nep-cmp New Economics Papers
on Computational Economics
Issue of 2007‒10‒06
eight papers chosen by
Stan Miles
Thompson Rivers University

  1. A Simple Optimised Search Heuristic for the Job-Shop Scheduling Problem By Susana Fernandes; Helena Ramalhinho-Lourenço
  2. Simulation Experiments in Practice: Statistical Design and Regression Analysis By Kleijnen, J.P.C.
  3. Uma matriz de contabilidade social para o Brasil em 2003 By Octávio Augusto Fontes Tourinho; Napoleão Luiz Costa da Silva; Yann Le Boulluec Alves
  4. Behavioral foundation and agent-based simulation of regional innovation dynamics By Frank Beckenbach; Ramòn Briegel; Maria Daskalakis
  5. Regional Integration, Sectoral Adjustments and Natural Groupings in East Asia By Hiro Lee; Dominique van der Mensbrugghe
  6. Evolutionary Concept, Genetic Algorithm and Exhibition Contract in Movie Industry By Ch'ng, Kean Siang
  7. Distribution Matters — Taxes vs. Emissions Trading in Post Kyoto Climate Regimes By Sonja Peterson; Gernot Klepper
  8. Equity versus Efficiency in Public Pension Schemes. Microsimulating the Trade-off By Kyrre Stensnes

  1. By: Susana Fernandes; Helena Ramalhinho-Lourenço
    Abstract: This paper presents a simple Optimised Search Heuristic for the Job Shop Scheduling problem that combines a GRASP heuristic with a branch-and-bound algorithm. The proposed method is compared with similar approaches and leads to better results in terms of solution quality and computing times.
    Keywords: Job-shop scheduling, hybrid metaheuristic, optimised search heuristics, GRASP, exact methods
    JEL: C61 M11
    Date: 2007–01
  2. By: Kleijnen, J.P.C. (Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research)
    Abstract: In practice, simulation analysts often change only one factor at a time, and use graphical analysis of the resulting Input/Output (I/O) data. Statistical theory proves that more information is obtained when applying Design Of Experiments (DOE) and linear regression analysis. Unfortunately, classic theory assumes a single simulation response that is normally and independently distributed with a constant variance; moreover, the regression (meta)model of the simulation model?s I/O behaviour is assumed to have residuals with zero means. This article addresses the following questions: (i) How realistic are these assumptions, in practice? (ii) How can these assumptions be tested? (iii) If assumptions are violated, can the simulation's I/O data be transformed such that the assumptions do hold? (iv) If not, which alternative statistical methods can then be applied?
    Keywords: metamodels;experimental designs;generalized least squares;multivariate analysis;normality;jackknife;bootstrap;heteroscedasticity;common random numbers;validation
    JEL: C0 C1 C9
    Date: 2007
  3. By: Octávio Augusto Fontes Tourinho; Napoleão Luiz Costa da Silva; Yann Le Boulluec Alves
    Abstract: In this paper we show how a social accounting matrix (SAM) for Brazil, for the year 2003, was constructed. In it, 39 activities, 39 products, 6 types of labor, and 11 family income classes are represented. This matrix will be used to update the computable equilibrium model (CGE) of the Brazilian economy developed at IPEA (CGE-IPEA), but can also be used directly to evaluate the impacts of public policy in other type of models, as for example, multiplier models. In the text we apply that methodology to evaluate, on the basis of the SAM 2003, the impacts of income redistribution policy.
    Date: 2006–12
  4. By: Frank Beckenbach (Department of Economics, University of Kassel); Ramòn Briegel (Department of Economics, University of Kassel); Maria Daskalakis (Department of Economics, University of Kassel)
    Abstract: Starting from the observation that there exists a broad variety for the level as well as for the connectedness of innovation activities in a regional context, we try to figure out a behavioral approach for explaining such a variety. This approach is composed of (i)conceptual and theoretical reflections about the micro-foundation of innovation activities, (ii)an agent-based simulation model for these activities and (iii)empirical regional survey studies as a measuring rod for such an approach. Such a composition can fill the explanatory gap between external conditions for regional innovation activities on one side and the observable innovation outcome by specifying plausible internal conditions for novelty creating activities on the other side. Furthermore the emergence of regional innovation networks can be explained.
    Keywords: Regional Innovation Networks, Multi-Agent-System, Behavioral Economics, Evolutionary Economics
    Date: 2007–08
  5. By: Hiro Lee (Osaka School of International Public Policy,Osaka University); Dominique van der Mensbrugghe (The World Bank)
    Abstract: Although East Asian countries were relatively inactive in signing free trade agreements (FTAs) until the end of 1990s, a number of FTAs involving East Asian countries have been signed since the turn of the century. Because sectoral interests can exert significant influence on policy negotiations, the sectoral results would be particularly important for political economy considerations. The objective of this study is to compare welfare gains and sectoral adjustments resulting from various FTA scenarios in East Asia using a dynamic global computable general equilibrium (CGE) model. The RCA rankings of commodities with various FTA scenarios and those with the global trade liberalization are correlated to examine how gnaturalh each grouping would be. The results suggest that the ASEAN+3 FTA, with relatively large welfare gains and small structural adjustments, could be a facilitating intermediate step towards global free trade. Some of the smaller FTAs, such as the ASEAN-China and ASEAN-Korea FTAs, would result in large structural adjustments for ASEAN countries.
    Keywords: Regional integration; FTA; RCA; East Asia; CGE model
    JEL: F13 F15
    Date: 2007–09
  6. By: Ch'ng, Kean Siang
    Abstract: The paper is about application of evolutionary concept, particularly the application of natural selection process, to the study of movie industry. The importance of the application is that it allows for the heterogeneity and interdependency of market agents in analyzing the economic choice decision. This complexity always presents an obstacle to the study of market behavior, especially when one has to take into account the constant reinforcing effects among the variables, which often renders the problem elusive. The paper intends to explain the economic process, taking into account this complexity through the use of evolutionary concept.
    Keywords: Evolutionary selection; opportunity costs; learning and sharing rule
    JEL: C63 L21 D71
    Date: 2007–10–03
  7. By: Sonja Peterson; Gernot Klepper
    Abstract: The policy instruments for emissions reductions will be an integral part of a Post Kyoto Climate Regime. In this paper we compare a harmonized international carbon tax to a cap and trade system with different allocation rules for the emission caps. The caps are based either on the requirement for equal percentage reductions in all countries or the “contraction and convergence” proposal that leads to converging per capita emission rights. The quantitative analysis is based on simulations with the CGE model DART. The harmonized carbon tax tends to favor industrialized countries but is less favorable to developing countries. The welfare effects of a cap and trade system depend crucially on the allocation rule for emission rights. The “contraction and convergence” approach leads to welfare gains for countries like China, India and Subsaharan Africa whereas it imposes welfare losses upon industrialized countries which are larger than those under other cap and trade schemes or a tax scenario. Independent from the allocation rule that is used regions exporting fossil fuels experience strong welfare losses from the reduction in the demand for fossil fuels and the fall in prices that results from the imposition of the international climate policies.
    Keywords: Post Kyoto, emission targets, emission trading, taxes, distribution
    JEL: H22 H23 H87 D58 Q48 Q52
    Date: 2007–09
  8. By: Kyrre Stensnes (Statistics Norway)
    Abstract: Any contribution to a pay-as-you-go pension system may be considered mandatory savings to the extent that it gives a claim to a future benefit. Contributors to the economic literature have argued that an increase in this savings component will lower implicit marginal tax rates, thereby reducing distortions in the labour market. However, the efficiency gain created by increasing the actuarial component of pensions may come at the cost of increased inequality in pension benefits. The trade-off between efficiency and equity is not easy to quantify in actual public pension schemes whose benefit functions intrinsically exhibit non-linear characteristics. This paper develops a framework to quantify this trade-off in a fully specified pension system using dynamic micro-simulation modelling. The methodology is then applied to five different pension schemes actually proposed for Norway. The results demonstrate the relevance of this study: The improvement of the equity-efficiency trade-off either does not materialise, as in one case, or is arguably driven by a different factor than advocated by policymakers.
    Keywords: Pension reform; social security; equity; labour supply; and efficiency.
    JEL: H53 H55 D31 J22
    Date: 2007–09

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