nep-cis New Economics Papers
on Confederation of Independent States
Issue of 2024‒01‒15
thirty-one papers chosen by

  1. Is There a Better Way to Use Global Reserves? By Mark Plant
  2. The Impact of Foreign Sanctions on Firm Performance in Russia By Luu Duc Toan Huynh; Khanh Hoang; Steven Ongena
  3. Central Asia’s Trade Strategies and Korea-Central Asia Cooperation Plans By Jeong, Minhyeon; Jeong, Dongyeon; Min, Jiyoung; Kang, Boogyun
  4. The Russia Economic Sanctions Impact World Economy By Alali, Walid Y.; Alali, Haider
  5. Финансовая разведка как инструмент информационно-аналитической поддержки принятия решений в условиях возрастающих внешних ограничений By Feshina, Stella; Khrustalev, Evgeny; Koroleva, Lyudmila; Filicheva, Anna
  6. Инновационная деятельность как фактор экономического роста региона (на примере ЦФО) By Khromov, Ivan
  7. Would Russian solar energy projects be feasible independent of state subsidies? By Gordon Rausser; Galina Chebotareva; Wadim Strielkowski; Lubos Smutka
  8. Methods for improving the processes of innovative development of the Russian military-industrial complex By Khrustalev, Evgeny; Larin, Sergey; Khrustalev, Oleg
  9. Trade, Food Security and the War in Ukraine: The Cases of Egypt and Sudan By Chahir Zaki; Alzaki Alhelo; Kabbashi Suliman
  10. Особенности современного развития авиационной и ракетно-космической промышленности By Khrustalev, Evgeny; Larin, Sergey; Khrustalev, Oleg; Ermakova, Yasmina
  11. Perspectives d'exportation de GNL et d'hydrogène de l'Afrique subsaharienne vers l'UE By Kohnert, Dirk
  12. Экономическая безопасность субъектов РФ: системный подход By Khrustalev, Evgeny; Slavyanov, Andrey; Grebenkina, Svetlana
  13. A Look Back on 50 years of ROK-Indonesia Partnership and its Future By Kim, Hyuck-Hwang; Kim, Hyuck-Hwang; Kim, So Eun; Choi, Kyunghee
  14. ASEAN's Role in the Threat of Global Economic Decoupling: Implications from Geographical Simulation Analysis By Ikumo Isono; Satoru Kumagai
  15. Особенности механизмов и методов стимулирования инновационной деятельности оборонно-промышленного комплекса By Khrustalev, Evgeny; Khrustalev, Oleg; Vorobyova, Maria
  16. Human capital in the sustainable economic development of the energy sector By Evgeny Kuzmin; Maksim Vlasov; Wadim Strielkowski; Marina Faminskaya; Konstantin Kharchenko
  17. Namibia: 2023 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; and Staff Report By International Monetary Fund
  18. Развитие человеческого капитала в условиях неопределенности By Znamenskaya, Alexandra; Larin, Sergey; Noakk, Natalia
  19. Трансформация структуры интеллектуального капитала и рост значимости его составляющих – человеческого капитала и интеллектуальной собственности – в современной экономике By Larin, Sergey; Khrustalev, Evgeny; Noakk, Natalia
  20. М.Я. Лемешев – основатель науки об экономике природопользования By Egorova, Natalia; Kozerskaya, Natalia
  21. Подходы к организации инструментальной инфраструктуры на предприятиях сельскохозяйственного машиностроения в условиях нестабильности By Bobkov, Alexander; Slavyanov, Andrey; Khrustalev, Evgeny
  22. Развитие механизмов производства инновационной продукции военного назначения на предприятиях российского оборонно-промышленного комплекса By Khrustalev, Evgeny; Larin, Sergey; Khrustalev, Oleg
  23. Partie I. Synthèse : L'étau se resserre By Christophe Blot; Céline Antonin; Amel Falah; Sabine Le Bayon; Catherine Mathieu; Hervé Péléraux; Christine Rifflart; Benoît Williatte; Mathieu Plane; Elliot Aurissergues; Bruno Coquet; Magali Dauvin; Ombeline Julien de Pommerol; Pierre Madec; Raul Sampognaro
  24. Человеческий капитал предприятия: модель компетенций работника в цифровом мире By zhdanov, dmitry
  25. Impact of TB Epidemic on Worker and Firm Productivity: Regional Perspective from Ukraine By Nizalova, Olena; Shepotylo, Oleksandr
  26. Выявление актуальных компетенций претендентов на вакансии специалистов предприятий IT-отрасли By Larin, Sergey; Noakk, Natalia
  27. Who Should Pay? Climate Finance Fair Shares By Jonathan Beynon
  28. Monetary Policy Frameworks and Communication in the Caucasus and Central Asia By Omer Faruk Akbal; Klakow Akepanidtaworn; Ezequiel Cabezon; Mariarosaria Comunale; Mrs. Marina Conesa Martinez; Ms. Filiz D Unsal
  29. Современные тенденции в сфере кадровой составляющей инновационного потенциала региона (на примере регионов ЦФО) By Khromov, Ivan
  30. Echoes of the Past: The Enduring Impact of Communism on Contemporary Freedom of Speech Values By Nikolova, Milena; Popova, Olga
  31. Цифровизация отечественных производственных компаний: состояние и перспективы By ZHdanov, Dmitry

  1. By: Mark Plant (Center for Global Development)
    Abstract: Global reserves can serve as a global public good, facilitating the short-term global recovery from the economic impacts of the pandemic and Russian invasion of Ukraine, as well as the longer-term global transition to a sustainable and equitable economic future. Strategic allocation of Special Drawing Rights (SDRs) could facilitate sharing of global reserves with low- and middle-income countries to the mutual benefit of advanced and developing countries. This will require the development of new SDR sharing mechanisms, in which multilateral development banks could be instrumental. Other SDR reforms should also be pursued.
    Date: 2022–10–04
  2. By: Luu Duc Toan Huynh (Queen Mary University of London); Khanh Hoang (Lincoln University); Steven Ongena (University of Zurich; Swiss Finance Institute; KU Leuven; NTNU Business School; CEPR)
    Abstract: We assess the economic effects of two decades of recent sanctions on Russian firms. We find that foreign sanctions leave energy firms in Russia unaffected but do undermine firm performance in the other (non‐energy) sectors. While firms with connections to Russian oligarchs linked to Putin are unaffected, sanctions do not differentiate in their impact between firms with Russian and foreign origins. Interestingly, Russian firms seem to be prepared for the Crimea event and the Ukraine war. Ultimately, we find that increasing export to China at country‐level helps alleviate the negative impact of sanctions on firm performance in Russia.
    Keywords: firm performance; sanctions; Russia; political connection
    JEL: G20 O16
    Date: 2023–11
    Abstract: The purpose of this research is to derive the future directions of the cooperation between Korea and Central Asia under the global uncertainty that is deepening with the competition and confrontation of major powers that cannot be easily resolved, and as the strategic value of economic security increases. In the situation where the sanctions against the Russian economy are expected to be prolonged, the geographical value of Central Asia, which connects Russia and Europe, becomes more prominent. In addition, given the rich natural resources and relatively young population structure of Central Asia, expanding cooperation with Central Asia has even more significant implications. In this study, we classified the five Central Asian countries into three middle-income countries (Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan) and two low-income countries (Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan) based on the similarities and differences revealed in the structural characteristics of each country's economy and the level of development. According to this classification, we analyzed the direction of cooperation in the digital, climate change, and health and medical sectors, which are currently in high demand for cooperation.
    Keywords: Korea-Central Asia cooperation; supply chain; digital transformation; climate change; health and medical
    Date: 2023–12–14
  4. By: Alali, Walid Y.; Alali, Haider
    Abstract: This paper examines the effects of the economic Russian Republic's sanctions on global trade, macroeconomic dynamics, and welfare losses by using a calibrated novel model of three groups sets of the global economy. These groups are Russia, the second imposing the sanctions (EU, UK and the United States) and the third group (Turkey, India and China Republic). We assume that each nation of the group has two spheres subject sanctioned, these are the gas and final necessary commodity product of consumer. We consider three different sanctions types: Financial, trade on Gas and trade sanctions on finished products or goods. We demonstrate that currency rate changes reflect the type of sanction and the direction of the consequent sectoral reallocation's within countries, rather than indicating the effectiveness of sanctions. Our welfare study shows that if the third nation group does not ratify the sanctions, the sanctioned country's welfare losses are greatly reduced, and the sanctioning country's welfare losses are increased, but the third country gains from not being associated with the sanctioning group nations. These results demonstrate the need for international sanction coordination but also its difficulties.
    Keywords: International coordination, Currency volatility, Economic growth, Reallocation, Welfare, Sanctions
    Date: 2023
  5. By: Feshina, Stella; Khrustalev, Evgeny; Koroleva, Lyudmila; Filicheva, Anna
    Abstract: The article examines the problems of financial monitoring in connection with the disconnection of Russian banks from the international SWIFT system and the transition when conducting operations within the country to the Financial Message Transfer System of the Bank of Russia, permission of parallel imports, as well as with the growth of illegal operations with digital currencies and fraudulent activities by non-residents using social engineering technologies. Substantiated are proposals for the development of the Transfer System functionality for to counter money laundering and terrorist financing, a mechanism for monitoring the infrastructure of the digital currency market being formed in Russia, measures to counter import-export mimicry and fraudulent activities. The necessary preventive measures have been identified to improve the efficiency of financial intelligence in the face of increased sanctions pressure from unfriendly countries.
    Keywords: financial intelligence, sanctions, anti-money laundering, economic security, financial monitoring, financial messaging system, parallel import, digital currency, social engineering.
    JEL: F38 G23 M48
    Date: 2023–07–13
  6. By: Khromov, Ivan
    Abstract: This article discusses the modern paradigm of economic development based on the innovation component at the regional level of the Russian Federation. The current features of the innovative development of the regions of the Central Federal District are analyzed. A correlation analysis of the level of dependence of the economic growth of the regions on the key indicators of innovative activity has been carried out. The final conclusions on the topic of the study regarding the peculiarities of the impact of innovation on economic growth in the regions of the Russian Federation are formulated.
    Keywords: innovation activity, innovation activity, economic growth, correlation dependence, correlation, innovation
    JEL: R11
    Date: 2023–04–25
  7. By: Gordon Rausser; Galina Chebotareva; Wadim Strielkowski; Lubos Smutka
    Abstract: This paper explores the critical question of the sustainability of Russian solar energy initiatives in the absence of governmental financial support. The study aims to determine if Russian energy companies can maintain operations in the solar energy sector without relying on direct state subsidies. Methodologically, the analysis utilizes established investment metrics such as Net Present Value (NPV), Internal Rate of Return (IRR), and Discounted Payback Period (DPP), tailored to reflect the unique technical and economic aspects of Russian solar energy facilities and to evaluate the influence of sector-specific risks on project efficiency, using a rating approach. We examined eleven solar energy projects under ten different scenarios to understand the dynamics of direct state support, exploring variations in support cessation, reductions in financial assistance, and the projects' resilience to external risk factors. Our multi-criteria scenario assessment indicates that, under the prevailing market conditions, the Russian solar energy sector is not yet equipped to operate efficiently without ongoing state financial subsidies. Interestingly, our findings also suggest that the solar energy sector in Russia has a greater potential to reduce its dependence on state support compared to the wind energy sector. Based on these insights, we propose energy policy recommendations aimed at gradually minimizing direct government funding in the Russian renewable energy market. This strategy is designed to foster self-sufficiency and growth in the solar energy sector.
    Date: 2023–12
  8. By: Khrustalev, Evgeny; Larin, Sergey; Khrustalev, Oleg
    Abstract: The study examines the management process of the modern domestic military-industrial complex. An analysis of the features of its past and current state has been performed, and promising directions for its future development have been identified. This problem is of particular relevance due to the high importance of the complex in ensuring the military security of Russia, as well as in the innovative development of science-driven and high-tech sectors of the economy. The use of the system analysis method allowed evaluating the mechanisms for regulating the production diversification activities of defense enterprises in recent years of market transformations of the national economy. Based on the conducted research, scientifically based recommendations have been proposed for improving the structure and methods of functioning of the military-industrial complex, as well as its interaction with public and private enterprises.
    Keywords: military-industrial complex, diversification, science-driven and high-tech enterprises, management process, system analysis, market transformations.
    JEL: O25 O32 O34
    Date: 2023–10–18
  9. By: Chahir Zaki (University of Orléans); Alzaki Alhelo (University of Khartoum); Kabbashi Suliman (University of Khartoum)
    Abstract: The objective of this paper is to examine the nexus between trade, food security and the war in Ukraine with a special focus on Egypt and Sudan. Given the high dependency of the two countries on wheat imports, both experienced high inflation and lower economic growth, threatening their food security. Thus, the contribution of the paper is threefold: first, it examines the macroeconomic implications of the war on the two economies. Second, it analyzes the extent to which food security deteriorated and finally how trade can partially help improve food security in the two countries. To do so, using an error correction model, our results show that the exchange rate pass through was high in Egypt and Sudan and can have long-term implications on inflation. To move forward, we explore how the two countries might develop bilateral capacities targeting agriculture, electricity, and infrastructure with the view to scale-up the economic cooperation. We show, using the trade complementarity index that despite a limited complementarity between their trade structures, there is room to increase their bilateral exports if infrastructure and other behind-theborder barriers are addressed.
    Date: 2023–11–20
  10. By: Khrustalev, Evgeny; Larin, Sergey; Khrustalev, Oleg; Ermakova, Yasmina
    Abstract: The achievements of the Russian science-intensive and high-tech industry in the field of creation and production of aviation and rocket and space technology are a major contribution to the Russian economy. The problems of its further innovative progress are relevant, important and significant. The article analyzes the current state of aerospace enterprises, outlines the methodology and objectives of the study, proposes methods for increasing the innovative potential, and identifies the main directions of strategic development.
    Keywords: innovative products, aviation and rocket and space industry, development strategy of science-intensive enterprises and corporations, scientific and technical potential, market competition.
    JEL: E23 L52 L60 O14 O33
    Date: 2023–01–29
  11. By: Kohnert, Dirk
    Abstract: Since Russia's war in Ukraine, many European countries have been scrambling to find alternative energy sources. One of the answers was to increase imports of liquefied natural gas (LNG). By bypassing the use of pipelines from the East by building LNG terminals, the EU opened up a wider variety of potential suppliers. The Europe-Africa Energy and Climate Partnership provides a framework for a win-win alliance. African countries will be key players in the future, including sub-Saharan countries such as Nigeria, Senegal, Mozambique and Angola. According to the REPowerEU plan, hydrogen partnerships in Africa will enable the import of 10 million tons of hydrogen by 2030, replacing about 18 billion cubic meters of imported Russian gas. Algeria, Niger and Nigeria recently agreed to build a 4, 128-kilometer trans-Saharan gas pipeline that would run through the three countries to Europe. Once completed, the pipeline will transport 30 billion cubic meters of gas per year. The African Coalition for Trade and Investment (ACTING) estimates potential sub-Saharan LNG export capacity at 134 million tonnes of LNG (approximately 175 billion m3) by 2030. Sub-Saharan Africa is also expected to become the main producer of green hydrogen by 2050. However, this market remains to be developed and requires significant expansion of renewable production and water availability. However, the EU countries and companies involved would be well advised to take note of the adoption of much stricter EU greenhouse gas reduction targets for 2030 and the publication of the European Commission's methane strategy. That being said, the EU could risk having more than half of Europe's LNG infrastructure idle by 2030, as European LNG capacity in 2030 exceeds total forecast gas demand, including LNG and pipeline gas. Regardless, it should not be forgotten that African countries want and need to develop their domestic gas markets as a priority, and that export potential depends on this domestic development. In the long term, a global energy mix would be needed to accelerate change driven by new resources, new technologies and climate commitments. These changes in the use and availability of energy resources would also affect the use of fossil fuels. Regardless of this, in addition to the LNG supply, the EU must also take care of increasing its own storage capacities to be able to guarantee a cost-efficient response to a natural gas supply bottleneck. However, LNG alone is not enough to ensure the resilience of the system in the event of a supply failure. Alternative energy resources and energy saving remain essential.
    Keywords: GNL; Économie hydrogène; e-carburants; Terminaux GNL; Gaz naturel; Sécurité énergétique; Stockage de gaz; Afrique subsaharienne; UE; REPowerEU; Gazoduc transsaharien; marchés émergents; Pacte vert pour l'Europe; Zone de libre-échange; continentale africaine; Eni, TotalEnergies; BP; Sonatrach; Nigeria; Angola; Mozambique; Tanzanie; Sénégal; Cameroun; Guinée équatoriale; Namibie; Études africaines;
    JEL: E22 E23 F13 F18 F23 F35 F54 L71 L95 N57 N77 O13 Q35 Z13
    Date: 2023–12–10
  12. By: Khrustalev, Evgeny; Slavyanov, Andrey; Grebenkina, Svetlana
    Abstract: Importance. The complexity of modern conditions of functioning, the increasing number of threats and risks cause the importance of regional economic security. The paper presents the main approaches to the definition, defining it from the perspective of the necessary conditions and factors of development, the state of security, as well as the ability to withstand crisis conditions. The subject of the study is the economic security of regional systems. Objectives. Research of conceptual and terminological apparatus in the field of economic security. Identification of the content characteristics of the concept of «economic security of the regional system». Formation of typology of subjects of the Russian Federation taking into account the main criteria of economic security of complex socio-economic systems. Methods. The main methods of research were methods of theoretical and empirical knowledge, in particular system analysis and synthesis, method of analogies, method of classifications, methods of system and cluster analysis. The methodological base consists of works of domestic and foreign authors. Results. As a result of the study, the author's definition of economic security from the point of view of the system approach, which allows to take into account the General pattern of danger and the direction of their neutralization, abstracting from the General content, complementing the conceptual and terminological apparatus on the subject under consideration. On the basis of the identified components of the economic security of the region as a complex socio-economic system, the criteria for the development of a new typology of regional systems, taking into account their vulnerability in modern conditions of functioning, were determined. Conclusions and Relevance. It is concluded that the concretization of the concept of economic security of the region and the formation of a new typology on the basis of the selected criteria will contribute to the validity of the choice of developed regional policy measures in terms of the threats, the focus and priority of the measures, tools and mechanisms.
    Keywords: economic security, regional system, typology, development, sustainability
    JEL: F52 G38 H32 L23 L51
    Date: 2023–02–26
    Abstract: South Korea (hereafter Korea) and Indonesia are commemorating the 50th anniversary of their diplomatic ties in 2023. Since establishing a strategic partnership in 2006, the two nations have cultivated strong bonds based on mutual trust and respect. Recognizing the deepening common interests and shared strategic values, Korea and Indonesia upgraded their bilateral relations to a "special strategic partnership" in 2017. This move is particularly significant against the backdrop of heightened strategic competition between the U.S. and China, where Indonesia has emerged as a key partner for Korea to diversify its economic and diplomatic engagements. The challenges posed by the Russia-Ukraine war, coupled with disruptions in the global supply chain caused by the Covid-19 pandemic, have further underscored Indonesia's importance as a critical collaborator for Korea in supply chain cooperation. From Indonesia's perspective, Korea is a major economy that can contribute to the modernization of its manufacturing sector, the relocation of its capital city, and the growth of its defense industry. Notably, as middle powers in the Indo-Pacific region, the two countries share a common goal of fostering an inclusive regional order amid the escalating rivalry be-tween China and the U.S. In light of these dynamics, this paper assess-es the progress of Korea-Indonesia relations to date and delves into the opportunities and challenges that lie ahead in enhancing bilateral cooperation.
    Keywords: ROK-Indonesia relations; ROK-Indonesia Comprehensive Strategic Partnership
    Date: 2023–12–07
  14. By: Ikumo Isono (Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia (ERIA)); Satoru Kumagai (Economic Geography Studies Group, Development Studies Center, IDE-JETRO)
    Abstract: The war between Russia and Ukraine since February 2022 has triggered renewed concerns about global economic decoupling. Although the face-to-face meeting between the United States and China leaders in November 2022 agreed to continue the dialogue, it is premature to assert that progress has begun in the direction of avoiding decoupling. We used the geographical simulation model (IDE/ERIA-GSM) to examine the possible economic impacts of global economic decoupling on the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). We define decoupling as policy changes that raise barriers to trade in goods and services and firms' responses to these changes. If policy decoupling occurs despite the efforts of economic agents, the global economy is negatively affected. ASEAN has a relative advantage through positive trade diversion effects if it does not join any of the groups. Adherence to a rules-based international trade order will ultimately benefit ASEAN Member States and people. ASEAN should demonstrate ASEAN centrality and show the world its efforts to avoid decoupling. It should also avoid participating in decoupling if it occurs.
    Date: 2023–02–02
  15. By: Khrustalev, Evgeny; Khrustalev, Oleg; Vorobyova, Maria
    Abstract: The article identifies and investigates the features of various mechanisms and methods designed to create and implement the innovative potential of corporations and enterprises of the military-industrial complex. The analysis of restrictions in the supply of new military products caused by sanctions, competition, pricing problems, equity financing, difficulties in interacting with private military companies and manufacturing business is carried out. The reasons for the limited export of military-industrial complex products sold on the world arms markets are shown.
    Keywords: military-industrial complex, innovative activity, armament, military and special equipment, defense corporations and enterprises, initiative development, private military companies, manufacturing business, sanctions, exports, government contracts, equity financing.
    JEL: D83 L23 L60 M13 O32
    Date: 2023–04–12
  16. By: Evgeny Kuzmin; Maksim Vlasov; Wadim Strielkowski; Marina Faminskaya; Konstantin Kharchenko
    Abstract: This study examines the role of human capital investment in driving sustainable socio-economic growth within the energy industry. The fuel and energy sector undeniably forms the backbone of contemporary economies, supplying vital resources that underpin industrial activities, transportation, and broader societal operations. In the context of the global shift toward sustainability, it is crucial to focus not just on technological innovation but also on cultivating human capital within this sector. This is particularly relevant considering the recent shift towards green and renewable energy solutions. In this study, we utilize bibliometric analysis, drawing from a dataset of 1933 documents (represented by research papers, conference proceedings, and book chapters) indexed in the Web of Science (WoS) database. We conduct a network cluster analysis of the textual and bibliometric data using VOSViewer software. The findings stemming from our analysis indicate that investments in human capital are perceived as important in achieving long-term sustainable economic growth in the energy companies both in Russia and worldwide. In addition, it appears that the role of human capital in the energy sector is gaining more popularity both among Russian and international researchers and academics.
    Date: 2023–12
  17. By: International Monetary Fund
    Abstract: Namibia has shown resilience to the negative shocks from the COVID-19 pandemic and Russia’s war in Ukraine. Output has recovered to the pre pandemic level, inflation has fallen below 6 percent, and expectations remain anchored. Official reserves, at 4.7 month of imports in September, exhibit adequacy consistent with the peg to the rand. Prospects are brightened with discovery of oil and gas reserves. At the same time, Namibia is poised to benefit from the global pivot to green energy through its signature Green Hydrogen Project. Meanwhile, the challenge of improving public sector efficiency and reducing the large wage bill, not only for the sake of preserving debt sustainability, but also for the Namibian people to benefit the most from these new developments, remains paramount. Elections are scheduled for 2024.
    Date: 2023–12–12
  18. By: Znamenskaya, Alexandra; Larin, Sergey; Noakk, Natalia
    Abstract: The high level of uncertainty in the development of the Russian economy at the current stage is predetermined by the negative impact of the Covid-19 pandemic and the growth of sanctions restrictions. The socio-economic consequences of these factors continue to constrain the development of all sectors of the economy and their human capital. The professional activity of almost all specialists has undergone numerous changes. The above circumstances testify to the relevance of the subject of this article in modern conditions. The purpose of the article is to substantiate the key role of the competence Communicative Effectiveness in the formation of human capital in a situation of uncertainty on the example of one of the organizations in the banking sector based on the results of the study. The Assessment Center was used as the main data collection method. In addition, the article used information processing methods, qualitative and quantitative analysis, correlation analysis, visualization of the results. The study of the phenomenon of situation uncertainty using the methodology of the Assessment Center has important advantages over traditional studies using questionnaires. The difference of this study lies in the fact that the situation of uncertainty objectively already exists, and the Assessment Center procedure makes it possible to trace which managerial and professional competencies middle managers use to develop strategies for their behavior. In the course of the study, the key role of the Communicative Efficiency competence in the formation of human capital and the choice of behavior strategies by middle managers in a situation of uncertainty was revealed.
    Keywords: uncertainty, assessment center, professional competencies, communicative effectiveness.
    JEL: C91 C92 J24 O34
    Date: 2023–07–24
  19. By: Larin, Sergey; Khrustalev, Evgeny; Noakk, Natalia
    Abstract: Subject. Currently, as the global economy evolves, its innovative components should demonstrate a tendency of accelerated growth as intellectual capital, information technologies, increasing knowledge and digitization of mushrooming production processes. Nowadays, intellectual capital is one of the economic development drivers. However, the economic community is found to have no generally accepted wording of the concept, thus laying the basis for this article. Objectives. The study sums up the analysis of approaches used by the Russian and foreign economists to determining the economic substance of intellectual capital. We also identify the importance of human capital as its components and specify the definition of the concept. Methods. The article overviews and analyzes proceedings by the most renowned authors, which substantiate how the economic substance of intellectual capital should be unveiled, and suggest its definitions. Results. We specified the definition of intellectual capital concerning the current economic development. We suggest integrating a new component into intellectual capital, such as intellectual property, which includes products of intellectual activity and intangible assets. They can be owned by the entity or other legal entities and individuals, including some employees of the entity. Conclusions. The specified definition of intellectual capital will help address issues of sustainable economic development and ensure the competitiveness of the Russian entities nationwide and worldwide, since it directly contributes to intellectual capital and its components.
    Keywords: intellectual capital, innovation, personnel, competence, competitiveness.
    JEL: J24 J44 O15 O32
    Date: 2023–03–29
  20. By: Egorova, Natalia; Kozerskaya, Natalia
    Abstract: The article is dedicated to the memory of the outstanding Russian scientist and social and political figure Mikhail Yakovlevich Lemeshev, whose life and work were dedicated to serving science and the people. The work highlights the scientific activity of M. Ya. Lemeshev as an outstanding world-class economist who laid the fundamental theoretical foundations of environmental economics and the development of the human community in harmony with the environment.
    Keywords: Economy of environmental management, ecological habitat, ecological-economic social metasystem
    JEL: J18 Q57
    Date: 2023–04–01
  21. By: Bobkov, Alexander; Slavyanov, Andrey; Khrustalev, Evgeny
    Abstract: Under the conditions of external restrictions, it is of particular importance to provide the production of agricultural engineering not only with objects of labor, but also with tools, on the availability of which the fulfillment of contractual obligations by the enterprise depends. The article deals with the organization of the tool economy at the enterprise in conditions of stability and external restrictions. The analysis of the typical structure and functions of the enterprise tool service has been carried out. The article shows that providing an enterprise with tools based on intersectoral cooperation is effective in conditions of relative stability. A significant part of the functions of the tool management departments and other services of the enterprise can be outsourced. The introduction of external restrictions on financial and logistical operations leads to failures in the production cycle, loss of stability of the enterprise and a halt in production. Particular attention should be paid to the restoration of worn tools and control over its operation. In the context of the predicted growth of external restrictions on the Russian economy, it is proposed to modernize the tool economy, equip it with modern equipment and establish a system for monitoring and accounting for tools. We have proposed an organizational scheme for the restoration of tools and fixtures for a machine-building enterprise. The proposals developed by the authors will make it possible to increase the stability of the enterprise in modern conditions and ensure the fulfillment of contractual obligations for the supply of agricultural machinery and equipment.
    Keywords: external restrictions, enterprise infrastructure, tool economy, production modernization, production system, enterprise sustainability.
    JEL: L22 O13 Q16
    Date: 2023–07–30
  22. By: Khrustalev, Evgeny; Larin, Sergey; Khrustalev, Oleg
    Abstract: The article reveals the features of the process of implementing the innovative potential of science-intensive and high-tech enterprises of the domestic military-industrial complex. Specific examples of the development of innovative samples of military products are given. A scientific substantiation of the organizational, economic and legal, as well as mechanisms of interaction between manufacturers and customers, stimulating the production of competitive military products, has been carried out. It is shown that for the modernization of the technical re-equipment of enterprises of the domestic military-industrial complex, it is advisable to use an integrated system model based on scientific, technological, informational and innovative achievements.
    Keywords: science-intensive and high-tech enterprises, military-industrial complex, integrated production structures, innovative technical equipment, public-private partnership
    JEL: D83 M11 M14 O32 O33
    Date: 2023–06–03
  23. By: Christophe Blot (OFCE - Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po); Céline Antonin (OFCE - Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po); Amel Falah (OFCE - Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po); Sabine Le Bayon (OFCE - Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po); Catherine Mathieu (OFCE - Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po); Hervé Péléraux (OFCE - Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po); Christine Rifflart (OFCE - Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po); Benoît Williatte (OFCE - Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po); Mathieu Plane (OFCE - Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po); Elliot Aurissergues (OFCE - Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po); Bruno Coquet (DARES - Direction de l'animation de la recherche, des études et des statistiques - Ministère du Travail, de l'Emploi et de la Santé, OFCE - Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po); Magali Dauvin (OFCE - Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po); Ombeline Julien de Pommerol (OFCE - Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po); Pierre Madec (OFCE - Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po); Raul Sampognaro (OFCE - Observatoire français des conjonctures économiques (Sciences Po) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po)
    Abstract: Le fort rebond de l'activité post-Covid puis la guerre en Ukraine ont provoqué une résurgence des tensions inflationnistes dans les économies industrialisées et émergentes. Après un pic en juin 2022 pour le pétrole et en août 2022 pour le gaz, les prix de l'énergie ont reflué mais restent volatils. L'inflation est globalement moins forte qu'en fin d'année 2022 et change en partie de nature avec une réduction des tensions liées aux facteurs d'offre. Parallèlement, l'activité économique mondiale a commencé à marquer le pas depuis plusieurs trimestres, en particulier en Europe. En 2024, les effets du choc énergie sur l'activité des pays européens devraient s'atténuer mais le soutien budgétaire qui avait contribué à les amortir sera également progressivement réduit. Par ailleurs, l'orientation de la politique monétaire resterait restrictive et les effets du resserrement mis en œuvre par les banques centrales pour réduire l'inflation devraient s'accentuer. La croissance mondiale devrait donc se retrouver prise en étau, touchée d'abord par l'impact du choc sur les prix alimentaires et de l'énergie sur le pouvoir d'achat et frappée ensuite par la hausse des taux d'intérêt. Les récentes déclarations des banques centrales indiquent qu'elles devraient maintenir les taux à des niveaux durablement plus élevés que ceux qui avaient été observés depuis 2008. Nous anticipons en conséquence que la croissance mondiale ralentira passant de 3, 2 % en 2022 à 2, 3 % en 2024. Pour autant, à l'exception de l'Allemagne en 2023, la plupart des pays développés échapperaient à la récession.
    Date: 2023–10
  24. By: zhdanov, dmitry
    Abstract: Digital transformation of Russian enterprises is one of the priority national tasks, and although the sanctions adopted in 2022 slowed it down, they did not reduce its relevance. The active use of digital solutions, virtual space, the emergence of a new environment for the interaction of economic entities require the availability of relevant knowledge and skills, affect the requirements for human capital (HC) of enterprises, and form an active demand for the relevant competencies of employees. In this regard, the purpose of this study was to determine the model of competencies required by employees of manufacturing companies in the context of digitalization, as well as to establish the priority components of the HC of a digital enterprise. The methodological basis of the work is a systemic economic theory, which makes it possible to match the individual systems of an enterprise (its areas of activity) with the corresponding (demanded) components of an individual and corporate human capital. The study initially analyzed the main results of the digital transformation of industrial enterprises. It is noted that the most important consequences are the change in the business processes of companies, the forms of organization of their activities, the emergence of new models of interaction in the business environment. Next, a comparison was made of various models of competencies of enterprise employees in the context of digitalization, which made it possible to coordinate requests for their composition and highlight the key positions that should be present in such a model. They are broadly defined as: a) the ability to develop and apply software, to understand the principles of operation of digital systems; b) the ability to use interpersonal skills, provide the necessary creativity and purposefulness of actions. The performed analysis made it possible to establish a set of elements (competencies) that form the human capital of an employee of an enterprise operating in the digital economy, as well as to determine the composition of the corporate human capital model of such an enterprise, which became the main scientific result of the work. In conclusion, the elements of the generated models were ranked, which is also a novelty of the work. It is shown that, first of all, the role of socio-psychological, organizational¸ intellectual and creative competencies of the employee’s human capital will increase, as well as such components of the corporate human capital as: production capital, relationship capital and structural (organizational) capital.
    Keywords: digital economy, systems economic theory, company, competency model
    JEL: A23 J80
    Date: 2022
  25. By: Nizalova, Olena; Shepotylo, Oleksandr
    Abstract: This paper investigates the indirect economic impact of tuberculosis epidemic in one of the high-burden countries, focusing on the productivity at the individual level measured by the average wages and at firm level measured by the average total factor productivity (TFP). We use unique administrative data collected at the level of firms and regions for 2003-2009 and find that the ongoing tuberculosis (TB) epidemic has considerable indirect economic costs in terms of lost productivity and related inefficien- cies. First of all, both firms and individuals in regions with higher TB prevalence have significantly lower TFP and wages. Moreover, consistent with the Compensating Wage Differentials theory and after controlling for the TB prevalence, the risk of contracting the disease - TB incidence rate - is associated with higher wages and higher produc- tivity - a kind of premium for individuals and firms to operate in a risky environment. The latter can also be viewed as a source of inefficiency as this may prevent firms from entering more competitive markets. Additional analysis reveals strong spatial effects which are consistent with the infectious nature of the diseases and emphasize the im- portance of containing the epidemic. Overall, we estimate that a 10% decrease in the TB prevalence can lead to a 1.05% gain in GDP: 0.15% in terms of higher individual productivity and 0.89% in terms of firms' productivity.
    Keywords: Tuberculosis, Productivity, Regional Wage, Total Factor Productivity, TB Epidemic
    JEL: O18 I15 J24
    Date: 2023
  26. By: Larin, Sergey; Noakk, Natalia
    Abstract: The article presents a description of a study conducted by the authors as part of a training session with HR employees. Its goal was to search for new tools for improving the competencies of HR employees for more successful filling of vacancies at IT enterprises. Enterprises in the IT industry are currently the most promising for development as part of the Russian economy. Therefore, they were selected to assess the quality of decision-making on candidates for vacancies. The objective of this study was to develop the competencies of HR employees in terms of identifying areas of their self-development when interviewing candidates for vacancies in IT enterprises as one of the highest priorities. The solution of this problem will help to increase the economic efficiency of the production activities of enterprises in the IT industry. As a result of the study, the tools for identifying relevant competencies and promising methods for their development were substantiated. Recommendations are given for optimizing the construction of training programs for the development of competencies of applicants for vacancies of specialists in IT-industry enterprises.
    Keywords: interviews with candidates, vacancies, IT enterprises, self-development zones, competencies, HR employees.
    JEL: J24 J63 L86 O34
    Date: 2023–06–08
  27. By: Jonathan Beynon (Center for Global Development)
    Abstract: The scale, source, and allocation of climate finance have been contentious aspects of the Paris Agreement and its implementation. Central to these are questions of “fair shares”: who might contribute what and whether the group of contributors should be expanded. New analysis presented here concludes that there is a case for nontraditional donors providing 20-30 percent of any total, with this finding robust to a variety of different measures of historical emissions, cut-off dates, and income. China, Russia, South Korea, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, Poland, the United Arab Emirates, and Mexico consistently feature in the top 20. Developed countries, however, should continue to take primary responsibility, with the United States shouldering at least 40 percent of the burden in virtually all scenarios. The politics of climate finance will continue to be difficult, but it is hard to escape the conclusion that both the United States and China will need to provide more.
    Date: 2023–11–01
  28. By: Omer Faruk Akbal; Klakow Akepanidtaworn; Ezequiel Cabezon; Mariarosaria Comunale; Mrs. Marina Conesa Martinez; Ms. Filiz D Unsal
    Abstract: Central banks in Caucasus and Central Asia (CCA) have been enhancing their monetary policy frameworks in the last decade, and are at different stages of the transition to a type of inflation targeting regimes. This paper documents their progress and the current state of their monetary policy framework, utilizing the IAPOC index developed by Unsal and others (2022) covering Independence and Accountability, Policy and Operational Strategy, and Communications, as well as drawing from central banks’ laws and websites. Additionally, an analysis of press releases from CCA central banks is conducted to evaluate their features, content, and tones. The findings highlight the need for further improvements in the areas of Independence and Accountability, as well as Communications, despite some recent advancements in the latter.
    Keywords: Caucasus and Central Asia; Monetary Policy Frameworks; Communication.
    Date: 2023–12–08
  29. By: Khromov, Ivan
    Abstract: Within the framework of this article, the current situation in the field of the personnel component of the region's innovative potential is analyzed (using the example of the subjects of the Central Federal District). The analysis of the dynamics of key indicators characterizing the level of provision of the R&D sphere with researchers and designers is carried out. A final conclusion is made regarding the development of the situation in this area at the present stage of development.
    Keywords: innovations, innovative potential, personnel potential, R&D.
    JEL: R11
    Date: 2023–10–30
  30. By: Nikolova, Milena (University of Groningen); Popova, Olga (Leibniz Institute for East and Southeast European Studies (IOS))
    Abstract: This paper studies the long-term consequences of communism on present-day freedom of expression values in two settings – East Germany and the states linked to the sphere of influence of the former USSR. Exploiting the natural experiment of German separation and later reunification, we show that living under communism has had lasting effects on free speech opinions. While free speech salience has increased for East and West Germans vis-à-vis other government goals, the convergence process has been slow. East Germans are still less likely to consider freedom of speech a key government priority compared to West Germans. Additionally, our analyses of secret police surveillance data from East Germany point to the fact that geographybased measures of community experiences of past political repression do not explain our findings. The same conclusion holds when we look at the setting of the former Soviet Union and we correlate proximity to Stalin's former labor camps in the Soviet Union with present-day freedom of speech values. At the same time, family experiences with political repression in Eastern Europe/the former Soviet Union exert a discernible influence on current values towards freedom of speech, likely due to a lasting impact stemming from such personal encounters. As such, our paper adds a nuanced contribution to the economics of free speech, suggesting that freedom of speech may be a part of informal institutions and slow-changing cultural values.
    Keywords: political repression, communism, free speech, German Democratic Republic, Eastern Europe, former Soviet Union, economic history
    JEL: D02 D83 N00 P27 P52
    Date: 2023–12
  31. By: ZHdanov, Dmitry
    Abstract: The digital transformation of enterprises is one of the priority national tasks and, although sanctions restrictions have slowed down its implementation, they have not reduced its relevance. The purpose of this study was to analyze the industry-specific features of the digitalization of domestic companies, build a digital maturity rating of enterprises and organizations in various industrial sectors and areas of social activity in Russia. The methodological basis of the work is the study of statistical reporting demonstrating the use of digital technologies by domestic companies, as well as empirical data obtained from surveys of leaders of domestic and foreign firms. The study initially analyzed the statistical data describing the course of the digital transformation of domestic enterprises, and identified three metrics to assess the changes occurring under the influence of digitalization in industry and the social sphere. The following indicators were chosen as such indicators: expenditures on information and communication technologies (ICT); number of employees using ICT; range of digital technologies used. The choice of this set of parameters is connected, on the one hand, with the importance of indicators for assessing the level of digital development, and on the other hand, with the availability of detailed quantitative data characterizing the marked sections of enterprises' activities and allowing us to compare the changes taking place in each of the areas under consideration. The combination of the above criteria makes it possible to comprehensively assess the ongoing changes, given that the above figures affect their various aspects. In conclusion, an algorithm for comparing industries is proposed, based on the selected indicators and taking into account their significance (weight), and the ranking of industries is carried out. Such a comparison made it possible to form four groups that differ in the level of digital maturity of their sectors, which became the main scientific result of the work. It is shown that the top lines of the list were occupied by industries that initially focused on a high-tech base, as well as those that were able to include digital solutions in their business processes, learned how to transform information into products, into monetary results.
    Keywords: digital transformation, ranking, assessment, rating, costs, industries, industrial sectors
    JEL: L16 O33
    Date: 2023–06

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