nep-cis New Economics Papers
on Confederation of Independent States
Issue of 2018‒11‒26
23 papers chosen by
Alexander Harin
Modern University for the Humanities

  1. The agricultural competitiveness of the CIS countries in international trade By Mizik, T.; Torok, A.; Jambor, A.; Kovacs, S.; Sipos, L.
  2. German Russian Conference on Forest Genetics - Proceedings - Ahrensburg, 2017 November 21-23 By Degen, Bernd (Ed.); Krutovsky, Konstantin V. (Ed.); Liesebach, Mirko (Ed.)
  3. Les relations commerciales agroalimentaires de la Russie avec l’Union européenne, l’embargo russe et les productions animales By Vincent Chatellier; Thierry Pouch; Cecile Le Roy; Quentin Mathieu
  5. Impact of the Russian agricultural import ban on the Serbian pork exports and domestic price development along the pork value chain By Duric, I.; Glauben, T.; Zaric, V.
  6. Network effects at retail payments market: evidence from Russian merchants By Egor Krivosheya
  7. The Concepts Of Fundamental Laws And Constitution In The 18th Century Russia By Sergey Polskoy
  8. Network effects at retail payments market: evidence from Russian individuals By Egor Krivosheya; Ekaterina Semerikova
  9. The Post-Soviet population dynamics in the Russian Extreme North: A case of Chukotka By Kumo, Kazuhiro; Litvinenko, Tamara
  10. Economic Transition and the Rise of Alternative Institutions: Political Connections in Putin's Russia By Lamberova, Natalia; Sonin, Konstantin
  11. The use of the military potential of baptized Kalmyks in the Russian Army as a manifestation of the imperial policy of acculturation (18th ? the beginning of the 20th century) By Stepan Dzhundzhuzov; Larisa Polshkova
  12. Russian Empire?s Policy of Acculturation for Christian Sectarians (XIX ? the Beginning of the 20th Centuries) By Sergey Lyubichankovskiy; Elena Godovova
  13. The Role Of Wild Cards Analysis In Foresight Studies: The Case Of Russia By Daria A. Pavlova; Yulia V. Milshina; Konstantin O. Vishnevskiy; Ozcan Saritas
  14. Mongolia; Fifth Review Under the Extended Fund Facility Arrangement and Request for Modification and Waiver of Applicability of Performance Criteria-Press Release; Staff Report; Staff Supplement; and Statement by the Executive Director for Mongolia By International Monetary Fund
  15. The Russian Excellence Initiative For Higher Education: An Econometric Evaluation Of Short-Term Results By Tommaso Agasisti; Ekaterina Shibanova; Daria Platonova; Mikhail Lisyutkin
  17. The road home: the role of ethnicity in the post-Soviet migration By Jang, Youngook
  18. Features of teaching economic disciplines for students of architectural and construction specialties in the Republic of Belarus By Zinaida Zakharanka
  19. Land Reform and Child Health in The Kyrgyz Republic By Kosec, K.; Shemyakina, O.
  20. The Political Economy of Russian Agricultural Subsidies By Kvartiuk, V.; Herzfeld, T.; Ghukasyan, S.
  21. Forecasting the implications of foreign exchange reserve accumulation with an agent-based model By Ramis Khabibullin; Alexey Ponomarenko; Sergei Seleznev
  22. ソビエト期ロシアにおける地域間人口再配置の研究: 再論 By 雲, 和広
  23. Math, Girls and Socialism By Quentin Lippmann; Claudia Senik

  1. By: Mizik, T.; Torok, A.; Jambor, A.; Kovacs, S.; Sipos, L.
    Abstract: The competitiveness of agriculture in international trade is a relatively understudied field in the literature, especially in Central Asia. The aim of the paper is to analyse the comparative advantage patterns in the agriculture of the Commonwealth of Independent States. Results suggest that agriculture still plays an important role in the region and the majority of countries are net food importers. Moldova, Kyrgyzstan and Armenia had the highest Balassa indices with cereals as leading export products and Belarus, Ukraine and Azerbaijan are also having some comparative advantage at the same time. Based on trade performances, several country groups were set up. Armenia, Kyrgyzstan and Moldova showed similar characteristics, while Russia with Kazakhstan as well as Belarus with Ukraine demonstrated similarity. Comparative advantages, however, have not turned out to be persistent according to stability and duration tests as survival chances fell significantly from 2000-2003 to 2012-2015. Acknowledgement : This work was supported by the National Research, Development and Innovation Office [grant number 119669, Competitiveness of Agriculture in International Trade: A Global Perspective ]. The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support.
    Keywords: International Relations/Trade
    Date: 2018–07
  2. By: Degen, Bernd (Ed.); Krutovsky, Konstantin V. (Ed.); Liesebach, Mirko (Ed.)
    Abstract: The practical applications of forest genetics contribute substantially to sustainable forest management. Genetic data on optimally adapted and productive provenances as well as intensive tree breeding help to produce high quality forest reproductive material. Recent advances in tree genomics and DNA-sequencing techniques provide variable and more efficient tools for application in forestry, such as marker assisted tree breeding, screening for genes responsible for adaptive and economically important traits, and tree improvement. In the last two decades, the application of highly variable gene markers has produced a lot of very useful data on the genetic diversity and genetic differentiation of genetic resources of important forest tree species. The recent advances in the development of gene markers for variable diagnostic purposes enable to improve DNA-tests on wood and forest reproductive material including better control for timber origin, species protection and early detection of dangerous infections and diseases. The German-Russian MaRussiA project is a good example of the application of the above mentioned techniques. The Project is focused on aspen (Populus tremula): Objectives: One of the main objectives of the joint German-Russian conference was to communicate the current results and experiences obtained in the MaRussiA project to a group of Russian and German experts in this field. We expected to get valuable feedbacks and recommendations for the remaining tasks within the project. Further, we wanted to get an overview on the state of the art of forest genetic research in both countries. Based on this overview and experiences of past and ongoing co-operation projects, we wanted to identify knowledge gaps and to stimulate the future scientific research and cooperation on these fields in Russia and Germany. Conference venue: The conference was planned and organised by the Thünen Institute of Forest Genetics (Dr. BERND DEGEN, Dr. GEORG VON WÜHLISCH, and Dr. MATTHIAS FLADUNG) together with the George August University of Göttingen (Prof. Dr. KONSTANTIN V. KRUTOVSKY). The conference was held with 25 participants at the 'Hotel am Schloss' in Ahrensburg, Germany from 21th to 23th of November, 2017. Conference structure: General scope sessions: - Tree Breeding and Provenance Research - Genome Research - Population Genetics - DNAidentification methods for wood and forest tree material (for timber tracking, control of forest reproductive material, etc.) - Discussion on future collaborative projects.
    Keywords: Forest genetics,forest tree breeding,Populus tremula,DNA,molecular marker,Forstgenetik,Forstpflanzenzüchtung,molekulare Marker
    Date: 2018
  3. By: Vincent Chatellier (SMART - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - AGROCAMPUS OUEST); Thierry Pouch (URCA - Université de Reims Champagne Ardenne, APCA - Assemblée Permanente des Chambres d'Agriculture); Cecile Le Roy (SMART - Structures et Marché Agricoles, Ressources et Territoires - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - AGROCAMPUS OUEST); Quentin Mathieu (APCA - Assemblée Permanente des Chambres d'Agriculture)
    Abstract: Russia has been for many years an important outlet for the European Union (EU) in the agri-food sector. Following the break-up of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) in 1991, Russian agriculture, which until then had been dominated by sovkhozes and kolkhozes, suffered a drastic fall in domestic production, in particular in animal production. Over the past fifteen years, and due to a policy encouraging investment in agriculture, especially in agro industrial complexes where the integration model prevails, agricultural production progressed rapidly, at least in certain sectors, including cereals, poultry meat and pork. This development of domestic supply and the diversification of supplier countries (including the United States, Brazil…) had, even before the embargo imposed in August 2014, led to a substantial loss of European exports to Russia. Since the embargo has been effective, Russia is no longer a privileged partner for European animal production. Thanks to the growth of imports in several Asian countries, especially in China, several European animal sectors have nevertheless managed, despite the closure of the Russian market, to increase their exports. This article deals, first of all, with the main stages of the Russian agricultural and trade policy, the development of agricultural production in this country and the implementation of the embargo. Using customs statistics data (from BACI and COMEXT databases) over the period 2000 to 2016, it then discusses the evolution of trade flows following the implementation of the embargo, with particular emphasis on Russia's bilateral relations with the EU and four animal sectors: milk and milk products, beef and veal, poultry meat and pork.
    Abstract: La Russie fut pendant de nombreuses années un débouché important de l'Union européenne (UE) dans le domaine agroalimentaire. À la suite de l'éclatement de l'Union des Républiques Socialistes et Soviétiques (URSS) en 1991, l'agriculture russe jusqu'alors dominée par des sovkhozes et des kolkhozes, a en effet subi une baisse drastique de sa production intérieure, notamment en productions animales. Depuis une quinzaine d'années, et moyennant une politique favorable à l'investissement en agriculture, surtout dans des complexes agroindustriels où le modèle de l'intégration prévaut, la production agricole progresse rapidement, du moins dans certaines filières dont celles des céréales, de la viande de volailles et de la viande porcine. Ce développement de l'offre intérieure et la diversification des pays fournisseurs (dont les États-Unis, le Brésil…) ont, avant même l'embargo appliqué depuis août 2014, entraîné une perte substantielle des exportations européennes vers la Russie. L'embargo ayant été efficace, la Russie ne constitue plus un partenaire privilégié pour les productions animales européennes. Grâce à la croissance des importations dans plusieurs pays asiatiques, surtout vers la Chine, plusieurs filières animales européennes sont néanmoins parvenues, en dépit de la fermeture de ce marché, à augmenter leurs exportations. Cet article traite, tout d'abord, des principales étapes de la politique agricole et commerciale russe, du développement des productions agricoles dans ce pays et des conditions de la mise en oeuvre de l'embargo. Moyennant la valorisation des données statistiques des douanes (bases de données BACI et COMEXT) sur la période 2000 à 2016, il discute ensuite de l'évolution des courants d'échanges consécutive à la mise en oeuvre de l'embargo, en insistant surtout sur la relation bilatérale de la Russie avec l'UE pour quatre filières animales : le lait et les produits laitiers, la viande bovine, la viande de volailles et la viande porcine.
    Keywords: Russia,import ban,competitiveness,trade,animal production,livestock farms,russie,embargo,échange commercial,production animale,compétitivité
    Date: 2018
  4. By: Elena V. Besschetnova (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: In the face of political rhetoric about Russia being outside of Europe both in the West and in Russia itself, it is all the more necessary to remember that European and Russian culture grew out of the same source: Christianity. Therefore, inter-confessional dialogue between Russian Orthodoxy and the Roman Catholic Church is particularly relevant today. In this context, scholars have focused attention on the Russian philosopher Vl.S. Solovyov, who has been described as the forerunner of the ecumenical movement. The current article seeks to enrich accounts of Solovyov’s thought by shining a spotlight on the context of spiritual thought in Russia in his day. The article also shows how Russian emperors (particularly Alexander III) promoted the idea of a rapprochement with the Holy See. The author argues that these mutual initiatives of the Holy See and the Russian government were the political foundation for Vl. S. Solovyov’s famous theocratic project. The author worked with the funds of Vatican Secret Archive, concerning relationships between Russian government and the Holy See at the end of XIX century (State Secretary fund 247), personal fund of Leo XIII and the Holy See connection’s with Slavic religious figures (State Secretary fund 283, 248, 1D).
    Keywords: Ecclesiastical unity, Idea of Empire, European humanity, The Holy See, Russian Empire, Ecumenism, universal theocracy
    JEL: Z
    Date: 2018
  5. By: Duric, I.; Glauben, T.; Zaric, V.
    Abstract: In this paper, we analyze the effects of the Russian agricultural import ban in 2014, i.e. sudden access of the Serbian pork traders to the Russian market, on price and margin developments along the Serbian pork value chains. We use a regime-switching long-run price transmission model to investigate possible changes in market integration between Serbian and Russian pork markets, and at the same time identify if their newly established trade relation affect already existing integration of the Serbian market with the EU. Furthermore, we use the price transmission model to assess the effects of surge in Serbian pork export on transmission of price changes along the pork value chains. Our results indicate a significant improvement of market integration between Serbia and Russia after 2014 characterized by 80% reduction in transaction costs and almost complete transmission of price changes from the Serbian market towards Russian pork market. Also, the results of the domestic price effects indicate complete transmission of price changes from processors towards retailers after 2014, which means that Serbian consumers bore the biggest burden of significant domestic pork price changes caused by the surge in pork exports. Acknowledgement : This study was conducted within the DAAD PPP Serbien project, financially supported by the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD).
    Keywords: International Relations/Trade
    Date: 2018–07
  6. By: Egor Krivosheya (Moscow school of management SKOLKOVO, National Research University Higher School of Economics, Russian Federation)
    Abstract: This research examines the role of network externalities in card acceptance by merchants on the retail payments market in Russia. The work empirically tests the effects of both direct and indirect network externalities for the merchants? card acceptance probability based on the representative survey of 800 traditional (offline) merchants from all Russian regions. The main finding of this study is that the probability of cashless payments acceptance by merchants increases with the presence of direct and indirect or both types of network externalities, controlling for a large set of control variables, including merchants? characteristics and location-specific differences between the retailers. The results are robust to the changes in measures of network externalities and inclusion of shadow economy controls. The findings are significant both statistically and economically.
    Keywords: Retail payments; payment cards; network effects; merchants' acceptance; financial services
    JEL: G21 E42
    Date: 2018–10
  7. By: Sergey Polskoy (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: In this article, we attempt to trace the semantic changes two key concepts of the Modern period - fundamental law and constitution underwent at the 18th century and investigates how these European concepts were adapted and used in the Russian political language. The concept of the constitution and fundamental laws in eighteenth-century political discourse had differing connotations: while the constitution was used mainly to describe the form of government, the concept of fundamental laws referred to historically developing legal traditions which have been adopted as norms of political law. The most radical vision of constitution in the 18th century went further than identify it with the fundamental law, demanding that the latter should enshrine the principles of civil rights and liberties of the Nation, and the legal guarantees thereof. However, this radical view, arising at the end of the century, was far from universal, and the discussion around various understandings of this concept was still to continue for many years
    Keywords: constitution, fundamental laws, XVIIIth century, Enlightenment, Russia
    JEL: Z
    Date: 2018
  8. By: Egor Krivosheya (Moscow school of management SKOLKOVO, National Research University Higher School of Economics, Russian Federation); Ekaterina Semerikova (Moscow school of management SKOLKOVO)
    Abstract: This research empirically evaluates the effect of network externalities for individuals behavior at Russian retail payments market. Specifically, the effects of direct and indirect network externalities for cardholding and usage probabilities are examined. Using the representative sample of 1500 individuals from all Russian regions this study finds significant robust evidence of positive association between the degree of both types of network externalities and individuals? activity at the Russian retail payments market. Results are economically significant: a standard deviation increase in network effects leads to 2.5-4 percentage points increase in probability of cardholding and usage. Findings imply that one needs to account for network effects which play an important role for the payment behavior before implementing payment stimulating programs in Russia aimed at cardholders or users.
    Keywords: Retail payments; payment cards; network effects; cardholders' behavior; financial services
    JEL: G21 D53 E42
    Date: 2018–10
  9. By: Kumo, Kazuhiro; Litvinenko, Tamara
    Date: 2018–11
  10. By: Lamberova, Natalia; Sonin, Konstantin
    Abstract: The economic transition from socialism in Russia has not resulted in the emergence of impersonal, rule-based institutions. Instead, the natural demand for institutions that protect property rights has led to the emergence of alternative, inefficient institutions such as that of cronyism - the practice of appointing personal acquaintances of the political leader to key positions. A political leader not constrained by institutions appoints cronies, as competent subordinates are more prone to switching allegiance to a potential challenger. As competence makes a bigger difference in a rule-based environment, such a leader has no interest in any institutional development. In a simple empirical exercise, using a data set that covers the richest Russians, we find a positive and significant effect of direct connections to the personal circle of President Putin on the wealth of businessmen. The magnitude of the effect varies at different levels of rents available for redistribution and "network centrality of a businessman": it is higher during the years of high oil prices, but is attenuated by the prominence of the businessman in the network.
    Keywords: alternative institutions; network analysis; Political Connections
    JEL: C45 P26
    Date: 2018–09
  11. By: Stepan Dzhundzhuzov (Orenburg State Pedagogical University); Larisa Polshkova (Orenburg Theological Seminary)
    Abstract: The settlement of baptized Kalmyks in the Middle Volga region, received the name Stavropol, was established in 1737. At the initiative of the first Orenburg governor Neplyuyev, it was transformed into an irregular army. The creation of the Kalmyk settlement took place in an environment where the Russian state fought decisively to establish its presence in the interfluve of the Volga and Yaik. Baptized Kalmyks significantly increased both the strength and the combat capability of Russian troops deployed in the Orenburg region. The first documented mention of the involvement of the Stavropol Kalmyks in military service dates back to 1739. As part of the government troops, they participated in punitive operations aimed at suppressing popular unrest in Bashkortostan. The military Cossack service became the main duty of baptized Kalmyks. Until 1815, it was expressed not only in the protection of state borders and the performance of police duties within the country but also in participating in wars with Prussia, Sweden, and Napoleonic France. Long-term interaction in combat conditions with Russian soldiers and Cossacks, a subordination of Kalmyk contingents to army officers exerted a strong accultural influence on the world view of the Kalmyks. However, later, in the conditions of the further modernization of the Russian army, the inefficiency of preserving the Stavropol Kalmyk regiment as a separate military unit became more evident for the authorities. In the 1830s, the commanders of the Orenburg Corps began to draw the government's attention to the unsatisfactory level of military training of Kalmyk servicemen, the lack of military education and combat experience among the command staff, and the lack of the Stavropol Kalmyk regiment. The noted shortcomings eventually gave rise to the disbandment of both the regiment itself and the entire Kalmyk army. After the annexation of the Stavropol Kalmyks to the Orenburg army, until 1917 they performed military service jointly and on common grounds with the Orenburg Cossacks. This was an important step in the development of the imperial policy of acculturation of baptized Kalmyks, aimed at their full "exposure". The research is executed at the expense of a grant of the Russian Science Foundation (project No. 17-18-01008) in the Orenburg State Pedagogical University.
    Keywords: acculturation, Cossack army, Kalmyks, politics, Orenburg region
    JEL: F22 N90 N93
    Date: 2018–11
  12. By: Sergey Lyubichankovskiy (Orenburg State Pedagogical University); Elena Godovova (Orenburg State Pedagogical University)
    Abstract: This research is about features of a policy of acculturation for Christian sectarians in the territory of Orenburg region of XIX ? the beginnings of the 20th centuries. The subject of the relationship of the Orthodox Russian Empire with Christian sectarians repeatedly rose in modern scientific literature. However the situation in the huge suburban Eurasian region on the border of Europe and Asia ? the Orenburg region ? wasn't analyzed systemically. The purpose of our research ? to study a question on the basis of primary sources from the local archive. The government sought to provide stability in the Orenburg province and incorporation of the region in the structure of the Empire by means of acculturation policy. This policy concerned not only the Muslims living here but also Christian sectarians. Christian sectarianism in a mass look has appeared in the Orenburg region from the second half of the 19th century. The activity of Russian Orthodox Church in the Orenburg diocese has been directed to the identification of sectarians and "their return to a bosom of a church" through explanations and education. If efforts of the church didn't result in desirable results, then more drastic measures with an involvement of the Orenburg provincial administration and police were taken. As a result in the region, steady process of formal transition to Orthodoxy at a secret observance of former ceremonies was supported. The factor complicating work of the Orthodox Church with sectarians in the territory of the Orenburg province was her status of the territory in large quantities accepting immigrants among whom sectarians have been presented in a large number. The research is executed at the expense of a grant of the Russian Science Foundation (project No. 17-18-01008) in the Orenburg State Pedagogical University.
    Keywords: History of acculturation, Identity, Christian sectarianism, Russian Empire
    JEL: N90 Z12
    Date: 2018–11
  13. By: Daria A. Pavlova (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Yulia V. Milshina (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Konstantin O. Vishnevskiy (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Ozcan Saritas (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: The wild cards conception as an element of foresight studies has been widely discussed by numerous scholars who have interest and qualification in strategic management field or STI policies from the end of the previous century. Some researchers focus their attention on the general key features of this phenomenon and its overall impact as well as origin, while others study possible applications of wild cards analysis in corporate and government sectors. The purpose of this research is to systematize knowledge about wild cards, determine their role in foresight practices and suggest an instrument for their detection and implementation into foresight research. For this reason, on the basis of a number of national and international foresight projects, we developed existing methodological approaches of wild cards identification, analysis and visual presentation. The results of the study were applied to Russian S&T Foresight 2030.
    Keywords: foresight, national foresight projects, wild cards, weak signals, STI policy
    JEL: O32
    Date: 2018
  14. By: International Monetary Fund
    Abstract: A three-year arrangement for Mongolia under the Extended Fund Facility (EFF) was approved on May 24, 2017, in an amount equivalent to SDR 314.5054 million (435 percent of quota, or about $425 million). The arrangement is part of a $5.5 billion multi-donor financing package that supports the authorities’ Economic Recovery Plan. The extended arrangement is subject to quarterly reviews.
    Date: 2018–11–02
  15. By: Tommaso Agasisti (Politecnico di Milano School of Managementcs); Ekaterina Shibanova (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Daria Platonova (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Mikhail Lisyutkin (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: This research studies the short-term effects of the Russian Excellence Initiative Project 5to100 on participating universities. To trace the effect, we develop a quasi-experimental econometric methodology. A control group of universities comparable to the Project 5to100 universities at the starting point of the program’s implementation was singled out using propensity score matching. Data envelopment analysis was conducted, and the Malmquist productivity index was calculated to trace how and why the efficiency of the “participants” and “non-participants” of the Project 5to100 has changed due to the project. We also investigate the direct impact of the policy on the research productivity of universities, using the average treatment effect, and difference-in-difference approaches. The final step consists of an explanatory analysis of the factors apart from the policy potentially affecting efficiency scores. We find statistically significant positive effects of the policy both on the productivity and on the efficiency of the participating universities.
    Keywords: efficiency in higher education; excellence initiative; management of universities; data envelopment analysis; Tobit regression; Malmquist index
    JEL: I23 I28
    Date: 2018
  16. By: Olga Alipova (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Lada Litvinova (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Andrey Lovakov (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Maria Yudkevich (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: This paper studies the publication productivity of inbreds and non-inbreds among Russian academics. The literature provides ambiguous results on the relationship between inbred status and productivity. This may be explained by the focus on different segments of academia as well as by using different indicators for measuring publication productivity. We exploit data from 3 datasets covering different segments of the academic population and included different indicators of the publication productivity to see whether inbreds and non-inbreds differ in their productivity. We did not find any difference in current publication productivity between s and non-inbreds. We found, however, a difference between inbreds and non-inbreds in whole career publication productivity; non-inbreds are more productive on an individual level. While focusing on Russian data, an analysis of the 3 datasets suggests an explanation for the contradictory existing results on the relationship between academic inbreeding and productivity in general.
    Keywords: academic profession, academic inbreeding, academic productivity, publication activity, Russia.
    JEL: I21 I23
    Date: 2018
  17. By: Jang, Youngook
    Abstract: This paper argues the importance of ethnic affinity in determining migration patterns using a newly constructed late- and post-Soviet dataset. The members of various indigenous ethnic groups, who had been spread across the Soviet territories, had to decide whether or not to leave the land in which they suddenly became diaspora after the dissolution of the USSR. The migration literature conventionally claims that potential migrants respond to the economic differentials between source and destination, but the post-Soviet case reveals that ethnicity also played a crucial and independent role in migration decision and destination choice. The trend of ethnic un-mixing is evidently seen in the novel dataset regarding the regional migration patterns of major ethnic groups in the post-Soviet space. Econometric analyses using this dataset also confirm that ethnic composition of a region, along with labour market conditions, has significant effects on the regional migration patterns.
    Keywords: Soviet/post-Soviet migration; determinants of migration; ethnic mixing and un-mixing
    JEL: F22 J15 P25
    Date: 2018–11–01
  18. By: Zinaida Zakharanka (Belarusian State University of Transport)
    Abstract: In the article features of teaching of economic disciplines for students of architectural and building specialties in higher educational institutions of the Republic of Belarus are presented on an example of calculation of the total estimated cost of construction products. It should be noted that the formation of prices in construction is one of the important stages in the preparation of design estimates, therefore the development of a unified approach to the calculation of cost, taking into account the dynamics of its development is fundamental in the process of teaching economic disciplines.It is important to take into account that in the current conditions of intensive implementation of various software complexes for the calculation of building structures, in particular based on BIM-technologies, the corresponding programs for the preparation of budget documentation are also widely used. In this situation, at the teaching stage it is important to form the understanding of the principles of drawing up the estimate documentation for the learner, because a correct assessment of the adequacy of the resulting "automated" solutions is the key in determining the competence of any specialist.Important in teaching the course "Construction economics" has a close relationship of the principles of formation of the value of construction products with the basics of technology and the organization of construction. In this connection, when presenting theoretical material on the "Construction economics", information about the technology and organization of construction production should be largely provided. It should be noted that the teaching of special economic disciplines takes place at the final courses of study, i.e. after completing the relevant specialized courses "Technology of construction" and "Organization of construction", which allows you to freely consider those or other features of the construction process in the aspect of economic evaluation. In general, the main purpose of accounting for the principles of construction production in the teaching of economic disciplines is the correct definition of labor, machinery and material resources, taking into account the selected production technology. At the same time, it is important to note that the study of the basics of calculating the cost of construction products in conjunction with the technology of production of works allows the future specialist to exclude errors in the selection of norms and quotations as much as possible, to reduce the amount of information entered and, as a result, to improve the quality of the estimated budget and resource documentation.
    Keywords: Construction-assembling works, Project and technology module, Estimated cost, Local estimate, Direct costs, Object estimate, Summary estimated cost
    JEL: A12 L74
    Date: 2018–11
  19. By: Kosec, K.; Shemyakina, O.
    Abstract: Does privatizing land improve child health and nutrition outcomes? We exploit a natural experiment in The Kyrgyz Republic following the collapse of socialism whereby the government rapidly liquidated state and collective farms containing 75 percent of agricultural land and distributed it to individuals, providing 99-year transferrable use rights. We use household surveys collected before, during, and after the reform and data on the spatial variation in the timing of privatization to identify its health and nutrition impacts. We find that children exposed to land privatization for longer periods of time accumulated significantly greater gains in height and weight, both critical measures of long-term health and nutrition. Children who benefited most from privatization were between the ages of 1 and 1.5 possibly due to protective effects of breastfeeding for children younger than a year old, and reduced vulnerability to health shocks at older ages. We find no evidence of significant gender differences in the effects of privatization. Acknowledgement : We thank both the Georgia Institute of Technology and IFPRI s Central Asia Program for financial support. We are also grateful to the Life in The Kyrgyz Republic (LIKS) team for their support, which included adding questions on the timing of land reform to round 5 of that survey, explicitly for the purposes of this study. The authors may be contacted at: Katrina Kosec, Senior Research Fellow, IFPRI, 2033 K Street, NW Washington, DC 20006, USA, , (323) 229 3180.
    Keywords: Health Economics and Policy
    Date: 2018–07
  20. By: Kvartiuk, V.; Herzfeld, T.; Ghukasyan, S.
    Abstract: Agricultural policy s support to farmers, measured in real terms, differs considerably across Russian regions. What explains these large differences in regional agricultural support? We argue that traditional approaches of agricultural economics cannot fully explain this variation and we draw upon the political eocnomy literature. In particular, we explain allocation and distribution of agricultural subsidies studying the incentives of federal and regional politicians. Electoral pressures arising from competing with other political parties may push federal politicians to target either loyal or easily swayed voters and regional ones to strategically target special interst groups. Vertical organization of the Russian dominant party may generate perverse accountability links between local governors and regional agricultural interest groups. We utlize a unique dataset on the agricultural subsidies in 2008-2015 in order to test the hypotheses. The evidence suggests that federal government targets swing regions in distributing agricultural subsidies and local governments are more likely to allocate larger co-funding shares facing higher political competition in the region. In addition, regions with better organized large-scale agricultural producers and elected governors are more successful in maximizing obtained agricultural subsidies from the federal level. Acknowledgement :
    Keywords: Political Economy
    Date: 2018–07
  21. By: Ramis Khabibullin (Bank of Russia, Russian Federation); Alexey Ponomarenko (Bank of Russia, Russian Federation); Sergei Seleznev (Bank of Russia, Russian Federation)
    Abstract: We develop a stock-flow-consistent agent-based model that comprises a realistic mechanism of money creation and parametrize it to fit actual data. The model is used to make out-of-sample projections of broad money and credit developments under the commencement/termination of foreign reserve accumulation by the Bank of Russia. We use direct forecasts from the agent-based model as well as the two-step approach, which implies the use of artificial data to pre-train the Bayesian vector autoregression model. We conclude that the suggested approach is competitive in forecasting and yields promising results.
    Keywords: Money supply, foreign exchange reserves, forecasting, agent-based model, Russia.
    JEL: C53 C63 E51 E58 F31 G21
    Date: 2018–11
  22. By: 雲, 和広
    Abstract: ソ連時代当時における地域間人口移動を巡る言説では,その初期においては政府による管理が有効であり,例えば長距離を経た人口再配置も実現が容易であったものの,後期には国家投資による誘因の有効性が限定的なものとなったという指摘があった.それは確かにあり得る事のように受け取られ得るが,しかしながら現象と矛盾するものであったことも否めない.なるほど極北地域や極東地域等,ヨーロッパロシア部から遙かに遠い地域への人口流入が継続的に見られ距離の効果は小さいものであった可能性を示唆していたものの,それがソ連末期まで続いたことは同時に,政府による人口移動管理の可能性が潰えていなかったことをも見せていた.本稿は新たに利用可能になったデータを用いて,ソ連時代における政府の人口移動管理の有効性を確認することが出来た.これは既存の研究と異なる発見であると言えるが,先行研究は分析単位が広大な地域であったり都市であったりすることによって,様々な要因の効果を正確に把握出来ていなかった可能性のあることが示唆される.本稿の分析は,これまでソ連時代に関し得られてきた結果について,検証を進めていく事の必要性を示すものであろう., Discourses over interregional migration at the time of the Soviet era have shown that the government control on population redistribution was effective at the early Soviet period, but in the late Soviet era the effects of incentive mechanisms including national investment became limited. This certainly can be expectable, but it is also undeniable that such assertion was inconsistent with the phenomenon. Indeed the population influx was continuously seen in Far East or Extreme North regions even at the very end of the Soviet period, suggesting the possibility of effective governmental management on geographical redistribution of population. This paper confirmed the effectiveness of the governmental control on population migration in the late Soviet era, using newly available data. It was suggested that the analytical unit utilized in previous studies (Economic Regions or cities) may involve problems, so that the effect of various factors could not be accurately grasped. This shows the necessity of further verification of the results that have been obtained during the Soviet era
    Keywords: Russia, Interregional Migration, Soviet Union, Origin-to-Destination Matrix
    Date: 2018–11
  23. By: Quentin Lippmann; Claudia Senik
    Abstract: This paper argues that the socialist episode in East Germany, which constituted a radical experiment in gender equality in the labor market and other instances, has left persistent tracks on gender norms. We focus on one of the most resilient and pervasive gender gaps in modern societies: mathematics. Using the German division as a natural experiment, we show that the underperformance of girls in math is sharply reduced in the regions of the former GDR, in contrast with those of the former FRG. We show that this East-West difference is due to girls’ attitudes, confidence and competitiveness in math, and not to other confounding factors, such as the difference in economic conditions or teaching styles across the former political border. We also provide illustrative evidence that the gender gap in math is smaller in European countries that used to be part of the Soviet bloc, as opposed to the rest of Europe. The lesson is twofold: (1) a large part of the pervasive gender gap in math is due to social stereotypes; (2) institutions can durably modify these stereotypes.
    Keywords: Gender Gap in Math, Institutions, German Division, Gender Stereotypes
    JEL: I2 J16 J24 P36 Z13
    Date: 2018

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