nep-cis New Economics Papers
on Confederation of Independent States
Issue of 2023‒09‒04
23 papers chosen by

  1. Convergence Patterns of Regional Income Inequalities in Russia By Gluschenko, Konstantin
  2. REDISTRIBUTION OF TAX REVENUES BETWEEN THE LEVELS OF THE BUDGET SYSTEM IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION By Arlashkin, Igor (Арлашкин, Игорь); Barbashova, Natalya (Барбашова, Наталья); Deryugin, Aleksandr (Дерюгин, Александр); Komarnitskaya, Anna (Комарницкая, Анна)
  3. Towards a New Global Financial Architecture for the Global South By Khan, Haider
  4. Republic of Estonia: 2023 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; and Staff Report By International Monetary Fund
  5. International experience in supporting employment through entrepreneurship and the possibility of its application in Russia By Barinova, Vera (Баринова, Вера); Demidova, Ksenia (Демидова, Ксения); Zemtsov, Stepan (Земцов, Степан); Tsareva, Yulia (Царева, Юлия)
  6. FEATURES OF SMALL BUSINESS SUPPORT IN RURAL AREAS By Gataulina, Ekaterina (Гатаулина, Екатерина); Potapova, Alexandra (Потапова, Александра); Ternovskiy, Denis (Терновский, Денис); Shishkina, Ekaterina (Шишкина, Екатерина)
  7. PLACES OF SPECTACLE AND SPACES OF PERFORMANCE IN EXPERIMENTAL THEATER CULTURE OF THE XX-XXI CENTURIES (RUSSIAN CONTEXT) By Vasilieva, Zhanna (Васильева, Жанна); Dunaeva, Alexandra (Дунаева, Александра); Zolotukhin, Balery (Золотухин, Валерий); Liderman, Yulia (Лидерман, Юлия)
  8. Comparison of competition authorities’ approaches to entry barriers definition and analysis By Sluzhevskaya, Valeria (Служевская, Валерия); Morosanova, Anastasia (Моросанова, Анастасия)
  9. The analysis of small and medium enterprises’ (SMEs’) support, aimed at achieving sustainable development goals in the EU Countries, policy recommendations for Russia By Barinova, Vera (Баринова, Вера); Demidova, Ksenia (Демидова, Ксения); Loginova, Arina (Логинова, Арина)
  10. BRICS. Compliance Amid Global Governance System Crisis By Doronin, Pavel (Доронин, Павел); Ignatov, Alexander (Игнатов, Александр); Kolmar, Olga (Колмар, Ольга)
  11. Homelessness and Poverty in Europe. An introduction By Hélène B Ducros; Elizabeth B. Jones
  12. Did Grain Futures Prices Overreact to the Russia-Ukraine War? By Carter, Colin A.; Steinbach, Sandro
  13. MODELLING SCENARIOS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THE LIVESTOCK SECTOR By Strokov, Anton (Строков, Антон); Potashnikov, Vladimir (Поташников, Владимир)
  14. National and regional innovation systems: best practices in developed and developing countries By Ivanova, Margarita (Иванова, Маргарита); Zemtsov, Stepan (Земцов, Степан); Mikhaylov, Alexander (Михайлов, Александр)
  16. PROTECTION OF PUBLIC VALUES: EVALUATING STATE REGULATORY ENFORCEMENT ACTIVITY FROM CITIZEN PERSPECTIVE By Yuzhakov, Vladimir (Южаков, Владимир); Dobrolyubova, Elena (Добролюбова, Елена); Pokida, Andrei (Покида, Андрей); Zybunovskaya, Natalia (Зыбуновская, Наталья)
  17. Analysis of new approaches to identifying risks and ensuring financial stability in modern national financial systems By Danilov Yury (Данилов, Юрий); Pivovarov, Daniil (Пивоваров, Даниил); Davydov, Igor (Давыдов, Игорь)
  18. Sharing, Social Norms, and Social Distance: Experimental Evidence from Russia and Western Alaska By E. Lance Howe; James J. Murphy; Drew Gerkey; Olga B. Stoddard; Colin Thor West
  19. MANDATORY PENSION SAVINGS IN RUSSIA: EXPERIENCE AND PROSPECTS By Abramov, Alexander (Абрамов, Александр); Radygin, Alexander (Радыгин, Александр); Chernova, Maria (Чернова, Мария)
  20. Antitrust Law Enforcement in Primary And Aftermarkets By Stavniychuk, Anna (Ставнийчук, Анна); Meleshkina, Anna (Мелешкина, Анна)
  21. Monthly Report No. 2/2023 By Tereza De Castro; Branimir Jovanović; Michael Landesmann; Sebastian Leitner; Cristina Procházková Ilinitchi; Ondřej Sankot; Jana Vlčková
  22. “Not allowing to pernicious ways”: Jewish movement and reproduction of intolerance By Zelenina, Galina (Зеленина, Галина)
  23. ECOWAS, once an assertive power in West Africa, reduced to a paper tiger? By Kohnert, Dirk

  1. By: Gluschenko, Konstantin
    Abstract: The paper analyzes the evolution of dispersion of regional income inequalities in Russia in 1995-2022. The aim of the study is to reveal the ‘anatomy’ of regional inequality convergence that took place in 1995-2012, and the divergence that followed it, i.e. the internal structure of these processes. To this end, the paper explores the evolution of the regional Gini indices distribution, namely, that of main distribution statistics and the distribution itself (represented by a histogram). The results obtained suggest that convergence of regional levels of income inequality in Russia in 1995–2012 is almost exclusively due to "catching-up" of low-inequality regions with high-inequality regions. Therefore, this process cannot be considered positive. Divergence of regional inequalities in 2013-2022, on the contrary, was accompanied by a decrease in income inequalities in the regions, improving the situation with spatial inequality in Russia.
    Keywords: income inequality, convergence, divergence, Gini index, Galton’s fallacy, Russian regions
    JEL: D31 D61 R11
    Date: 2023–07–23
  2. By: Arlashkin, Igor (Арлашкин, Игорь) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Barbashova, Natalya (Барбашова, Наталья) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Deryugin, Aleksandr (Дерюгин, Александр) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Komarnitskaya, Anna (Комарницкая, Анна) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration)
    Abstract: The subject of the study is the distribution of tax revenues between the levels of the budget system in the Russian Federation. The relevance of the study is caused by the need to strengthen the vertical balance of the budget system through tax decentralization in the context of the restructuring of the Russian economy. The aim of the study is to find parameters of tax decentralization that do not worsen the horizontal balance of regional budgets. The research method is the modeling of tax revenues of the consolidated regional budgets. The study used data from the Federal Treasury, the Federal Tax Service and the Ministry of Finance of Russia for 2019–2021. The scientific novelty of the study consists in modeling the effects of tax decentralization on the level of differentiation of regional tax revenues using the latest available data. As a result of the study, it was shown that an increase in regional shares for personal income tax, some components of the MET, water tax and fees for the use of aquatic biological objects up to 100 % will not lead to an increase in inter-regional differentiation of per capita tax revenues. The conclusion of the study is that there is a potential for tax decentralization in Russia, which can be realized by redistributing tax revenues to the regional level without worsening the horizontal budget balance. The prospects of the study are to take into account the effects of the structural transformation of the economy on the territorial distribution of tax bases and the level of taxation, as well as to detail the calculations of the MET as new data are accumulated.
    JEL: H71 H73 H77
    Date: 2022–11
  3. By: Khan, Haider
    Abstract: Abstract: The main argument is that a historical nodal point has arisen with the advent of the tragic war in Ukraine and the US hostilities towards China. THE sanctions regimes of the US-led Global North have compounded the instabilities in the existing system. As the world system moves towards multipolarity, an opportunity exists for the Global South to construct through partial delinking from the post WW2 financial architecture under US hegemony. Construction of an expanded BRICS-led supra regional financial architecture along with regional financial architectures will be a good step forward. Within two decades dedollarization will become a reality. Finally, a new non-aligned movement and construction of genuinely pro-people development programs can also become a reality.
    Keywords: Ukraine, multi[polarity, BRICS, expanded BRICS, China, The Global South
    JEL: F33 F34 F38
    Date: 2023–06–01
  4. By: International Monetary Fund
    Abstract: Estonia has made remarkable progress over the past two decades, achieving steady convergence towards more advanced EU economies. However, signs of erosion in external performance have emerged in recent years, reflecting rapid growth in unit labor cost and real exchange rate appreciation. Russia’s invasion of Ukraine triggered a large rise in inflation, supply chain disruptions and slower growth in key trading partners in the Baltic region. In Estonia, these developments, combined with fiscal tightening in 2022, have led to a sharp economic downturn, while deceleration in productivity has exacerbated competitiveness erosion.
    Date: 2023–07–28
  5. By: Barinova, Vera (Баринова, Вера) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Demidova, Ksenia (Демидова, Ксения) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Zemtsov, Stepan (Земцов, Степан) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Tsareva, Yulia (Царева, Юлия) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration)
    Abstract: Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) employ more than 50% of the population of developed countries, so their support is one of the significant measures in maintaining employment. The relevance of this direction has grown since the crisis of 2020, which caused significant damage to the SME sector. The aim of the work was systematization and generalization of the developed countries’ experience in SME support in crisis and non-crisis periods, identification of support tools needed in Russia. The tasks of the study included analyzing both the experience of the development of employment support policies and tools for supporting and developing entrepreneurship using various crises as an example. The research was carried out using general scientific methods (analysis, synthesis, induction and deduction, comparisons, generalizations, etc.). The authors reviewed the literature and open sources relevant for 2021, including reports by international organizations, regulatory legal acts. The results of the research are conclusions about the foreign experience of employment support and the possibility of its application in Russia. The main direction of the employment support policy in non-crisis periods abroad is to create motivation for mediumand long-term unemployed to look for work, to attract vulnerable social groups to work; acceleration programs are used to support SMEs by reducing administrative pressure and increasing regulatory transparency. During the current crisis, the government support for business abroad intensified in two directions: supporting the liquidity of companies and facilitating the maximum transfer of activities to a remote, digital mode. Over the past decade, Russia has actively advanced in non-crisis support for SMEs, but in the current crisis, it needs to expand the areas of preferential lending or co-financing, and step up assistance to digitalize the activities of SMEs. The main direction of further research is to analyze the use of said foreign instruments in Russia, compare their effectiveness and adjust them taking into consideration Russian specifics.
    Keywords: small and medium-sized enterprises, entrepreneurship, employment support, business policy, anti-crisis policy
    Date: 2021–12–14
  6. By: Gataulina, Ekaterina (Гатаулина, Екатерина) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Potapova, Alexandra (Потапова, Александра) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Ternovskiy, Denis (Терновский, Денис) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Shishkina, Ekaterina (Шишкина, Екатерина) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration)
    Abstract: One of the priorities of state policy is small business and the development of rural areas. It is obvious that rural small business (SB) is an important aspect of the development of rural areas. However, it has been little studied, which justifies the relevance of the study. The purpose of the work is to analyze the state of rural small business, to identify the peculiarities of its support. The objectives of the study include an analysis of methodological issues of identification and support of small businesses in rural areas, the formation of a database based on a review of information sources, analysis of the current state of, and support measures for, small businesses in rural areas based on the generated data sets. A separate task of the study is to identify the status quo and peculiarities of support for rural small businesses in the context of COVID-19. The work was carried out at the Center for Agri- Food Policy of the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration in 2021. The main sources of information were data from the Unified Register of Small and Medium-sized Businesses and the Unified Register of Small and Medium-sized Businesses receiving support. The two registers are maintained by the Federal Tax Service of the Russian Federation. Comparative, computational-constructive, statistical methods were used. As a result, for the first time, an assessment of the current state of rural small business in Russia was obtained in regional and sectoral cross-sections in terms of the number and density of businesses; in comparison with the urban areas, which is also the novelty of this work. The regions with the highest concentration of rural small business, as well as regions where it develops less successfully, are highlighted. It is shown that the main volume of support for rural SBs falls on agriculture, although the main sphere of rural SBs is trade, transport, and only then agriculture. The results can be used to improve regional and federal policy in the field of rural development. Further research can develop in terms of further monitoring of rural small business, expanding the analysis of the characteristics of rural small businesses, now available through a limited range of indicators, identifying factors affecting the development of rural small businesses.
    Keywords: Small-scale rural entrepreneurship, rural development, government support, agriculture, subsidies and grants, Register of small and medium-sized businesses
    Date: 2021–12–14
  7. By: Vasilieva, Zhanna (Васильева, Жанна) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Dunaeva, Alexandra (Дунаева, Александра) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Zolotukhin, Balery (Золотухин, Валерий) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Liderman, Yulia (Лидерман, Юлия) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration)
    Abstract: The subject of the research is various practices of the live art and spatial reflection in them. The purpose of this study is to identify the correlation between the “spatial turns” of the history of Russian live art and social ideological contexts. The relevance of the research is associated with the study of the function of spatial reflection in a new, increasingly virtualized cultural situation, developing in response to the restrictions imposed because of the pandemic. The novelty of this research is associated with the introduction into scientific circulation of various archival documents from the history of the latest forms of the live art in Russia in 1990-2010. Also new is the cross-institutional understanding of the object of research, covering both theatrical and photographic, expositional art practices outside the theater and museum building. Poststructuralist art theory and cultural memory theory became key theories on the basis of which analytical approaches to understanding the current artistic process were developed. The work resulted in theoretical developments for the study of the spatial aspects of the latest practices in live arts, as well as the identification of social and cultural contexts that are key to the history of art in situ in Russia. The negative aesthetics of theatrical events mastering non-theatrical spaces: streets, foyers, roofs, squares, natural landscapes open up the possibility of analyzing the theatrical process and its auto-reflective function. Theatrical and performative events turn out to be closely integrated into such social processes as cultural democratization (inclusion of more and more new groups in the processes of cultural interactions), commemoration (the creation of new rituals and narratives for memory and preservation of cultural heritage), as well as in the processes of creating and drawing attention to the public spaces of a modern city. We believe that a necessary step for the development of the theory of contemporary art is the inclusion of a cross-disciplinary understanding of the object of study, in which live performing arts, installation arts, visual arts, video and audio experiments in exhibition projects would be considered together and thus the ideas and concepts of post-structuralist cultural criticism could be applicable to the contemporary art process.
    Keywords: Live art, performance, politics of space, inclusion, theater outside the theater building, communicative memory, Russian theater
    Date: 2021–12–14
  8. By: Sluzhevskaya, Valeria (Служевская, Валерия) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Morosanova, Anastasia (Моросанова, Анастасия) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration)
    Abstract: Studying the existence and type of barriers to entry is an integral part of competition analysis conducted by antitrust authorities in different countries. As a result, competition authorities in different countries have accumulated a lot of knowledge on this matter, which can be shared between regulators to define best practices and identify the weaknesses of the approaches used. This preprint compares the approaches to defining and measuring barriers to entry used by the antitrust authorities in Russia, USA, EU, Germany, Spain and Australia, which makes it possible to identify the shortcomings of the approach used by FAS of Russia and foreign antitrust regulators. Among the shortcomings of the studied approaches, the author highlights lack of consistency in identifying entry barriers, which is exceptionally noticeable in terms of barrier level analysis. Also, the cases reviewed by competition authorities lack quantitative assessment of entry barriers, which shows the gap between the ongoing academic research and law enforcement practice. The Federal Antimonopoly Service of Russia stands out in comparison to foreign competition authorities, because it often conducts only a formal definition of the entry barriers, limiting the description to a simple enumeration of market barriers or even completely skipping this part of the analysis. As a result, the Russian antitrust authority often draws unsubstantiated conclusions when assessing market entry barriers.
    Keywords: entry barriers, antitrust regulation, competition analysis, relevant product market, relevant geographic market, competition law, market power, market entry
    JEL: D40 L40 L50
    Date: 2022–08
  9. By: Barinova, Vera (Баринова, Вера) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Demidova, Ksenia (Демидова, Ксения) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Loginova, Arina (Логинова, Арина) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration)
    Abstract: The Sustainable Development Goals remain relevant in times of crisis, especially such goals as eradicating poverty, inequality, ensuring economic growth, developing innovation and infrastructure. Achieving these goals is where small and medium-sized enterprises can play a key role. An analysis of the EU countries’ experience in the application of entrepreneurship support measures is of particular interest for the prompt adjustment of the Russian SME support policy, since they take into account not only short-term political and economic needs, but are aimed at achieving a long-term result - sustainable development. The scientific novelty of the study lies in the analysis of the best foreign SME support practices in terms of achieving certain indicators of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The purpose of the work is to generalize the experience of SME support in the EU in connection with the implementation of sustainable development goals. For this, the following tasks have been set: establishing links between the SME activities and the implementation of the SDGs; analysis of support for various target groups of entrepreneurs in the context of achieving SDGs 8, 9 in the EU; analysis of anti-crisis support measures in the context of achieving SDGs 8, 9 in the EU. General scientific methods are applied - generalizations, comparisons, synthesis, inductive approach. The following conclusions and results were obtained in the study: SMEs contribute greatly to value creation, development and use of innovations, promoting employment, and they are most consistent with SDGs 8, 9; the main support measures include traditional loans and guarantees, subsidies, public procurement, tax incentives, as well as digital platforms, improving the digital skills of the population, financing scientific research; support for vulnerable groups of entrepreneurs is carried out through the promotion of entrepreneurship, the development of entrepreneurial skills and culture, information and advisory support, access to financing, development of entrepreneur networks and improvement of labor legislation; development of assistive technology to access support measures; provision of premises for doing business, coaching, mentoring. Among the recommendations for the Russian practice, it is necessary to note facilitating the SME access to financial resources, promoting entrepreneurship, creating networks of entrepreneurs in areas with different specifics, training entrepreneurs and the public in digital technologies, and providing special benefits for doing business to vulnerable groups of the population. Research prospects: analysis of the Russian experience of SME support in conjunction with the SDGs and generalization of the most effective practices in order to form an effective policy.
    Keywords: small and medium entrepreneurship, sustainable development goals, foreign experience, government support, youth entrepreneurship, women's entrepreneurship, digitalization, anti-crisis policy
    JEL: J78 O38 O57 Q01
    Date: 2022–07
  10. By: Doronin, Pavel (Доронин, Павел) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Ignatov, Alexander (Игнатов, Александр) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Kolmar, Olga (Колмар, Ольга) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration)
    Abstract: The paper assesses the effectiveness of BRICS as a global governance institution in the time of global social-economic crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic and escalation of political tensions in the first half of 2022. The main object of the study is the implementation of the decisions made at the BRICS summit in New Delhi in 2021. The goal of the study is to monitor and assess the BRICS compliance with the collective decisions made in the key areas such as security, macroeconomics, finance, international institutions’ reform agenda, etc. The research is relevant as it attempts to find an optimal strategy for preserving Russia’s position at the global fora in order to mitigate growing pressure over Russia’s economic and political system. The ongoing study will enable an objective assessment of the role BRICS plays in the context of realizing Russia's interests in key areas - macroeconomic policy, healthcare, energy sector, etc. The study is based on the methodology of comparative analysis of the effectiveness of international institutions, content analysis and criterial selection method. The authors conclude that in the crisis situation, BRICS has maintained adherence to the key decisions made in top-priority spheres and demonstrated high solidarity amid growing tensions between Russia and the Western countries, which signifies the value of the BRICS role in meeting Russia’s strategic priorities and keeping the country’s influence in the global politics.
    Keywords: BRICS, global governance, macroeconomics, development, crisis, digital economy, monitoring
    Date: 2022–08
  11. By: Hélène B Ducros (CES - Council for European Studies); Elizabeth B. Jones
    Abstract: While policymakers rightly blame the COVID-19 epidemic, the war in Ukraine, and persistently high levels of inflation for the lack of progress in alleviating homelessness and for the dire shortage of safe and affordable housing in many places, these factors have exacerbated rather than created a complex problem that touches a wide array of people at different life stages and under various socioeconomic conditions.
    Keywords: Homelessness, Poverty
    Date: 2023–07–12
  12. By: Carter, Colin A.; Steinbach, Sandro
    Abstract: We study the impact of the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine on corn, wheat, and soybean futures prices. The war provides a natural experiment to evaluate whether futures markets are driven by investor herding. Using event study methods, we find that wheat futures prices rose by 30 percent above the counterfactual immediately after the invasion, more than corn futures prices, which were up by 10 percent. This relative price response cannot be explained by herding behavior. Instead, we argue the larger move in wheat was due to fundamental concerns over the possibility of a complete disruption of Black Sea grain exports, including exports from Russia, the world's largest wheat exporter. Soybean prices did not respond to the war, contradicting herding. There is no statistical evidence of abnormal speculative pressure in the market around the time of the invasion, and we conclude the markets put a fair price on the wartime risk of Black Sea grain shipment disruptions.
    Keywords: Russia-Ukraine war, war premium, event study, behavioral finance, herding
    JEL: G13 G14 Q02
    Date: 2023–08–01
  13. By: Strokov, Anton (Строков, Антон) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Potashnikov, Vladimir (Поташников, Владимир) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration)
    Abstract: The relevance of the study is determined by the need to analyze the consequences of the concentration of livestock farms, not only from an economic point of view, but also from an environmental one. The objective of the research is to develop ways for sustainable development of animal husbandry in Russia, taking into account the possibilities of continuous growth in production and export of meat and milk, balanced by current environmental problems (growth of farm waste) and the possibilities of reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The subject of the research is the environmental indicators characterizing the externalities arising from the production of livestock products (meat, milk, eggs). The work uses traditional scientific methods - descriptive, analytical, statistical and methods of economic and mathematical modeling. The sources of information were Russian and foreign scientific publications, official publications of regulatory documents and statistical data of the Russian state authorities, as well as foreign databases on agricultural statistics. The reported results conclude that the concentration of livestock production facilities leads to different environmental consequences. Among the leading regions specializing in livestock products, the highest concentration is in the Central Black Earth Region: the Belgorod and Kursk regions account for almost 30% of all agricultural waste in Russia. The greenhouse gas emissions were estimated using the GLOBIOM partial equilibrium model. The calculation results showed that Belgorod region has one of the lowest carbon footprint indicators in livestock production: 8 tons of СО2 equiv. per ton of protein, which is associated with the low-carbon development of poultry farming. In other regions, which specialize in dairy and beef cattle breeding, the carbon footprint is at least twice as high, for example, in Krasnodar krai; however, the indicators of waste output per unit of production, on the contrary, are lower there. Thus, the scientific novelty of the research lies in the development of scientific and analytical tools for the correct identification of local, regional and global environmental risks when assessing the efficiency of meat, milk and eggs production. So, in our study, local risks were assessed through the concentration of manure (nitrogen) elements per unit of agricultural land and cultivated area at the level of municipalities. Regional risks were assessed through the indicator of waste from agricultural products. And finally, global risks were assessed through the indicator of greenhouse gas emissions, which also allowed us to estimate the so-called cumulative carbon footprint of each region per unit of animal protein produced. Based on the results of the study, recommendations were developed to improve statistical reporting on production waste in the agricultural sector; to differentially collect and publish data on various types of feeding of farm animals in different categories of farms, which will subsequently help to better calculate animal diets and their potential waste and greenhouse gas emissions, in order to identify the most “wasteful” and “sustainable” animal husbandry practices.
    Keywords: externalities, livestock production, production concentration, greenhouse gas emissions, carbon footprint, agricultural policy, environmental policy
    JEL: Q15 Q53 C39
    Date: 2022–08
  14. By: Ivanova, Margarita (Иванова, Маргарита) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Zemtsov, Stepan (Земцов, Степан) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Mikhaylov, Alexander (Михайлов, Александр) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration)
    Abstract: Relevance of the research: The totality of national and regional innovation systems, implying sustainable interaction and cooperation between scientific, educational, government organizations and businesses, is the basis for the country's innovative and economic development. Due to the wide variety of systems existing in the world, it seems appropriate to identify the main problems and patterns of their development in the advanced and developing economies. The results of the study will help determine the directions for improving the regional policy of the Russian Federation in the field of innovation economics. The goal of this study is to analyze and summarize foreign experience in organizing national and regional innovation systems. Research methods and methodology: comparative analysis, system analysis, qualitative analysis, historical and economic analysis. Scientific novelty: We conducted a deep analysis and identified best practices for organizing national and regional innovation systems in developed (USA, France, Switzerland, Japan, Republic of Korea) and some rapidly developing countries (China, India, Brazil, South Africa, Colombia, Mexico).
    Keywords: national innovation system, regional innovation system, developed and developing countries, innovation activity, strategic development
    JEL: B52 O18
    Date: 2022–07
  15. By: Popova, Irina (Попова, Ирина) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration)
    Abstract: The relevance of this research is associated with the need to study the conditions of effectiveness of the secondary socialization of adolescents in a difficult life situation, caused by the deep-rooted traumatic experience in their personal development in the process of primary socialization. This issue points to the need to solve the problems of nationwide level in terms of preventing marginalization of minors and the development of criminal behavior in adolescence. The object of the study is the specifics of modeling the conditions of resocialization of adolescents in socially vulnerable categories in the Russian and foreign scientific practice. The goal of the study is to analyze scientific approaches and developments that provide a theoretical and methodological rationale and effectiveness of practical activities to create conditions for resocialization of adolescents in difficult situations. We carried out the research based on the results of content analysis of Russian dissertation research in the period from 2000 to 2021 and foreign scientific articles dedicated to the stated problems. Research methods: analysis of information sources, content analysis of dissertation studies and scientific publications, systematization, analysis and synthesis of the information obtained. The scientific novelty of the study is determined by the assessment of the current development of the resocialization problems of socially vulnerable minors in modern Russian scientific research. This is the first time such a study is conducted in the Russian Federation. As a result, we found that the issues of juvenile resocialization are developed in the studies conducted within the framework of penitentiary pedagogy and psychology on a systemic basis. Only a few studies on this topic exist as part of the general education system. The majority (more than 60%) of Russian scientific research on juvenile resocialization covers adolescents with experience of deviant and delinquent behavior, including those sentenced to punishment. Other categories of socially vulnerable adolescents are either not covered at all, or covered within isolated precedents. Questions of resocialization of children raised in migrant families are the most difficult to study. Currently, there is a trend of substituting the term “resocialization” with such categories as “cultural adaptation” and “social integration” in relation to this group of adolescents. Based on the results obtained, the main conclusion is that the development of research on the study of resocialization of adolescents in vulnerable categories needs a focused analysis of promising directions, covering the methodology of the issue and different target groups of minors, not focusing only on the resocialization of adolescent offenders. Recommendations: to create required conditions and implement effective pedagogical activities aimed at supporting the resocialization of adolescents in socially vulnerable categories, it is necessary to disseminate among practicing education specialists the scientific developments proven by the testing and implementation results. It is necessary to stimulate the development of relevant scientific research that reveals aspects of resocialization of not only adolescents sentenced to punishment, with deviant/delinquent behavior, but also adolescents belonging to other groups of children in difficult situations (teenagers from poor families, from migrant/resettled families, children without parental care, unwatched/neglected children, victims of armed conflicts, victims of objective life circumstances, including domestic violence, parental neglect, health conditions, etc.).
    Keywords: resocialization phenomenon; adolescents in a difficult life situation; resocialization of minors; resocialization processes for socially vulnerable adolescents; scientific approaches and concepts of juvenile resocialization; principles of adolescent resocialization; modeling conditions of juvenile resocialization; models of resocialization of adolescents in a difficult life situation
    Date: 2022–08
  16. By: Yuzhakov, Vladimir (Южаков, Владимир) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Dobrolyubova, Elena (Добролюбова, Елена) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Pokida, Andrei (Покида, Андрей) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Zybunovskaya, Natalia (Зыбуновская, Наталья) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration)
    Abstract: The federal legislation defines a list of regulatory enforcement activities aimed at minimizing risks to legally protected public values (such as life and health, property, privacy, other human rights, plants and animals, natural habitats). Therefore, monitoring studies aiming at collecting public perceptions of the protection of these public values are highly relevant for tracking the reform progress. The goal of this paper is to identify public perceptions of the extent of protection of public values and evaluate regulatory enforcement performance. The subject of the study is regulatory enforcement activity aimed at reducing risks to the public values. The primary method of the study is a representative public survey, the findings of which are compared to earlier surveys carried out in 2018, 2019, 2020, and 2021. The results presented in the paper include an analysis of the dynamics in public perception of the effectiveness and efficiency of the state regulatory enforcement activities. The paper concludes that while there are some positive trends in improving public perceptions of the safety of public values, the overall level of these perceptions is unsatisfactory. Less than a half of all the survey participants have positive perceptions on any of the risks considered. The frequency of risk events remains high: half of the respondents faced at least one risk in the 2 years preceding the survey. Both time and financial costs borne by citizens applying for protection to the state regulatory and enforcement authorities have not changed significantly. This shows that the efficiency of state regulatory enforcement authorities has not improved in the public view. The novelty of the study is related to collecting and analyzing empirical data to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of state regulatory enforcement bodies, as perceived by the public. The paper recommends streamlining the procedures for handling citizen complaints to state regulatory enforcement bodies and improving public access to information on the ways of protecting public values from the risks.
    Keywords: Effectiveness, governance, public values protected by law, regulatory enforcement bodies, public sociological survey, safety perceptions, client centricity, state regulatory enforcement and inspections activity.
    JEL: H11 H41 H83
    Date: 2022–09
  17. By: Danilov Yury (Данилов, Юрий) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Pivovarov, Daniil (Пивоваров, Даниил) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Davydov, Igor (Давыдов, Игорь) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration)
    Abstract: This paper explores new approaches to identifying financial stability risks and implementing financial stability policies in the contemporary national financial systems. The need for new approaches is primarily explained by a dramatic expansion of the range of financial stability risks due to the increasingly important role of non-banking financial institutions and financial markets in the operation of financial systems, as well as the growing financial inclusion of firms and households. The problems of assessing financial stability are given a special focus. Based on the analysis of financial stability metrics used by the world’s leading central banks and recommended by international financial organizations, the authors formulate proposals for modernizing the system of financial stability indicators used by the Bank of Russia. We formulated proposals on measures to protect the domestic market from external shocks arising from changes in the monetary policy conducted by the world’s leading central banks; on accounting for the expanded range of financial stability risks; and on harmonizing financial stability policies with other areas of financial development.
    Date: 2021–12–14
  18. By: E. Lance Howe (Department of Economics, University of Alaska Anchorage); James J. Murphy (Department of Economics, University of Alaska Anchorage); Drew Gerkey (Oregon State University); Olga B. Stoddard (Department of Economics, Bringham Young University); Colin Thor West (University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill)
    Abstract: This paper investigates how dictator giving varies by social context and worthiness of the recipient. We conduct lab-in-the-field experiments in Kamchatka, Russia, and Western Alaska, as well as a lab experiment with university students, in which we vary social distance and recipient characteristics across treatments. We ask what motivates individuals to share and whether offers from a dictator game, where dictators give from own-earnings, can tell us something more fundamental about social norms and sharing. Results indicate that subjects living in rural Indigenous communities, in both Russia and Alaska, who depend heavily on wild food harvests and possess strong sharing norms, are significantly more likely to give positive amounts compared to university students. We also find that in Indigenous communities, family relations and financial needs are prioritized in giving decisions. We suggest that treatment differences correspond to social norm differences in our study areas.
    Keywords: dictator game, experimental economics, lab-in-the-field experiments, sharing, risk pooling
    JEL: C93 D64
    Date: 2023–07–18
  19. By: Abramov, Alexander (Абрамов, Александр) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Radygin, Alexander (Радыгин, Александр) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Chernova, Maria (Чернова, Мария) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration)
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to analyze the experience of creating a system of mandatory pension savings and assess the effectiveness of the activities of non-state pension funds. The research is focused on the management of pension savings portfolios in Russia. As a research method we use portfolio optimization, analysis of long time series on the return of various investment strategies, regression analysis for decomposition of non-state pension fund returns, stochastic modeling of return and risk with given asset allocation and benchmarks, modelling replacement ratio of a pension savings system’s participant. The modern demographic trends, the development of the labour market in the context of the progress of industrial technologies and other processes create the prerequisites for changes in pension systems. At the same time, the increasing volatility of financial markets and the trend of low yields give rise to discussions about the role of the pension savings system, its ability to increase the sustainability of pension system. The ability of existing pension portfolio management strategies to generate the necessary returns for pension savings is challenged. However, the number of studies and reports devoted to the problems of pension fund performance is relatively small. All this predetermines the relevance of studying the aspects of the pension savings system effectiveness, the effectiveness of portfolio management strategies in modern financial markets, and the implementation of regulation practices. The novelty of the study lies in the fact that the authors tried to comprehend the experience of the system of mandatory pension savings, conditions and prerequisites of its implementation, achievements and difficulties, to analyze the effectiveness of the activities of non-state pension funds on pension savings investment. The main result of the study is the development of methodological approaches necessary to assess the success of pension savings reforms in Russia. According to our estimates, the decision to introduce a pension savings pillar had been justified and, under certain circumstances, could have improved the well-being of future pensioners. We conclude that the successful implementation of the mandatory pension savings was violated by the frequent change of the regulation on the long-term horizon, unbalanced development of state and savings pension pillars, and low investment efficiency. In the future, the development of our study should contribute to the development of an institution of long-term and trusted internal savings.
    Keywords: pension funds, non-state pension funds, investments, state pension, pension, mandatory pension savings, management of pension savings
    JEL: G11 G17 G18 H55 J14 J26
    Date: 2022–11
  20. By: Stavniychuk, Anna (Ставнийчук, Анна) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Meleshkina, Anna (Мелешкина, Анна) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration)
    Abstract: The aftermarkets occupy a dependent position in relation to the primary product market. The textbook examples of this kind of dependence are the car market and the service market, the printer market and the cartridge market, the shaving stick market and razor cartridge market, the markets for software products and their updates. In such cases, manufacturers in so-called primary markets may restrict competition in the aftermarkets through dealer licensing or through consumer contract terms related to warranty service. The study is relevant due to the emergence of new scenarios of anti-competitive behaviors and agreements (for example, restricting access to personal data of primary product owners – to the Big Data of a car engine’s control sensors – limits the possibility to enter the aftersales service market for new players). In this context, the Internet of Things and the digitalization of production chains give primary market participants the opportunity to control data flows and access conditions, which determines exclusive access to aftermarkets associated with the risk of monopolization. The purpose of the study is to identify the sources of anti-competitive behavior in the markets for the primary product and after-sales service (including consumables and components). The objectives of the study include: identifying the sources of antitrust law violations in the markets for the primary product and after-sales service; analyzing international and Russian antitrust practice in relation to the markets for the primary product and aftermarkets. The research methodology includes models of market analysis for various industries, quantitative methods of antitrust analysis, tools of the new institutional economic theory. The conclusions of the study describe the properties of the markets for the primary product and aftermarkets, which are significant for the antitrust regulation of such markets, and provide a theoretical justification of the need to use refined methods of quantitative analysis for the purposes of antitrust law enforcement, taking into account the specifics of the primary markets and aftermarkets.
    Keywords: aftermarket, competition, antitrust regulation, market monopolization, secondary product, switching costs, relevant product market, relevant geographic market
    JEL: K21 L22
    Date: 2022–08
  21. By: Tereza De Castro; Branimir Jovanović (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw); Michael Landesmann (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw); Sebastian Leitner (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw); Cristina Procházková Ilinitchi; Ondřej Sankot; Jana Vlčková
    Abstract: Chart of the Month Inflation differential between households, income inequality and energy poverty by Sebastian Leitner Opinion Corner What future for the economic reconstruction of Ukraine? by Michael Landesmann Once the vehemence of the military conflict abates, Ukraine has the potential to follow the catch-up experiences of EU-CEE countries. However, this requires massive support and engagement by the EU and other Western partners, and it also needs the institutional and political economy deficiencies that blighted the country in the past to be overcome. Much effort needs to be devoted to reversing outward migration, making the country attractive to foreign investors, rebuilding and modernising its infrastructure and managing the necessary reorganisation of the economy both regionally and structurally. What can we learn from price controls in the Western Balkans? by Branimir Jovanović Price controls can help curb inflation, but their effectiveness depends on the type of control used. ‘Hard’ price controls – which place a limit on final product prices and do not raise that limit – are effective, whereas controls that limit only profit margins or that raise the price cap over time are not. The strategy for exiting price controls is also important abolishing them abruptly amidst global price pressures can undo all the hard-won gains. Mapping the capabilities and export opportunities of Czechia by Ondřej Sankot, Jana Vlčková, Cristina Procházková Ilinitchi and Tereza De Castro Czechia is an exceptionally export-oriented country, with a high level of economic complexity. Its innovative capabilities, however, remain limited. We determine the country’s optimal diversification path by identifying machinery for specialised industries, machine-tools for specialised industries, and pneumatic or non-electric hand tools as the most promising export categories in terms of complexity, expected trade volume growth, and proximity to Czechia’s existing production capabilities and manufacturing base. Monthly and quarterly statistics for Central, East and Southeast Europe
    Keywords: inflation differential, income inequality, energy poverty, EU accession, rule of law, costs of reconstruction, demographic decline, hard price controls, soft price controls, profit margins, food inflation, product space, product complexity index, ARMA/ARIMA models, revealed comparative advantage
    Date: 2023–02
  22. By: Zelenina, Galina (Зеленина, Галина) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration)
    Abstract: Based on ego-documents (personal and open letters, memoirs), Samizdat (self-published books) and oral history sources, the article examines the Soviet Jewish movement activists’ (“Refuseniks”) attitudes towards their own Others, inner dissidents: Judeo-Christians and so-called noshrim, who used Israeli visas to emigrate to the USA or other Western countries, as well as to the “silent” majority who refused to emigrate, and some other groups. The article describes how they were marginalized and transformed into inner enemies, and discusses probable patterns and reasons for this intolerance in the contexts of Jewish history, sociology of envy, and studies on Soviet personality and collective values. The relevance of the research is defined by its use of sources that have not been used in scientific research before, as well as the choice of topic, which is somewhat painful for its parties, which affects the canonical image of the refusenik movement and therefore is often omitted in the related commemorative and scientific literature. The analysis shows that in this case (and at least in some other cases) the victimization experience does not produce tolerance to the others, as the victims of intolerance are just as intolerant, often adopting their oppressors’ practices and rhetoric, and that the community developing or reconstructing one or another identity naturally tends to build walls and segregate their own dissidents.
    Keywords: Jewish national movement, USSR, Refuseniks, Judeo-Christians, Jewish history, Soviet Jewry, Soviet collective
    Date: 2022–07
  23. By: Kohnert, Dirk
    Abstract: Economic integration among West African member states was the original mandate of ECOWAS. Threats to development, peace and security led the community to expand its mandate to include conflict management. ECOWAS has established a commendable record in peacekeeping. Its intervention in Liberia ended the conflict. In Sierra Leone, it provided the necessary support to the legitimate government, but in Guinea Bissau, it failed to stop the violence. In 2004, ECOMOG was replaced by the ECOWAS Standby Force (ESF), made up of military, police and civilian personnel. As part of its missions, ECOWAS has implemented conflict prevention and resolution mechanisms outlined in its Conflict Prevention Framework (ECPF). However, the organisation relies on its member states to achieve its objectives. Unfortunately, the latter is mostly characterised by a lack of political and financial commitment. In recent years, ECOWAS has focused on counter-terrorism strategies. However, these too have been hampered by capacity constraints, the persistence of a socioeconomic environment increasingly conducive to religious fundamentalism and extremism, and varying levels of political will and commitment. The ECOWAS institution's conflict prevention tools are currently stronger than its conflict management tools. At present, the ESF lacks the logistical and financial capacity for military deployment. Nigeria, the main troop and financial contributor, was supposed to provide more than half of the pledged ESF troops. But it has internal security challenges of its own. It is therefore doubtful that it could spare its pledged troops for an ESF mission. All this suggests that ECOWAS, once a force to be reckoned with in West Africa, has been reduced to a paper tiger. It's warning to intervene, by military force if necessary, in the current conflict in Niger, where a coup has overthrown the legitimate government, was reckoned as an empty threat. Especially since the coup leaders in Mali, Niger and Guinea have been backed by Russia.
    Keywords: ECOWAS; ECOWAS Standby Force; coup d'état; governance; sustainable development; post-colonialism; informal sector; ODA; Sub-Saharan Africa; West Africa; Mali; Niger; Guinea; Nigeria; France; African Union; EU; African Studies;
    JEL: F15 F35 F51 F52 F54 H12 H56 K42 N47 Z13
    Date: 2023–08–04

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NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.