nep-cis New Economics Papers
on Confederation of Independent States
Issue of 2020‒02‒10
fourteen papers chosen by

  1. The State in Russia's Banking Sector By Victor Gorshkov
  2. The main vectors of development of small and medium-sized agricultural entrepreneurship in Russia By Generalova, Svetlana (Генералова, Светлана)
  3. It’s the way people move! Labour migration as an adjustment device in Russia By Pastore, Francesco; Semerikova, Elena
  6. Tavern Revenues And Alcohol Consumption In The Muscovite State In Mid-Seventeenth Century By Dmitry Liseitsev
  8. Accounting and Tax Accounting Expenses Selling Organizations in Different Systems of Taxation By Kuznetsova, Lyudmila Nirolaevna (Кузнецова, Людмила Николаевна); Maksimovich Lyudmila Vsevolodovna (Максимович, Людмила Вселодовна)
  9. Kenya; Fiscal Transparency Evaluation Update By International Monetary Fund
  10. Technology and the future of work in emerging economies: What is different By Daniel Alonso Soto
  11. Employment vs. Homestay and the Happiness of Women in the South Caucasus By Karine Torosyan; Norberto Pignatti
  12. DARPA: the Differentiator By Liu, Shaoshan
  13. EQCHANGE Annual Assessment 2019 By Carl Grekou
  14. Path-Dependency of Economic Transition: An Analytical Review By Satoshi Mizobata; Norio Horie

  1. By: Victor Gorshkov (Faculty of International Liberal Arts, Kaichi International University)
    Abstract: Russia’s banking sector has increasingly become more nationalized and monopolized in recent years as the result of the Central Bank of Russia’s policies. In the present paper, we have demonstrated how policies of the Bank of Russia since 2013 have enhanced the level of nationalization and monopolization of Russia’s banking sector and have provided even more favorable conditions for state-controlled banks. The paper outlined the ‘clearance campaign’ of the Central Bank of Russia and summarized major disturbing trends, such as the increased amount of license revocations, the split within the Association of Russian banks, enhanced state support towards state-controlled banks, that are reshaping the institutional structure of Russia’s banking sector. The strengthening of supervisory and regulatory functions of the Bank of Russia can be viewed as a positive sign as they help create the healthy environment within the sector and aim to establish market discipline, however, current policies simultaneously cause significant market distortions and further suppress competition.
    Keywords: Russia, state, banking sector
    JEL: P29 P52 O16
    Date: 2019–11
  2. By: Generalova, Svetlana (Генералова, Светлана) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration)
    Abstract: The article argues that small and medium-sized agricultural enterprises play an important role in ensuring food security in Russia. The forms of state support of small and medium-sized agricultural entrepreneurship in Russia are systematized. The article deals with some problems hindering the development of small and medium-sized businesses in the agricultural sector. The most optimal directions of development are offered.
    Keywords: small and medium-sized enterprises, agricultural sector, forms of state support
    Date: 2019–10
  3. By: Pastore, Francesco; Semerikova, Elena
    Abstract: This paper aims to assess the role of migration as an adjustment mechanism device to favor convergence across states and regions of Russia. In contrast to previous studies, we use variations in the population of a region as a proxy of its net migration rate and apply spatial econometric methodology in order to distinguish the effect from the neighbouring regions. We provide descriptive statistical evidence showing that Russia has more/less/the same intense migration flows than the USA and EU. The econometric analysis shows that migration flows are sensitive to both regional income and regional unemployment differentials. Nonetheless, we find that internal migration is sensitive to regional unemployment and income differentials of neighbouring regions. Dependent on the welfare, pre- or after-crisis period, income in neighbouring regions can create out- or in-migration flows. The relatively high degree of internal mobility coupled with the low sensitivity of migration flows to the local unemployment rate of distant regions might explain why migration flows tends not to generate convergence, but rather divergence across Russian regions.
    Keywords: Internal and International migration,Adjustment mechanism,spatial econometrics,Russia
    JEL: F15 F22 J61 R23
    Date: 2020
  4. By: Rostislav Turovsky (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Koroteeva P.P. (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Rusanova K.A. (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: This research analyzes the nationalization of Russian party system and presidential candidates from 1996 till 2018 based on the index of nationalization, coefficient of variation, and Euclidean distance, proposing the new method of assessing the aforementioned measurements. The method includes using not the regional level data, but the lower unit of analyses – territorial electoral commissions, which improves the overall precision of the nationalization assessment. Furthermore, the regions themselves are compared to one another in the aspect of their “inner” nationalization
    Keywords: Russian federal elections, regional comparisons, electoral support, party system nationalization, Euclidean distance, coefficient of variation, Gini index, territorial electoral commissions.
    JEL: D72
    Date: 2020
  5. By: Igor Fedyukin (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: Education in early modern Russia has been traditionally described as imported from the West; secular; imposed by the state – or more specifically, by Peter I himself – from above on the unwilling population; driven by the military needs, and therefore, technical. This chapter seeks to examine and to problematize some these theses. Some of them have already been re-assessed by scholars, especially insofar as the role of the church in providing education is concerned. In other cases, the discussion is limited to identifying the gaps in our current understanding and pointing to ways of addressing them. In particular, on the basis of he author's own research as well as that of other scholars, it seeks to outline the responses of the tsar’s subjects to the educational change; problematize the role of the “state” as an actor in this process, and that of Peter I himself; to understand what exactly is meant by the practical/military drivers of educational change and how exactly the role of these drivers could be ascertained; to emphasize the role of non-state, traditional, and informal genres and providers of education in that period. The last two sections seek to place the early modern education in Russia in the Western European context by identifying more precisely what exactly has been borrowed and how this “borrowing,” in fact, resulted in innovative reconfiguring of educational forms; and to discuss the role of early modern Russia as a pioneer, in some sense, of explicitly using education as a tool of social engineering.
    Keywords: Education; early modern Russia; Peter I; projectors; nobility; church
    JEL: Z
    Date: 2020
  6. By: Dmitry Liseitsev (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: The level of alcohol consumption and the role of alcohol taxes as a source of state revenue in pre-Petrine Russia have been the subject of much scholarly interest and political speculation, yet reliable data on the magnitude of trade in “grain wine” is still lacking. This article draws on the records of central government agencies from the 1620s - early 1650s to partially fill this gap. In the decades immediately following the Times of Trouble tavern revenues nearly doubled in absolute numbers and accounted for about a quarter of the total state revenues of Muscovy. The growth rate of tavern revenues was on par with the rate of population growth (between the 1620s and 1640s, urban population increased by 60 percent). The article discusses different methods of running the state alcohol monopoly and estimates the profitability of alcohol trade and the overall levels of alcohol consumption during the period under study.
    Keywords: alcohol, pre-Petrine Russia, alcohol monopoly, alcohol taxes
    JEL: Z
    Date: 2020
  7. By: Anatoliy Kostruba (Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University); Vasilieva Valentina (Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University)
    Abstract: Публікація присвячена адаптації корпоративного законодавства України до права корпорацій ЄС. Особлива увага приділена визначенню понять «корпорація» та «корпоративне право». Зроблено висновок щодо відсутності усталеного розуміння наведених понять у національній юридичній науці та досліджено основні доктринальні підходи до їх визначення. Детально розглянуто основні підходи до правової природи корпорації в окремих європейських правопорядках – у ФРН, Франції, Англії. Констатовано наявність істотних відмінностей між законодавством України та країн ЄС, що зумовлені історією їх розвитку і особливостями конкретних національних правопорядків. Розглянуто регулювання корпоративних відносин в Європейському Союзі на наднаціональному рівні. Зроблено висновок, що саме наднаціональне право ЄС є його "правом корпорацій" або "корпоративним правом". Досліджено пріорітетні напрями уніфікації європейського права корпорацій на наднаціональному рівні. Основним інструментом врегулювання порядку діяльності корпорацій у праві ЄС визначено директиви, спрямовані на гармонізацію та уніфікацію національного законодавства країн-членів ЄС. Детально проаналізовано профільну директиву у сфері права корпорацій ЄС - DIRECTIVE (EU) 2017/1132 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 14 June 2017 relating to certain aspects of company law (codification), предметом регулювання якої є правовідносини створення, діяльності та припинення компаній з обмеженою відповідальністю (limited liability companies). Окрема увага приділена діджиталізації корпоративного права ЄС. У контексті інтеграційних процесів у сфері приватного права визначено окремі тенденції, властиві корпоративному законодавству України. Зокрема, звертається увага на неузгодженість норм корпоративного законодавства України, які містяться у двох кодифікованих актах – ЦК України та ГК України, а також у низці спеціальних законів. При цьому, сфера дії окремих норм є тотожною, а їх зміст – різним. Зроблено висновок щодо необхідності системного оновлення корпоративного законодавства України не лише з огляду на законодавчо закріплену вимогу поступової адаптації права України до права ЄС, але і у зв'язку із його неузгодженістю та перманентними та несистемними змінами.
    Keywords: Company Law,corporate legislation,adaptation of legislation to EU law,Law of corporations,corporation,company
    Date: 2019–12–19
  8. By: Kuznetsova, Lyudmila Nirolaevna (Кузнецова, Людмила Николаевна) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Maksimovich Lyudmila Vsevolodovna (Максимович, Людмила Вселодовна) (The Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration)
    Abstract: At the present time, in a difficult economic situation in our country, cost accounting issues are directly related to the optimization of the taxation of businesses. The purpose of this study – to analyze the accounting and tax accounting costs of the organization and to make proposals for convergence of accounting and taxation. Theoretical analysis. The goals were achieved through the analysis of account ting procedures and rules of formation expenses in the accounting and tax purposes, using the accounting and tax legislation of the Russian Federation. The work has been described in detail and analyzed the accounting and formation expenses under general tax regime and simplified tax system, including for small businesses. Analysis of the legislation in order of registration and the rules of formation expenses under different tax systems allowed to make proposals to amend it with a view to convergence of accounting and taxation of the commercial organization. Results. It is proved that the correct division of costs into direct and indirect – one of the measures of tax optimization. It is proved that the application of the cash method of recognition of expenses small businesses have differences in accounting and taxation, and adversely affect the maintenance of accounting and tax accounting in a small business. It has been proposed to make changes in the accounting and the tax law.
    Keywords: recognition of expenses, direct and indirect costs, general taxation regime, simplified system of taxation
    Date: 2019–10
  9. By: International Monetary Fund
    Abstract: This report updates the Fiscal Transparency Evaluation (FTE) of Kenya that was prepared in 2014 and published in 2016. The report is the first full update to be carried out in any country, a recent update of the Russian FTE having a more selective focus. Kenya has experienced a lot of structural and economic changes since 2014. At that time, the 2010 Constitution and the associated Public Financial Management (PFM) Act of 2012 were relatively new, and a radical reform of local government was in the process of transition. The Constitution and the PFM Act placed a strong emphasis on economic and fiscal transparency and accountability, for example, through the establishment of the National Treasury (NT), fiscal responsibility principles, the Parliamentary Budget Office, and enhanced powers of the Auditor General. The present report, like the 2014 assessment, focuses on the first three pillars of the Code. The authorities did not request the Fund to make an evaluation of Pillar IV (Resource Revenue Management) since the development of the oil sector in Kenya is at an early stage, with the volume of reserves uncertain and first oil not expected before 2022 at the earliest.
    Date: 2020–01–15
  10. By: Daniel Alonso Soto
    Abstract: Technological developments are likely to bring many new opportunities, which may be even larger in emerging economies and may allow them to “leapfrog” certain stages of development. Notwithstanding these opportunities, emerging economies face significant challenges associated with rapid technological progress. Many of these challenges are the same as in advanced economies, but differences in starting conditions may result in a greater threat for the emerging world. This study explores the benefits and risks brought by this new technological wave from the perspective of thirteen key emerging economies: Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Chile, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa and Turkey. In particular, it examines: the risk of automation; whether labour markets are polarising; and the potential benefits (but also challenges) of the platform economy.
    JEL: J24 J21 J23 J30 O33
    Date: 2020–01–30
  11. By: Karine Torosyan (International School of Economics at TSU); Norberto Pignatti (International School of Economics - Tbilisi)
    Abstract: Modern women often face an uneasy choice: dedicating their time to reproductive household work, or joining the workforce and spending time away from home and household duties. Both choices are associated with benefits, as well as non-trivial costs, and necessarily involve some trade-offs, influencing the general feeling of happiness women experience given their decision. The trade-offs are especially pronounced in traditional developing countries, where both the pressure for women to stay at home and the need to earn additional income are strong, making the choice even more controversial. To understand the implications of this choice on the happiness of women in these types of countries we compare housewives and working women of the South Caucasus region. The rich data collected annually by the Caucasus Research Resource Center allows us to match working women with their housewife counterparts and to compare the level of happiness across the two groups – separately for each country as well as for Armenian and Azerbaijani minorities residing in Georgia. We find a significant negative happiness gap for working women in Armenia and in Azerbaijan, but not in Georgia. The absence of such a gap among the Armenian and Azerbaijani minorities of Georgia indicates that the gap is mostly a country- rather than an ethnicity-specific effect.
    Keywords: female employment, reproductive housework, life satisfaction, happiness, propensity score matching
    JEL: I31 J16 J21 J24
    Date: 2020–01
  12. By: Liu, Shaoshan
    Abstract: today the U.S. is facing many internal and external challenges. Internally, productivity growth rate has slowed down significantly in the past 15 years; externally, rising powers, such as China and Russia, are challenging American hegemony. In this article we argue that the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is the differentiator that enables the U.S. prevail against these challenges. In the past 60 years DARPA has been the core engine for the development of breakthrough technologies. We examine how DARPA has continuously delivered breakthrough technologies to drive economic growth, and the impacts of DARPA technologies on the U.S. economy. Also, by comparing DARPA’s performance against some of the world’s leading technology venture capital firms, and other DARPA-like agencies around the world, we conclude that DARPA is the differentiator that guarantees American hegemony in this era.
    Date: 2020–02–04
  13. By: Carl Grekou
    Abstract: This publication, accompanying the 2019’s update of EQCHANGE, aims at providing an overview of exchange rate misalignments for 2018. In a nutshell, 2018 has been characterized by relatively minor movements in exchange rate misalignments except few EMEs that registered important downward movements owing from the exchange rate depreciations. This is especially the case of Turkey, and to a lesser extent, Brazil, India, Indonesia and Russia. In contrast, most of the major currencies registered a slight appreciation vis-à-vis the US dollar that generally translated in upward movements in currency misalignments. The euro area is again featured two opposite situations with Finland Germany, Ireland and the Netherlands displaying noticeable undervaluations.
    Keywords: EQCHANGE;Exchange Rates;Currency Misalignments;Imbalances
    JEL: E3 E4 E5 E6 F3
    Date: 2019–12
  14. By: Satoshi Mizobata (Kyoto University); Norio Horie (University of Toyama)
    Abstract: The concept “path dependency” helps understanding the institutional changes and has given a logical basis which explains not convergence of the evolutionary path of transition economies but their diversified path. Based on “the base simplified literature”, in short random sampling papers from the EconLit database through a keyword search that examine the transition economies from the angle of path dependency, this paper empirically investigates the development trends with regard to path dependency arguments in economics of transition, the theoretical trends on which the economics of transition has been discussed and others. As a consequence, the theoretical and empirical characteristics of path dependency arguments in the economics of transition can be elucidated and the paper clarifies that the papers of David Stark has occupied the important position as a source of path dependency approach’s development, through an analysis of encoding a series of literature attributes the degree of support for path dependency, the relevant reasoning factors and other influential factors based on our own methodology. A systematic / analytical review clarifies the following points: support for path dependency has declined in 2000s; while path dependency approach covers all the transition economies, South-East European countries and Russia have comparatively been stronger supporters of path dependency influence than other EU joining East European countries; researches on institutions, regions and local identities have relatively strongly support path dependency arguments
    Keywords: path dependency, institution, transition, legacy, economics
    JEL: P26 B25 O17
    Date: 2019–11

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