nep-cis New Economics Papers
on Confederation of Independent States
Issue of 2024‒01‒01
twenty-two papers chosen by

  1. Latest developments in Russian imports of sanctioned technology products By Simola, Heli
  2. Monthly Report No. 5/2023 - FDI in Central, East and Southeast Europe By Alexandra Bykova; Branimir Jovanović; Olga Pindyuk; Nina Vujanović
  3. Wealth, inequality, and sex: the changes in female and male wealth and their consequences for the governance of the Russian Empire from the 1700s to the 1850s By Elena Korchmina
  4. War fatalities in Russia in 2022 estimated via excess male mortality By Kobak, Dmitry; Bessudnov, Alexey; Ershov, Alexander; Mikhailova, Tatiana; Raksha, Alexei
  5. Inflation Expectations in the Wake of the War in Ukraine By Afunts, Geghetsik; Cato, Misina; Schmidt, Tobias
  6. Ensuring Ukraine's security: From ad hoc support to long-term security guarantees as NATO member By Klein, Margarete; Major, Claudia
  7. Diplomacy in the context of the Russian invasion of Ukraine: Continuation of war by other means By Fischer, Sabine
  8. Russian missiles and the European Sky Shield Initiative: German plans to strengthen air and missile defence in the current threat environment By Wachs, Lydia
  9. U.S. Arctic security policy: North American Arctic strategies, Russian hubris and Chinese ambitions By Paul, Michael
  10. Turkey-Iran rivalry in the changing geopolitics of the South Caucasus By Azizi, Hamidreza; Isachenko, Daria
  11. Изменение долгосрочных прогнозов развития мирового рынка нефти под влиянием нового геополитического фактора By Olga, Evseeva
  12. Декомпозиция продовольственной инфляции на факторы спроса и предложения. // Decomposing the basket of goods into supply- and demand-driven categories to analyze food inflation in Kazakhstan. By Бирликбай Алишер // Birlikbay Alisher; Сейдахметов Ансар // Seidakhmetov Ansar
  13. Implications of Russia’s war against Ukraine for African economies: A CGE analysis for Ethiopia By Amsalu Woldie Yalew; Victor Nechifor; Emanuele Ferrari
  14. Economic relations between the Western Balkans and Non-EU countries: How the EU can respond to challenges concerning direct investment, trade and energy security By Vulović, Marina
  15. Inflation is always and everywhere … a conflict phenomenon: Post-Keynesian inflation theory and energy price driven conflict inflation By Hein, Eckhard
  16. Государственные инициативы и развитие солнечной энергетики в Китайской Народной Республике By Filkin, Mikhail
  17. Turkey's new cabinet: A wind of change in Turkish politics? By Aksoy, Hürcan Aslı; Aydın, Yaşar; Çevik, Salim
  18. Accelerating the process of forced import substitution using the introduction of the triple spiral model By Akimkina, Dariya; Khrustalev, Evgenij
  19. Can Lebanon Export Cannabis for Medicinal Purposes? By Haidar, Jamal Ibrahim; Zeaiter, Hussein; Darwich, Salem
  20. Right in the Middle: A Field Experiment On The Role Of Integrity Training And Norms In Combating Corruption By Oana Borcan; Nikita Grabher-Meyer; Stephanie Heger; Amrish Patel
  21. Monthly Report No. 11/2023 - FDI in Central, East and Southeast Europe By Doris Hanzl-Weiss; Branimir Jovanović; Olga Pindyuk
  22. Panel Arbeitsmarkt und Soziale Sicherung PASS-Erhebungswelle 16/2022 (Haupterhebung) By Jesske, Birgit; Schulz, Sabine; Gerber, Vincent

  1. By: Simola, Heli
    Abstract: This brief examines the latest developments in Russian imports on the basis of mirror statistics. We focus particularly on technology products subject to export restrictions imposed by sanctioning coalition countries. While most Russian imports of technology products subject to sanctions fell considerably between the first half of 2021 and the first half of 2023, our analysis reveals that the value of certain imported technology products also increased substantially. Exports of these products grew dramatically particularly from Central Asia and Caucasus, but the share of these countries in Russian imports is still moderate. China was by far the most important provider of technology products to Russia in absolute terms during the observation period.
    Keywords: Russia, imports, sanctions
    Date: 2023
  2. By: Alexandra Bykova (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw); Branimir Jovanović (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw); Olga Pindyuk (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw); Nina Vujanović
    Abstract: ​This issue of the wiiw Monthly Report replaces our earlier series of the wiiw FDI Report. FDI in Central, East and Southeast Europe Data availability and preliminary results for 2022 by Alexandra Bykova FDI inflows into CESEE countries, excluding Russia, grew by 10.8% last year. Performance was highly uneven across the countries of the region. Russia’s isolation due to its war in Ukraine led to large-scale disinvestment of EUR 40bn, according to preliminary estimates. Preliminary FDI data for 2022 are available from the wiiw FDI Database as a first FDI data release this year. Data revisions and FDI data by partner and by economic activity will be released later, in autumn. FDI has been holding up, but the outlook is getting cloudier by Olga Pindyuk In contrast to the global trends, FDI inflows in CESEE increased in 2022, apart from in Russia and Ukraine. However, recent trends in greenfield investment and mergers and acquisitions signal a worsening of investment prospects. Southeast Europe is emerging as the most dynamic sub-region in terms of FDI attraction. Spurred by digitalisation and green transition developments, investors in the region have become increasingly interested in the renewable energy and electronic components sectors. What lies behind the strong FDI inflows in the Western Balkans? by Branimir Jovanović The six Western Balkan economies stood out as top performers in terms of FDI inflows within the Central, East and Southeast Europe region in 2022. However, a closer examination reveals a more nuanced picture regarding the composition and characteristics of investments, prompting questions about the overall advantages and long-term sustainability of the inflows. Although the region is projected to continue to attract substantial FDI in the near future, it is likely that the pace will decelerate from the remarkable performance witnessed in 2022. Deriving the underlying FDI trend in CESEE by Nina Vujanović FDI has been pivotal for the growth of CESEE economies. However, the patterns of FDI flows have been highly volatile. To allow policy makers to draw sound conclusions, we derive the underlying FDI trend for the CESEE region. The results show that, although the trend has consistently been upward since 1997, shocks caused by the global financial crisis, COVID-19 and the war in Ukraine have had a strong impact. Forecasts of main economic indicators for Central, East and Southeast Europe for 2023-2025
    Keywords: FDI inflows; FDI outflows; FDI stocks; FDI by instrument of financing; greenfield investment; M&As; FDI by components; FDI by partner; FDI by sector; underlying FDI trend; intra-company loans
    Date: 2023–05
  3. By: Elena Korchmina (University of Southern Denmark)
    Abstract: Could we measure the contribution of women to the economy in the pre-industrial world? Yes, it is possible, particularly in the context of Russia. By analyzing archival sources, we can not only measure their contribution to the economy but also observe how the Russian Empire evolved into a more economically patriarchal society over time. Examining the distribution of female property across various regions in Russia reveals a significant increase in the share of female property the 18th century, rising from 10% to 40%. However, this growth plateaued and gradually declined. By the late 19th century, the presence of women among top landowners continued to decrease. This substantial surge in female property ownership during the 18th century occurred primarily due to the increasing frequency of women being designated heirs. Using the unique datasets, I assessed the gender gap in wealth and income, which averaged around 25% across provinces. This indicates that the equal access to property established in 1715 led to Russia becoming a relatively gender-equal country over the following century. Consequently, noblewomen in the Russian Empire gained proxy voting rights. Interestingly, the authorities granted this fundamental civil right independently, without significant societal debate on the 'female question'.
    Keywords: Russian Empire, Gender, Wealth, Income, Pre-Industrial World
    JEL: N00 N13 N33 J16 D63
    Date: 2023–11
  4. By: Kobak, Dmitry; Bessudnov, Alexey; Ershov, Alexander; Mikhailova, Tatiana; Raksha, Alexei
    Abstract: In this paper, we used excess deaths among young males to estimate the number of Russian fatalities in the Russo-Ukrainian war in 2022. We based our calculations on the official mortality statistics in 2022, split by age and gender. To separate excess deaths due to war from those due to Covid-19, we relied on the ratio of male to female deaths, and extrapolated the 2015--19 trend to get the baseline value for 2022. We found noticeable excess male mortality in all age groups between 15 and 49, with 20, 600±1, 000 excess male deaths overall. This estimate was obtained after excluding all HIV deaths that showed complex dynamics unrelated to the war. Depending on the modelling assumptions, the estimated number of deaths varied from about 15, 700 to about 23, 600, with 20, 600 corresponding to our preferred model. Our estimate should be treated as a lower bound on the true number of deaths as the data do not include either the Russian military personnel missing in action and not officially declared dead, or the deaths registered in the Ukrainian territories annexed in 2022.
    Date: 2023–11–21
  5. By: Afunts, Geghetsik; Cato, Misina; Schmidt, Tobias
    JEL: D84 D12 E3
    Date: 2023
  6. By: Klein, Margarete; Major, Claudia
    Abstract: Since February 2022, Ukraine has been defending itself against yet another Russian war of aggression. Now that immediate support - military, diplomatic, financial and humanitarian - for Ukraine has improved, the country's long-term security needs to be addressed. Looking ahead, security commitments should be built on political, economic and military pillars. NATO membership is essential for Ukraine's security, but it is also in the geostrategic and normative interests of the Alliance, even if it is a risky, long-term and difficult endeavour. At the 2023 summit in Vilnius, NATO recognized that Ukraine's future is in the Alliance but remained vague about the conditions to join. Yet, other agreements announced on the margins of the summit by the G7 and individual states expand the support for Ukraine. Framed as steps to increase Ukraine's security, these should accompany the transition from current security support to future guarantees.
    Keywords: Ukraine, Russian war against Ukraine, security commitments, security guarantees, Ukraine’, s NATO accession, NATO, Nato, 2023 Vilnius summit, 2023 NATO summit, EU, European security, Kyiv Security Compact
    Date: 2023
  7. By: Fischer, Sabine
    Abstract: Direct negotiations on a ceasefire in Russia's war against Ukraine broke down within just a few months. Today, Moscow and Kyiv are pursuing diplomatic initiatives in order to shape the international context of the war in their favour. Russia's war diplomacy aims to weaken the "collective West" at the global level as part of its strategy to bring external support for Ukraine to a halt. Ukraine is seeking to isolate Russia internationally. Meanwhile, Russia's illegal war of aggression continues. If there is to be even a possibility of ceasefire negotiations in the future, Germany and its partners must carry on providing military support to Ukraine.
    Keywords: Russia, Ukraine, War on Ukraine, peace negotiations, ceasefire, diplomacy, Bakhmut, Black Sea Grain Initiative, BSGI, Grain from Ukraine, collective West, anti-colonialism, BRICS, peace formula, Kyiv Security Compact, security commitments, security guarantees
    Date: 2023
  8. By: Wachs, Lydia
    Abstract: Against the background of the Russian missile strikes against Ukraine, Germany has launched the European Sky Shield Initiative (ESSI) to strengthen Europe's air and missile defence. In the short term, it seems there is little likelihood of a Russian missile attack against NATO as Moscow probably lacks both the military means and the incentives. But, in the medium to long term, improving air and missile defence in Europe could curb Russia's coercive power vis-à-vis NATO and thereby strengthen the cohesion of the alliance. However, for this to happen and for the full potential of the initiative to be realized, several strategic, technical-operational and political issues should be addressed. Otherwise, ESSI could end up contributing to NATO fragmentation at the political and technical level.
    Keywords: European Sky Shield Initiative, ESSI, European air and missile defence, Nato, Russia, war against Ukraine, long-range weapons, cruise missiles, ballistic missiles, Iris-T SLM, Patriot, Arrow
    Date: 2023
  9. By: Paul, Michael
    Abstract: Unlike his predecessors, US President Joe Biden made important decisions early in his term to enable better coordination of US Arctic policy. This includes foremost the National Strategy for the Arctic Region that was published later than planned as a result of Russia's war of aggression, which destroyed the few remaining hopes for cooperation and made the Arctic a security policy issue. Alaska, as the northernmost American state, is naturally at the centre of US Arctic policy, which increasingly also must take Chinese activities into consideration. Most recently, in September 2022, the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) detected Chinese and Russian warships off Alaska. Currently, only one US icebreaker is continuously available in the Arctic theatre with the mis­sion to protect sovereignty in the Arctic Ocean and monitor ice-covered areas. Alaska is also the very same US state that the recent Chinese spy balloon flew over, which was eventually shot down in February 2023. After decades of scant attention, is the Arctic now finally becoming the object of a more engaged US security policy?
    Keywords: Joe Biden, US Arctic policy, National Strategy for the Arctic Region, China, Russia, U.S. Coast Guard (USCG), Alaska
    Date: 2023
  10. By: Azizi, Hamidreza; Isachenko, Daria
    Abstract: The South Caucasus has long been a theatre of Turkish and Iranian cooperation and rivalry. While these two regional powers have historically balanced their interests, there are signs that rivalry is taking precedence. Turkey's unwavering backing of Azerbaijan during the 2020 Karabakh War consolidated Ankara's footprint in the region. Azerbaijan's retaking of the rest of Karabakh in the latest military strikes on 19 September 2023 makes a peace accord between Azerbaijan and Armenia more likely, furthering Turkey's interests, and potentially limiting Russia's role in the region. However, the prospect of a "less Russia, more Turkey" dynamic heightens Tehran's apprehensions towards Ankara. Particularly concerning for Iran is the clause within the Moscow-brokered ceasefire of November 2020 that mandates the rebuild­ing of a road and rail link connecting Turkey to mainland Azerbaijan via Azerbaijan's Nakhchivan exclave and Armenia's south-eastern Syunik province; this risks marginal­ising Iran. In addition, Tehran is anxiously observing the deepening of ties between Turkey's close ally, Azerbaijan, and Iran's key adversary, Israel.
    Keywords: South Caucasus, Turkey, Iran, Russia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, 2020 Karabakh War, Nakhchivan exclave, Zangezur Corridor
    Date: 2023
  11. By: Olga, Evseeva
    Abstract: Predicting the global oil market for the long term, both oil companies and analytical centers use a systematic approach, striving to take into account all the main factors affecting the sensitive oil market. Each new factor affects the market in a new way, setting new vectors of development or restrictions. The climate factor that had been in effect until recently, which prompted the global energy market to restructure taking into account the gradual reduction of CO2 emissions, was replaced by a pandemic factor that limited the development of demand for oil. The latest recent factor was the factor of political decisions related to the escalation of the conflict between Russia and Ukraine, which resulted in unprecedented sanctions pressure on the Russian economy. The forecasting entities represented by BP Oil Company, the International Energy Agency and OPEC have once again revised their forecasts for the development of the oil market. This article is devoted to the analysis of these forecasts, as well as comparison with previous forecasts made after the pandemic.
    Keywords: pandemic, geopolitics, forecasting subjects, sanctions, scenarios, forecast, oil market, world oil demand, world oil supply, oil price, oil companies, trends
    JEL: Q47
    Date: 2023–06–30
  12. By: Бирликбай Алишер // Birlikbay Alisher; Сейдахметов Ансар // Seidakhmetov Ansar (National Bank of Kazakhstan)
    Keywords: Kazakhstan, inflation, inflation decomposition, food inflation, инфляция, продовольственная инфляция, декомпозиция инфляции
    JEL: E31
    Date: 2023
  13. By: Amsalu Woldie Yalew (Ca’ Foscari University of Venice, Euro-Mediterranean Center on Climate Change (CMCC)); Victor Nechifor (European Commission - JRC); Emanuele Ferrari (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: The ongoing Russia’s war of aggression against Ukraine is disrupting the global supply chains of essential commodities resulting in a cascading effects on the global economy. This study examines the implications of Russia’s military aggression for Ethiopian. It assesses the consequences of world market price increases for wheat, fertilizer, and petroleum on Ethiopia’s macro economy, production, and households’ consumption. The study employs a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model calibrated to the 2015/2016 social accounting matrix (SAM) of Ethiopia, updated to 2022 using the recursive dynamic features of the model. The impacts of the world price increases are presented as percentage changes to a counterfactual Ethiopian economy in 2022, without accounting for actual and anticipated repercussions from the war. The study finds that GDP, labour wage rates, and households’ consumption decline. The impacts of fertilizer and petroleum price changes are notable and unevenly distributed. Crop growing activities substitute animal manure for inorganic fertilizers. The effect on urban households’ consumption more severe than on rural households. Rising petroleum prices increase the demand for ethanol providing motives to expand sugar manufacturing. Increasing inorganic fertilizer prices tighten the competition for the use of animal manure between cropping activities and households. Promotion of biogas digesters among rural households could encourage the optimal use of animal manure.
    Keywords: Recursive Dynamic CGE Model, Ethiopia, international trade, Ukraine invasion
    Date: 2023–11
  14. By: Vulović, Marina
    Abstract: The economic and financial crisis of 2008 disrupted the European Union's (EU) enlarge­ment policy for the Western Balkans. At least since that time, the region has seen greater involvement by economic actors from non-EU countries such as China, Russia, Turkey and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Their engagement has been most evident in the areas of direct investment, trade and energy security. Investments from these countries can increase the risk of 'corrosive capital', which could have a negative impact on the development of the rule of law and democracy in the Western Balkans. In view of a visibly intensifying rivalry between the EU on the one hand and Russia and China on the other, the question therefore arises as to how the EU can react to and strategically counteract the intensified economic interconnectedness of the West­ern Balkans with these actors.
    Keywords: Western Balkans, Western Balkan countries, European Union, EU, China, Russia, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, UAE, direct investment, trade relations, energy security, investment in renewable energy, gradual EU accession, EU enlargement process, Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance, IPA, Economic and Investment Plan, EIP
    Date: 2023
  15. By: Hein, Eckhard
    Abstract: This paper reviews the post-Keynesian theory of inflation against the background of the simultaneous rise in inflation and profit shares in the course of the Covid-19 recovery and the Russian war in Ukraine. It distinguishes between the Keynes, Kaldor, Robinson, and Marglin tradition, and the Kalecki, Rowthorn, and Dutt tradition. Two prototype models in the latter tradition-the Dutt, Blecker/Setterfield and Lavoie variant, and the Rowthorn and Hein/Stockhammer variant-are discussed. The paper applies the latter to elucidate recent inflation trends propelled by increasing imported energy prices and then rising mark-ups. The effects of inflation-targeting central bank interest policies versus a post-Keynesian alternative macroeconomic policy approach are evaluated. It is argued that from a post-Keynesian perspective inflation is always and everywhere a conflict phenomenon, with different potential triggers. Adequate policies should thus focus on moderating distribution conflict by incomes policies, complemented by central banks targeting low long-term real interest rates, functional finance fiscal policies and international coordination of inflation targets.
    Keywords: conflict inflation, post-Keynesian models, imported energy inflation shock
    JEL: E12 E25 E31 E61
    Date: 2023
  16. By: Filkin, Mikhail
    Abstract: The article is devoted to the study of a number of government programs of the People’s Republic of China, which provided the country with world leadership in the development of solar energy. Since 2014, China has set goals for renewable energy electrification and poverty alleviation in poor regions of the country. It seems that a number of aspects of these programs may be useful in the development of Russian strategies for the development of the renewable electricity.
    Keywords: solar energy, China, photovoltaic generation, government program, renewable energy source, poverty alleviation, regional development
    JEL: L94 O25
    Date: 2023–07–31
  17. By: Aksoy, Hürcan Aslı; Aydın, Yaşar; Çevik, Salim
    Abstract: The inclusion of technocrats and bureaucrats in Turkey's new cabinet has led to cautious optimism over a possible change in direction. While President Recep Tayyip Erdoægan's choice of economy minister hints at a reset, the thrust of foreign policy will remain unchanged. Here Ankara will pursue a moderate and diplomatic approach while still pursuing strategic autonomy. A great deal will depend on what Erdoægan wants and how he chooses to employ foreign relations to attract better financial and economic deals. Given Turkey's importance as a security partner, especially in light of Russia's war against Ukraine, the EU needs to develop a strategic approach on the basis of common interests and institutionalised relations.
    Keywords: Turkey, EU-Turkey relations, President Recep Tayyip Erdoægan, People’, s Alliance, Justice and Development Party (AKP), Nationalist Movement’, s Party (MHP), Republican People’, s Party (CHP), Kemal K¸l¸çdaroæglu, Mehmet ðSimðsek, Hakan Fidan, Suleyman Soylu, Hulusi Akar
    Date: 2023
  18. By: Akimkina, Dariya; Khrustalev, Evgenij
    Abstract: In the current circumstances, successful implementation of forced import substitution is impossible without creating conditions for the interaction of innovation actors. In this context, the article explores the possibilities for accelerating the import substitution process by introducing the triple helix concept. This model's components — the government, business, research and education sectors — are at the same time subjects of innovation. Based on an analysis of the features of their development and functioning, the growing importance of the educational sector and the need to restore the interrelationships between the elements are shown. The aim of the research is to find tools for the triple helix model's adaptation to Russian circumstances in order to accelerate the import substitution and technology transfer processes
    Keywords: triple helix model, import substitution, education, sanctions
    JEL: O14 O15 O3 O32
    Date: 2023–10–20
  19. By: Haidar, Jamal Ibrahim; Zeaiter, Hussein; Darwich, Salem
    Abstract: The sale and consumption of cannabis are becoming more broadly accepted worldwide as research into its medicinal uses accelerates. Revenue in the global medical cannabis market is projected to reach 12.92 billion US dollars (USD) in 2023, and is expected to grow by 13.16% annually, resulting in a market volume of USD 23.97 billion by 2028. Moreover, Colombia, Costa Rica, Malaysia, Morocco, Thailand, Ukraine, the United States, and European Union countries have created regulatory frameworks for cannabis derivatives manufacturing and export and import licenses. As we previously argued, the goal of exporting cannabis from Lebanon for pharmaceutical processing and medicinal purposes should be welcome, despite many misunderstandings about Lebanon’s informal cannabis sector, as well as what would be required to establish a formal sector and ensure buy-in along the cannabis cultivation and export value chain. Among these challenges are cannabis importing country requirements and Lebanon’s ability to meet them.
    Keywords: cannabis; Lebanon; exports
    JEL: F0 I0 I00
    Date: 2023–09–23
  20. By: Oana Borcan (School of Economics, University of East Anglia); Nikita Grabher-Meyer (School of Economics, University of East Anglia); Stephanie Heger (University of Bologna); Amrish Patel (School of Economics, University of East Anglia)
    Abstract: Although integrity education and awareness is touted as an important solution to combat corruption, there is little evidence on its effectiveness. To fill this gap, we conduct a lab-in-the-field experiment where law students in Ukraine are randomly assigned to an innovative and interactive integrity training programme to enhance students awareness and behaviour around ethical issues. We collect data on attitudes towards corruption and actual corrupt behaviour through a series of surveys and a novel experimental game, in which both the integrity-trained students and those who did not get assigned to integrity training play the role of middlemen in a bribe exchange between firms and public officials. We show that integrity training had a significant impact on attitudes towards corruption but only significantly reduced corrupt behaviour in the game when the students knew they were playing alongside other integrity-trained students.
    Date: 2023–12
  21. By: Doris Hanzl-Weiss (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw); Branimir Jovanović (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw); Olga Pindyuk (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw)
    Abstract: ​This issue of the wiiw Monthly Report replaces our earlier series of the wiiw FDI Report. FDI in Central, East and Southeast Europe Growing signs of bleak prospects by Olga Pindyuk and Doris Hanzl-Weiss FDI performance in CESEE significantly weakened in the first nine months of 2023, with FDI inflows decreasing year on year in most of the countries. EU-CEE experienced the sharpest contraction of FDI inflows among the subregions. Investors appear to have become more pessimistic about the region’s prospects, as indicated by the falling number of greenfield investment projects in all the subregions apart from CIS and Ukraine. In line with global trends, the renewable energy sector is gaining in importance in the FDI structure. Employment in new greenfield FDI in the Western Balkans by Branimir Jovanović Between 2010 and 2021, around 180, 000 jobs were created by new greenfield FDI projects in the Western Balkans, with manufacturing accounting for the bulk of them. About two thirds of the newly created jobs were medium skilled, with the skills intensity of the FDI-related jobs generally lower than overall for new employment in the region. This points to the importance of the careful calibration of incentives and benefits in policies to attract FDI. Forecasts of main economic indicators for Central, East and Southeast Europe for 2023-2025
    Keywords: FDI inflows, greenfield investment, FDI stocks, M&As, employment
    Date: 2023–11
  22. By: Jesske, Birgit (Infas); Schulz, Sabine (Infas); Gerber, Vincent (Infas)
    Abstract: Vor dem Hintergrund der besonderen Zusammensetzung der Personen mit SGB-II-Bezug werden im PASS alle Nationalitäten berücksichtigt und auch fremdsprachige Befragungen durchgeführt. Zu Beginn waren die Erhebungssprachen auf Russisch und Türkisch begrenzt. Mit der in Deutschland verstärkten Flüchtlingszuwanderung seit 2014 werden seit der Erhebungswelle 10 im PASS Haushalte und Personen auf Arabisch befragt. Für die Gruppe syrischer und irakischer Haushalte wurde in einigen Wellen zudem ein Oversampling vorgenommen. Die gesonderte Bereitstellung eines türkischsprachigen Erhebungsinstruments wurde mit der Welle 10 eingestellt, da Befragungen in türkischer Sprache in den Haushalten nur noch in sehr wenigen Fällen notwendig waren. 753 | Vor dem Hintergrund der besonderen Zusammensetzung der Personen mit SGB-II-Bezug werden im PASS alle Nationalitäten berücksichtigt und auch fremdsprachige Befragungen durchgeführt. Zu Beginn waren die Erhebungssprachen auf Russisch und Türkisch begrenzt. Mit der in Deutschland verstärkten Flüchtlingszuwanderung seit 2014 werden seit der Erhebungswelle 10 im PASS Haushalte und Personen auf Arabisch befragt. Für die Gruppe syrischer und irakischer Haushalte wurde in einigen Wellen zudem ein Oversampling vorgenommen. Die gesonderte Bereitstellung eines türkischsprachigen Erhebungsinstruments wurde mit der Welle 10 eingestellt, da Befragungen in türkischer Sprache in den Haushalten nur noch in sehr wenigen Fällen notwendig waren.
    Keywords: Bundesrepublik Deutschland ; IAB-Open-Access-Publikation ; Bedarfsgemeinschaft ; Befragung ; Datengewinnung ; Datenqualität ; Geflüchtete ; Fragebogen ; Methodenliteratur ; Interviewereffekt ; Stichprobe ; 10.5164/ ; IAB-Haushaltspanel ; 2014-2022
    Date: 2023–11–16

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