential equation methods. We apply a method based on Fourier cosine series expansions, called the COS method. We extend this method to higher dimensions with a multidimensional asset-price process and perform extensive numerical experiments.  
    JEL: C02 C63 G12
    Date: 2012–11
  5. By: Maria Berrittella (Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche, Aziendali e Finanziarie, Università degli Studi di Palermo); Filippo Alessandro Cimino (Facoltà di Scienze Economiche e Giuridiche, Università Kore di Enna)
    Abstract: In this article, we analyse the effects of the carousel value-added tax fraud in the European carbon market and the legislative measures that the EU Member States could adopt to deal with this phenomena. We use a computable general equilibrium model, called GTAP-E and the version 6 of the GTAP database to evaluate the economy-wide and terms of trade effects. The policy test has been designed for five European countries: Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands and the United Kingdom. According to our findings, the legislative measures aimed to remove the VAT fraud in the European Emission Trading System will have positive effects in terms of GDP and welfare in the selected EU Member States.
    Keywords: Domestic Emission Trading, General Equilibrium Analysis, Legislative Measures, Value-added Tax Fraud, Welfare
    JEL: C68 H26 K34 Q58
    Date: 2012–10
  6. By: Hübler, Michael; Löschel, Andreas
    Abstract: We carry out a detailed CGE (Computable General Equilibrium) analysis of the EU Decarbonisation Roadmap 2050 on a macroeconomic and on a sectoral level. Herein, we study a Reference scenario that implements existing EU policies as well as 3 unilateral and 3 global climate action scenarios. We identify global climate action with international emissions trading and the ful l equalization of CO2 prices across all (EU) sectors as a reasonable policy option to avoid additional costs of the Decarbonisation Roadmap to a large extent. This policy option may include CDM (Clean Development Mechanism in the sense of 'where'-flexibility) in an extended form if there are countries without emissions caps. Moreover, we identify diverse sectoral effects in terms of output, investment, emissions and international competitiveness. We conclude that the successful realization of the EU Decarbonisation Roadmap probably requires a wise and joint consideration of technology, policy design and sectoral aspects. --
    Keywords: EU,Decarbonisation Roadmap,Copenhagen Pledges,post Kyoto,energy-intensive sectors,competitiveness,leakage
    JEL: C68 F18 Q43 Q54
    Date: 2012
  7. By: Ostermeyer, Arlette; Schonau, Franziska
    Abstract: Biogas production is one of the influential innovations of recent decades in German agriculture. Due to high guaranteed energy prices biogas production led to distortions in agricultural and land markets. This paper provides insights in effects of biogas production on farms, farm structures and rural areas for the region Altmark, Germany, for the period 2012-2026 by using the agent-based simulation model AgriPoliS. AgriPoliS enables to simulate agricultural structural change and impacts of policies based on a linear programming approach. To maximize the household-income, farm agents can invest, produce and compete against each other on the land rental market. To analyse effects of biogas production, biogas plants, possible substrate mixtures and feed-in remunerations are introduced in the model. In our analyses, we focus on 1) the choice of production of farms, 2) the competition between farms, and 3) impacts on rural areas including environmental issues and labour market. Our simulation results show that biogas production provides especially for farmers with high management capabilities and large farms a profitable income opportunity. On average, biogas farms cannot increase their profitability. As result of an increased value added through biogas production and high competition among farms, rental prices increase and thus a high share of the value added is transferred to the land owners. Biogas production leads to an intensification of land use, especially to increases in cultivation of grass and maize silage instead of meadows and other crops, and in livestock production. This may cause negative environmental effects. On the other hand both, the intensification and the biogas production have positive effects on the labour market as biogas farms have an additional workforce demand.
    Keywords: biogas production, agricultural production, agent-based model AgriPoliS, land rental prices, Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy,
    Date: 2012–09–18
  8. By: Siddig, Khalid H.A.; Grethe, Harald
    Abstract: The field of price transmission is dominated by econometric time-series analysis (PTA) and rather disconnected from analyses based on CGE models. This paper addresses how a certain degree of empirically determined price transmission can be met in a single country CGE model. We examine and validate seven determinants including structural characteristics of the model, the parameterization of behavioral functions and properties of the sectors concerned.
    Keywords: price transmission, CGE models, international trade, Preistransmission, internationaler Handel, International Relations/Trade, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods,
    Date: 2012
  9. By: Martana, Kadim; Evison, David; Lennox, James A.; Manley, Bruce
    Abstract: The Government of Indonesia is committed to cut its emissions by 26% by 2020. In forestry sector, this is done through reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) program. One of several pilot activities of the REDD Program is the Berau Forest Carbon Program (BFCP) which is located in the Berau District East Kalimantan Indonesia. The Program attempts to generate behavioural changes of the forests stakeholders like forest-dependent community, forestry/logging company and oil palm plantation company to contribute to the emissions reduction, which is formulated in the Program‟s strategies. Changes of these behaviours are reflected in the costs being borne by the relevant forest stakeholders as well as the incentive rewarded for engaging in the programme. This paper focuses on the dataset preparation i.e. the Berau District Social Accounting Matrix for CGE modeling analysis of the above context. A non survey method was employed to generate the regional accounts and was it combined with available data as well as experts‟ estimates.
    Keywords: Demand and Price Analysis, Environmental Economics and Policy, Land Economics/Use,
    Date: 2012–08
  10. By: Schou, Jesper S.; Rygnestad, Hild
    Abstract: After the 1992 Common Agricultural Policy Reform, the idea of introducing cross-compliance into the European Union agricultural policy has become more and more popular. Cross-compliance can be defined as making income support conditional on farmers conforming to environmental regulations and standards imposed on agricultural production. From economic theory it is known that, in order to establish and efficient policy, there should be correspondence between the number of policy objectives and the number of instruments. This has been neglected in the case of European cross-compliance policies and, in order to discuss the effects of the Common Agricultural Policy and efficiency properties, a simulation model has been applied to analyze the effects of introducing environmentally related objectives concerning nitrate leaching as a supplement to the current aim of income support in the Common Agricultural Policy. Results suggest that combining output reduction and nitrate leaching reduction is less effective than separate policies for these two objectives.
    Keywords: Common Agricultural Policy, Cross-compliance, Nitrate leaching, Agricultural and Food Policy,
    Date: 2012–10–18

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