nep-cis New Economics Papers
on Confederation of Independent States
Issue of 2023‒09‒25
seventeen papers chosen by

  1. Women - labor migrants in Russia: Russian women and natives of other countries By Mkrtchian, Nikita (Мкртчян, Никита); Florinskaya, Julia (Флоринская, Юлия)
  2. Europe: Well-positioned to get through next winter without major gas shortages By Gisela Rua
  3. Property Taxation of Individuals at Income and Wealth Inequality By S.G. Belev; A.G. Efremov; A.V. Kireeva; A.B. Zolotareva; E.A. Leonov; E.O. Matveev; I.A. Sokolov; A.N. Komarnitskaya; O.V. Suchkova.
  4. Financial Flows to the United States in 2022: Was There Fragmentation? By Colin Weiss
  5. Evolution of theoretical and practice-oriented approaches to measuring progress and their reflection in strategic documents By Komarov, Vladimir (Комаров, Владимир); Akimova, Varvara (Акимова, Варвара); Voloshinskaya, Anna (Волошинская, Анна)
  6. Measuring the attitude towards a European public budget: A cross-country experiment By Marco Catola; Pietro Guarnieri; Veronica Pizziol; Chiara Rapallini
  7. Decarbonizing the European energy system in the absence of Russian gas: Hydrogen uptake and carbon capture developments in the power, heat and industry sectors By Goran Durakovic; Hongyu Zhang; Brage Rugstad Knudsen; Asgeir Tomasgard; Pedro Crespo del Granado
  8. US dollar is losing it position of a reserve currency: How the BRICS development bank can ensure the soft landing By Popov, Vladimir
  9. A Numerical Simulation of Educational Mismatch in the Italian Labor Market By Roberto Roson; Emanuela Ghignoni
  10. Global Competition on the Waiver of IP Rights of COVID-19 Vaccines - Focusing on the Theory of Complex Geopolitics By Kim, Dongkyu
  11. Основное уравнение международной экономики: верховенство закона + иностранные инвестиции + свободная торговля = страна-бензоколонка By Spirin, Victor
  12. Mapping Global Value Chains at the Product Level By Lea Karbevska; C\'esar A. Hidalgo
  13. Market-reach into social reproduction and transnational labour mobility in Europe By Plomien, Ania; Schwartz, Gregory
  14. L'UEMOA, survivra-t-elle à la montée du sentiment anti-français en Afrique de l'Ouest ? By Kohnert, Dirk
  15. Dis/connectivity in the South Caucasus: Imaginaries, the effects of power, ambivalences By Smolnik, Franziska
  16. The Impact of the Pandemic and War on Surplus Redistribution Mechanisms: A Sectoral Analysis of France and Italy By G. Garau; A.K. El Meligi
  17. Religious policy in Uzbekistan: Between liberalisation, state ideology and Islamisation By Schmitz, Andrea

  1. By: Mkrtchian, Nikita (Мкртчян, Никита) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Florinskaya, Julia (Флоринская, Юлия) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration)
    Abstract: This paper focuses on statistical estimates of female foreign labor migration to Russia and labor migration of Russian women within Russia. This is the first-time women’s internal and external labor migration is assessed in quantitative terms and the age composition of female migration is analyzed in comparison with the male labor migration. The main donor countries of labor migration to Russia for foreign female migrants were ranked; for domestic labor migration, the leading regions for employment of female labor migrants were identified, as well as the main regions that are donors of female labor migration. Data on internal labor migration also allows us to assess the sectoral employment of female migrants in comparison with the employed population and male migrants, and to highlight some social and demographic characteristics of this population group. The analysis is based on data from Rosstat and the Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs. The number of external female labor migrants is estimated at about one million, while the number of internal female labor migrants is less than 300 thousand annually. Female foreign migrants are older than male labor migrants, in contrast to domestic labor migrants, where women, on the contrary, are younger than men. The main donor countries for female labor migration are countries of the CIS, while the share of women in migration from the Central Asian countries (Uzbekistan and Tajikistan, which are the top donor countries in terms of labor migration to Russia) does not exceed 12–13%. The main sources of internal female labor migration are such regions as the Republic of Kalmykia (the absolute leader in terms of the intensity of such migration), the republics of Mari El, Mordovia, Chuvashia, Kabardino-Balkaria, followed by the regions of Central Russia. Regions of the Far East and the North, as well as Moscow and St. Petersburg, have little to no outgoing female labor migration. Female internal labor migrants work in all regions of Russia, with a clearly greater gravitation toward the largest urban agglomerations than male internal labor migrants.
    Keywords: international migration, internal migration, female migration, labor market, households
    JEL: J61 R23
    Date: 2021–09–21
  2. By: Gisela Rua
    Abstract: Following Russia’s invasion of Ukraine in early 2022 and resulting international sanctions, natural gas imports from Russia to Europe declined drastically to well below their historical averages. This reduction raised concerns about Europe’s energy supply, given its dependence on Russian gas.
    Date: 2023–08–07
  3. By: S.G. Belev (The Russian Presidential Academy Of National Economy And Public Administration); A.G. Efremov (The Russian Presidential Academy Of National Economy And Public Administration); A.V. Kireeva (The Russian Presidential Academy Of National Economy And Public Administration); A.B. Zolotareva (The Russian Presidential Academy Of National Economy And Public Administration); E.A. Leonov (The Russian Presidential Academy Of National Economy And Public Administration); E.O. Matveev (The Russian Presidential Academy Of National Economy And Public Administration); I.A. Sokolov (The Russian Presidential Academy Of National Economy And Public Administration); A.N. Komarnitskaya (The Russian Presidential Academy Of National Economy And Public Administration); O.V. Suchkova. (The Russian Presidential Academy Of National Economy And Public Administration)
    Abstract: Since 2021 the Russian tax policy relies on greater use of progressive taxation in order to mitigate income inequality. In fact, personal income tax scale has been reformed; however, this measure is not enough to solve the problem because of disparities between rich and poor to be origin from wealth inequality to a large extent. So, there is a need to employ non-standard, innovative approach based on a reform of property taxation, such as the introduction of a wealth tax. The need to mitigate inequality determines the relevance of the topic, while the approach to its development determines its scientific novelty. The authors set the goal of increasing the fairness of taxation by shifting fiscal burden to wealth instead of income or luxury itself, with regard to Russian-specific environments. The goal incorporates, among other things, such objectives as analyzing the peculiarities of the Russian property taxation practice, identifying shortcomings in the design of taxes on movable and immovable property, summarizing the best foreign practice of wealth taxation and forming a list of constructive recommendations when using scientific methods of analysis, comparison, analogy, induction and deduction. Upon studying a wide range of information sources including statistical data, economic papers and relevant regulatory framework, it was concluded that property taxation contributes very little to personal income equalization and generally has weak effect on the Russian tax system progressivity; at the same time, the most promising scenario for solving the problem of inequality by tax means is to impose a wealth tax, which would be charged only on real estate, without affecting other assets such as bank deposits, securities, and vehicles. The recommendations refer to the applied part of the paper and are aimed at forming a tax reform procedure harmonized with the interests of taxpayers and adapted to the current real property tax design. The paper substantiates that at the initial stage of wealth taxation, priority should be given to the effectiveness of tax administration, which implies the continuity of many elements of the luxury tax in the wealth tax, including personal tax-free allowance at 300 million rubles and flat tax rate of 2%. However, tax base should be reformed and determined by the sum of cadastral values of individual immovable assets. Along with this, real property wealth tax is supposed to increase federal tax revenues (not municipal ones). The prospects of research in this field topic are related to the use of digital technologies in the administration of wealth tax that allow a reduction of compliance costs and preventing tax evasion.
    Keywords: ability-to-pay principle, immovable property, income inequality, property taxation, real property tax, tax fairness, tax progressivity, wealth tax
  4. By: Colin Weiss
    Abstract: Events of the last five years, such as the U.S.-China trade war, the COVID-19 pandemic, and—most recently—Russia’s invasion of Ukraine, have raised concerns in the popular press and among policymakers that the international economic and financial system is at risk of becoming significantly fragmented (Aiyar et al., 2023; Ip, 2023; Shin, 2023). Most recently, attention has shifted to the possibility of fragmentation along geopolitical lines, where countries primarily trade with and invest in other countries with which they share close diplomatic and political ties (International Monetary Fund, 2023a, b).
    Date: 2023–08–04
  5. By: Komarov, Vladimir (Комаров, Владимир) (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Akimova, Varvara (Акимова, Варвара) (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Voloshinskaya, Anna (Волошинская, Анна) (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration)
    Abstract: It is shown that the world is undergoing a transition from the paradigm of economic growth to the paradigm of sustainable development and growth in the quality of life, a holistic vision of progress. In Russia, the methodological approach to the development of strategic planning documents is based on increasing the competitiveness of the territory and is aimed at ensuring economic growth
    Keywords: methodological approach, strategic planning
  6. By: Marco Catola; Pietro Guarnieri; Veronica Pizziol; Chiara Rapallini
    Abstract: We use a multilevel public goods game to investigate attitudes towards national public budgets and a European public budget in six Member States of the European Union: Italy, Germany, France, The Netherlands, Poland, and Portugal. We test to what extent propensities to contribute to public goods differ across countries. Using two efficiency treatments, we also test whether each country group adjusts its contribution when the relative efficiency of the public goods changes. We find no differences across countries in the propensity to contribute to either public budget. Moreover, all country groups level up their contribution to the European public good following an increase in its relative efficiency. We also devise a questionnaire to assess the impact of a sense of identity on contribution decisions and to control for the impact of COVID-19 and the current war in Ukraine on country and EU perceptions.
    Keywords: multilevel public goods game, public budget, European Union, online experiment, efficiency; social dilemma
    JEL: C90 H41 H61
    Date: 2023–09–01
  7. By: Goran Durakovic; Hongyu Zhang; Brage Rugstad Knudsen; Asgeir Tomasgard; Pedro Crespo del Granado
    Abstract: Hydrogen and carbon capture and storage are pivotal to decarbonize the European energy system in a broad range of pathway scenarios. Yet, their timely uptake in different sectors and distribution across countries are affected by supply options of renewable and fossil energy sources. Here, we analyze the decarbonization of the European energy system towards 2060, covering the power, heat, and industry sectors, and the change in use of hydrogen and carbon capture and storage in these sectors upon Europe's decoupling from Russian gas. The results indicate that the use of gas is significantly reduced in the power sector, instead being replaced by coal with carbon capture and storage, and with a further expansion of renewable generators. Coal coupled with carbon capture and storage is also used in the steel sector as an intermediary step when Russian gas is neglected, before being fully decarbonized with hydrogen. Hydrogen production mostly relies on natural gas with carbon capture and storage until natural gas is scarce and costly at which time green hydrogen production increases sharply. The disruption of Russian gas imports has significant consequences on the decarbonization pathways for Europe, with local energy sources and carbon capture and storage becoming even more important.
    Date: 2023–08
  8. By: Popov, Vladimir
    Abstract: The current process of moving away from the US dollar as a reserve currency will cause the outflow of capital from the US, leading to the depreciation of the dollar and/or increase in the interest rates that will cause costly real restructuring – reallocation of resources from less competitive to more competitive export-oriented industries accompanied by an increase in unemployment. This paper makes parallels with the decline of the British pound after the Second World War, arguing that the loss of competitiveness and the stop-go policies in Britain in the 1950s-70s can well be an indicator of what is going to happen in the US. One of the new features of the current situation, however, is the freezing of reserve assets of many developing countries (Syria, Libya, Iran, Venezuela, Afghanistan, Russia) and the danger of freezing assets of other countries (China and Saudi Arabia included) – this can make the run away from the US dollar an uncontrolled process. Whereas in the long term this process may be beneficial for the US and the world economy, short- and medium- term adjustment costs can be extremely high. To ensure a soft landing the New Development Bank of BRICS countries can issue bonds that would be sold to developing countries, whose assets have been frozen or may be frozen by the West, so that they can store their foreign exchange reserves in these bonds. The Bank will invest the proceeds from the sale of these bonds in the traditional financial instruments for storing foreign exchange reserves - US and EU treasury bills and bonds denominated in the same dollars and euros. Bonds of the Bank would be considered safe because the US and EU will not risk freezing the assets of the Bank, as this would mean a major conflict with all BRICS countries and the Global South. For the Western countries, this option is not only acceptable, but also desirable: the new Bank will transfer the current direct holding of Western securities by developing countries into the holdings of the same Western financial instruments through the Bank, ensuring the soft landing.
    Keywords: Pound and dollar as reserve currencies, outflow of capital, accumulation of foreign exchange reserves (FOREX), BRICS, New Development Bank
    JEL: F31 F32 F33 F63 N14 O19
    Date: 2023–08–20
  9. By: Roberto Roson (Department of Economics, University Of Venice CÃ Foscari); Emanuela Ghignoni (University of Rome 'Sapienza')
    Abstract: This paper presents a data set, associating education levels to occupations, and a methodology, which allow estimating how the distribution of the two variables could change, after some exogenous shock affecting the labor market. We assess some implications of the empirical finding that, in response to a weaker demand for labor, sufficiently educated workers would reallocate themselves into lower-ranked occupations, rather than getting unemployed. The exercise is conducted with Italian data, where 37 occupations and 10 education levels are considered. A counterfactual distribution is estimated, using a computable general equilibrium model to simulate the impact on the labor market of a trade disruption crisis with Russia.
    Keywords: Skill Mismatch, Education, Overeducation, Unemployment, Labor Market, Computable General Equilibrium Models
    JEL: A20 C23 C68 C82 D58 E24 F16 I20 J21 J24 J62 J82
    Date: 2023
  10. By: Kim, Dongkyu
    Abstract: This article delves into the international competition for COVID-19 vaccine patents, focusing on the tensions between policies and systems, cyber diplomacy for solidarity, and security discourse. These aspects are examined through the lens of the Complex Geopolitics theory, which encompasses technological changes. Firstly, concerning security discourse, apprehensions arose regarding the potential transfer of vaccine technology from holders and companies, particularly from the United States, to Russia and China. The concept of Friction between Policies and Systems pertains to the distribution and accessibility policies for vaccines. Specifically, the discourse on compulsory licensing under TRIPs Article 31 and Article 5A of the Paris Agreement has led to a division between central and peripheral countries. In addition to compulsory licensing, France, Russia, China, and other third countries advocated for a straightforward waiver of patent rights. However, Germany and Italy argued that such a waiver would not effectively prevent global pandemics. Lastly, Diplomacy for Solidarity reveals that although the COVID-19 vaccine deliberations prompted diplomatic maneuvers by major powers to secure vaccine alliances, instances of solidarity diplomacy regarding vaccine patents are rare. Notwithstanding, notable examples include the R&D investments between the Austrian and Danish heads of government, as well as the Inclusive Vaccine Alliance comprising Italy, Germany, France, and the Netherlands. Regrettably, these efforts seem more focused on equitable vaccine access rather than patent waiver and/or compulsory licensing. Thus, we confront an imperative time to delve deeper into the discussion of the "third way" advocated by the WTO Director-General.
    Date: 2023–08–25
  11. By: Spirin, Victor
    Abstract: The need for the rule of law for sustainable economic development is considered an indisputable axiom of the international economy. However, another axiom imposed on developing countries by the Washington Consensus is free trade with the developed world. But free trade between developing countries and developed countries leads to a system of international division of labor in which developed countries specialize in high technology, knowledge-intensive industries and industries with high added value and increasing returns, while developing countries specialize in the extraction of raw materials and primitive production activities with low value added and diminishing returns. Under these conditions, the rule of law to a greater extent ensures the rights of developed countries and consolidates and strengthens the indicated system of the international division of labor, without any benefits to the developing countries. In this article, we will give some simple examples from the economies of Russia and Eastern Europe, in which we will demonstrate the above conclusions. We also argue that, under reasonable protectionism, the rule of law, which promotes domestic high-tech development and production, would indeed have the desired effect. However, this, again, is incompatible with free trade with more developed countries.
    Keywords: Vanek-Reinert effect, free trade, standard model, macroeconomic effect of globalization, rule of law
    JEL: F6 F60 F62 F63
    Date: 2023–08–25
  12. By: Lea Karbevska; C\'esar A. Hidalgo
    Abstract: Value chain data is crucial to navigate economic disruptions, such as those caused by the COVID-19 pandemic and the war in Ukraine. Yet, despite its importance, publicly available value chain datasets, such as the ``World Input-Output Database'', ``Inter-Country Input-Output Tables'', ``EXIOBASE'' or the ``EORA'', lack detailed information about products (e.g. Radio Receivers, Telephones, Electrical Capacitors, LCDs, etc.) and rely instead on more aggregate industrial sectors (e.g. Electrical Equipment, Telecommunications). Here, we introduce a method based on machine learning and trade theory to infer product-level value chain relationships from fine-grained international trade data. We apply our method to data summarizing the exports and imports of 300+ world regions (e.g. states in the U.S., prefectures in Japan, etc.) and 1200+ products to infer value chain information implicit in their trade patterns. Furthermore, we use proportional allocation to assign the trade flow between regions and countries. This work provides an approximate method to map value chain data at the product level with a relevant trade flow, that should be of interest to people working in logistics, trade, and sustainable development.
    Date: 2023–06
  13. By: Plomien, Ania; Schwartz, Gregory
    Abstract: What are the processes and consequences of markets reaching deeper into social reproduction? How do these developments, in the context of Europeanisation underpinned by neoliberalisation and transnationalisation, compel labour mobility? To consider these questions we apply social reproduction theory and the framework of uneven and combined accumulation of capital in Europe to the analysis of the UK, Poland and Ukraine and their food production, housing construction and care provision sectors. We explore how transformations, in these three countries interconnected by labour mobilities and in these three domains key to social reproduction, not only affect the industries that supply food, housing and care, but, crucially, redraw the contours of social reproduction. Theorising social reproduction as a continuum of market, state and household provisioning, we outline its transformation within the specific constellation of Europeanisation and delineate how mobility is both propelled by and advances market-reach into food, housing and care. We argue that market-driven transnational social reproduction is constituted by contradictions stemming from the deepening subordination of reproductive labour to the law of value, progressively depriving households of the promise of prosperity - a complex process that is made visible by our feminist critique of political economy.
    Keywords: social reproduction; transnational labour mobility; Europeanisation; market-reach; Poland; Ukraine; T&F deal
    JEL: R14 J01
    Date: 2023–08–10
  14. By: Kohnert, Dirk
    Abstract: The West African Economic and Monetary Union (UEMOA) was established by France to counteract the dominance of Anglophone countries in West Africa, particularly Nigeria and Ghana, over Francophone West Africa. Francophonie in French West Africa is mainly driven by a power elite, the 'Pré Quarré' in both France and Africa. The notorious Françafrique network determined the fate of the region for decades. This provoked a growing anti-French sentiment, which focused on three points. First, development policy; second, the currency; and third, the military. France was the only western country to maintain a significant military presence in the Sahel. While the number of French troops has fallen drastically from 30, 000 in the early 1960s to around 6, 100 today, political and military interventionism has not abated. But, after so many years of failed military efforts against terrorism in the region, citizens became increasingly suspicious of France's motives for being there. However, a clear distinction must be made between anti-French sentiment and anti-French military presence. Many believe that any presence of foreign troops in the Sahel makes the situation worse by attracting rather than repelling extremists. Yet, this view obscures two important realities. First, the development of a broader authoritarian movement, driven in part by Russia, that challenges democracy and its proponents. The local population makes France the scapegoat for the worsening of their situation on the ground. Its political leaders are capitalizing on hostility to the colonial legacy, including the CFA franc and military cooperation. This is fertile ground for insurgent military officials, who have no legal legitimacy but a thirst for authenticity. The slogan 'France, get out' has become a new means of legitimizing political and military power in French-speaking Africa. However, for some autocrats it is also used as a welcome distraction from acknowledging their own responsibility for the predicament. Africans are becoming increasingly aware that France is staying in Africa for its own interests. But anti-French is not necessarily pro-coup. The axis of young, fiery military leaders, seeking legitimacy from their terrorized compatriots, exploited all sorts of populist sentiments, from Africanism to the quest for economic independence. They accused Paris of supporting the terrorists who are targeting the local population so that France can continue siphoning off their resources and thereby sinking the country into increasing poverty. It would be a mistake to think that making it clear to Africans that they are being manipulated by the Russians would end the whole thing. Nevertheless, the African heavyweights of UEMOA, Côte d'Ivoire and Senegal, as well as the other member states, will keep the Union together out of self-interest, albeit on fairer terms. African public opinion is-understandably extremely sensitive to being treated as an equal. They don't want to be lectured to or made fun of.
    Keywords: Françafrique; UEMOA; CEDEAO; Sentiment anti-français; Africanismes; coup d'État; gouvernance; développement durable; post-colonialisme; secteur informel; Franc CFA; APD; Afrique subsaharienne; Afrique de l'Ouest; Mali; Burkina Faso; Niger; Guinée; Nigeria; Études africaines;
    JEL: F15 F35 F51 F52 F54 H12 H56 K42 L13 L72 N17 N47 Z13
    Date: 2023–08–22
  15. By: Smolnik, Franziska
    Abstract: Connectivity, especially in the transport sector, has become a ubiquitous issue in the South Caucasus in recent years. Transport connectivity also plays a central role in the European Union's policy towards the region. As part of its Global Gateway Initiative, the EU has made a commitment that is both value-based and geostrategic. To do justice to this commitment, the EU should consider the different dimensions of transport connectivity and their implications on several levels and in an integrated manner. In particular, the EU should take into account the link between connectivity and questions of political power. The EU could provide support in establishing genuinely inclusive and transparent multi-stakeholder processes and independent project monitoring. This could point the way towards a more holistic approach to connectivity. The EU should also critically examine its commitment to connectivity for possible conflicts of objectives. The policy debate in Berlin and Brussels would benefit from a more intensive exchange with critical logistics, infrastructure and connectivity studies. Their findings could contribute to a more nuanced view of transport connectivity and its complexities and ambivalences.
    Keywords: South Caucasus, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, transport connectivity, infrastructure, geopolitics, Trans-European Transport Network, TEN-T, International North South Transport Corridor, INSTC, Kvesheti-Kobi, Transport Corridor Europe Caucasus Asia, TRACECA, Global Gateway, Südkaukasus, Georgien, Armenien, Aserbaidschan, Transportkonnektivität, Infrastruktur, Geopolitik, transeuropäisches Verkehrsnetz, Transportkorridor, Kvesheti-Kobi, TRACECA, Global Gateway
    Date: 2023
  16. By: G. Garau; A.K. El Meligi
    Abstract: The past three years have witnessed two rare events, the pandemic and the Ukrainian war, which have had significant impacts on the redistribution of surplus. Although both events were exceptional, they affected the surplus redistribution mechanisms differently. The pandemic has raised concerns about globalization processes, leading to a redefinition of global value chains. Conversely, the war has had devastating effects on populations, non-compliance with international laws, and cost inflation, similar to the oil crises of the 1970s. Interestingly, while production systems have scaled back in response to the pandemic, online sales, and the procurement of vaccines and medicines have grown exponentially on a global scale. In contrast, the war has caused certain goods, such as energy, agriculture, and electronics, to become scarce, causing problems in value chains and our daily lives. This paper aims to investigate the period between 2010 and 2019, corresponding to the interval between the 2008 crisis and the 2019 breakdown, to better understand the relationships between productive sectors and economic agents in France and Italy. Using the Input-Output Tables (IOT) at current and constant prices produced by the respective national statistical systems, we will analyze how the pandemic and the war could affect distributional rules, using Fontela s (1989) and Garau s (1996) methods. Fontela s model establishes the distributional rule of productivity gain in the input-output context, while Garau s proposed model identifies a measure of surplus, called purchasing power transfer (PPT), which accounts for the extra-profit conditions resulting from rental positions held by agents (Market Surplus). By analyzing the Total Factor Productivity Surplus (TFPS) and Market Surplus measures, policymakers can understand the degree of non-competitiveness in different markets and the impact of the pandemic and the war on sectoral redistribution mechanisms. Limiting market surplus situations and eliminating barriers that protect specific sectors can prevent hindrances to the full revival of the economy. Although the pandemic and the war have global effects, this paper emphasizes the importance of studying redistribution mechanisms at the sectoral level. Understanding sectoral relations can help create a more equitable redistribution of the benefits of economic growth and identify the mechanisms and rules necessary to counteract the observed global issues.
    Keywords: input-output;Total Factor Productivity Surplus;relative prices
    Date: 2023
  17. By: Schmitz, Andrea
    Abstract: The religious policy innovations that Uzbekistan's President Mirziyoyev has initiated in the name of liberalisation and reform continue the policies of his predecessor in key aspects. Under the motto 'enlightenment against ignorance', state influence over the religious knowledge taught in educational and research institutions has been strengthened. The country's Islamic heritage is proactively used for representative purposes and held up as an integral part of national culture. The religious policy measures that amount to a 'secularisation' of Islam through scientification and musealisation do not reach large sections of society. For the ordinary believer, Islam is not a science but a matter of belief, a system of rules and convictions that guides the way they live. The liberalisation of the media landscape means that religious advice is available in abundance. It often includes propaganda transporting illiberal ideas, but the state intervenes only selectively. The liberalisation of religious policy has resulted in a growing Islamisation of the population. The authoritarian state headed by President Mirziyoyev is thus being consolidated. Repression remains the means of choice should Islamic milieus seriously challenge the secular state.
    Keywords: Uzbekistan, President Mirziyoyev, Islam, Imam, Sharia, Muslim authorities, Koran, secularism, religious education, Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan (IBU), Directorate of Muslims of Uzbekistan (DMU)
    Date: 2023

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