nep-cis New Economics Papers
on Confederation of Independent States
Issue of 2018‒09‒10
fourteen papers chosen by

  1. Financial and economic mechanisms of promoting innovative activity in the context of the digital economy formation By Mikhail Yakovlevich Veselovsky; Tatiana Vitalievna Pogodina; Raisa Vasilyevna Ilyukhina; Tatyana Anatolyevna Sigunova; Nina Fedorovna Kuzovleva
  2. How well is the Russian wheat market functioning? A comparison with the corn market in the USAHow well is the Russian wheat market functioning? A comparison with the corn market in the USA By Svanidze, Miranda; Götz, Linde
  3. The expansion of dairy herds in Russia and Kazakhstan after the import ban on Western food products By Petrick, Martin; Götz, Linde
  4. Russian food embargo and the lost trade By Cheptea, Angela; Gaigné, Carl
  6. The Soviet Economy, 1917-1991 : Its Life and Afterlife By Harrison, Mark
  7. How do Stocks in BRICS co-move with REITs? By Gil-Alana, Luis A.; Yaya, OlaOluwa S
  8. Per capita food consumption trends in Ukraine By Seheda, Serhii
  9. Secrecy and State Capacity: A Look Behind the Iron Curtain By Harrison, Mark
  10. Socio-economic differences of regions in Lithuania By Daiva Rimkuvien?
  11. Is there convergence between the BRICS and International REIT Markets? By Akinsomi, Omokolade; Coskun, Yener; Gil-Alana, Luis A.; Yaya, OlaOluwa S
  12. Carbon emission and economic growth nexus: Empirical evidence from the five largest carbon emitters By Akinsola, Foluso A.; Odhiambo, Nicholas M.
  13. Visualization of expressing culinary experience in social network, memetic approach By Krzysztof Stepaniuk
  14. Math, girls and socialism By Quentin Lippmann; Claudia Senik

  1. By: Mikhail Yakovlevich Veselovsky (University of Technology); Tatiana Vitalievna Pogodina (Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation); Raisa Vasilyevna Ilyukhina (Moscow Technological University); Tatyana Anatolyevna Sigunova (Moscow Technological University); Nina Fedorovna Kuzovleva (Moscow Technological University)
    Abstract: The paper analyzes some financial, tax, information, communication, infrastructural, technological and organizational mechanisms of innovative activity promotion in conditions of transition to a digital economy. End-to-end technologies including "Big Data", "New Production Technologies", "Quantum Technologies", "Technologies of Virtual and Augmented Realities", the possibilities of their application in various sectors of the national economy were singled out and analyzed. The role of end-to-end technologies in the development of the Russian economy and promotion of innovative activities of companies was studied. A comparative analysis of the main indicators of informatization of the society of Russia and some leading foreign countries for the period of 2005-2015 was carried out. The conclusions were made about an insufficient use of the Internet in Russia, primarily in rural areas, which hindered the social progress of Russian society. The leading role of digital (information) technologies in solving social problems, including education, social services and healthcare, was defined. The necessity of development of electronic services in the sphere of education and health was proved. Ways of cluster development based on the example of the Kaluga Region in the development of digital technologies were studied. The influence of development institutions on stimulating innovation activity in Russia was analyzed.
    Date: 2018–03–30
  2. By: Svanidze, Miranda; Götz, Linde
    Abstract: Given Russia’s leading position in the world wheat trade, how well its grain markets function becomes very important question to evaluate the state of future global food security. We use a threshold vector error correction model to explicitly account for the influence of trade costs and distance on price relationships in the grain markets of Russia and the USA. In addition, we study impact of market characteristics on regional wheat market integration. Empirical evaluation shows that distance between markets, inter-regional trade flows, export orientation, export tax and export ban all have a significant impact on the magnitude of wheat market integration.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Crop Production/Industries, Food Security and Poverty
    Date: 2017–08–15
  3. By: Petrick, Martin; Götz, Linde
    Abstract: Self-sufficiency in dairy products is a central policy goal of the Russian government, as the ban on food imports from the West imposed by the Kremlin vividly demonstrated. Western export opportunities into the Eurasian Economic Union depend inversely on the growth of milk production within the Union. Against this background, we explore the evolution of herd sizes and the role of state support among commercial dairy producers in Russia and Kazakhstan between 2012 and 2015. We show that dairy farms did grow as long as they kept less than 70 cows. Less than 10% of our 180 randomly selected dairy farms received livestock-related subsidies. Regression analysis using an innovative simultaneous equation framework shows that subsidised farms were bigger and younger than their peers, although they usually did not belong to vertically integrated agroholdings. Our results suggest that broad-based herd growth will be stimulated if many farms receive small subsidies, not if very few receive individually large amounts. However, the effects of good management practice and access to milk marketing contracts were much bigger than the subsidy impact. Processors provided inputs or services to only 5% of farmers in our sample. 25 years after the end of central planning, structural change among dairy farms in Eurasia in many ways resembles the patterns observed in the West.
    Keywords: International Relations/Trade, Livestock Production/Industries, Production Economics
    Date: 2017–08–15
  4. By: Cheptea, Angela; Gaigné, Carl
    Abstract: We analyse the impact of the Russian food embargo on European and Russian trade patterns using a triple-difference estimation strategy. We quantify the effects on the value of trade, the trade price of products covered by the ban, and the new trade flows generated by the ban. Our results point to an average e 125 million loss in monthly EU28 exports to Russia due to the ban (with Lithuania, Poland, and Germany bearing the largest losses). However, only 45% of the drop in EU28 exports of banned products to Russia would be due to the ban. In addition, EU products banned from the Russian market were sold elsewhere at lower prices. The reorientation of EU exports to other markets translated into selling larger amounts to old trade partners, as well as in accessing new markets. EU member states were unevenly affected by the ban. Germany and Poland compensated their large losses on the Russian market by a strong increase in exports to other trade partners (mostly intra-EU), at the expense of other EU acountries, such as France and Denmark.
    Keywords: International Relations/Trade
    Date: 2018
  5. By: Götz, Linde; Jaghdani, Tinoush Jamali
    Abstract: The pork sector has been at the centre of Russia’s import substitution policy. It has shown a very dynamic development reaching the government’s aim to increase self-sufficiency to 85% in 2015. However, this policy is facing several challenges. Results of a DCC-MGARCH model confirm our hypothesis that price volatility and thus risk have increased strongly in the pork supply chain in Russia. Concurrently, the volatility spill-overs between the price of slaughtered pork and the price of live swine have more than doubled, indicating increased price interdependence.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, International Relations/Trade, Risk and Uncertainty
    Date: 2017–08–15
  6. By: Harrison, Mark
    Abstract: In terms of economic development, Russia before and after the Soviet era was just an average economy. If the Soviet era is distinguished, it was not by economic growth or its contribution to human development, but by the use of the economy to build national power over many decades. In this respect, the Soviet economy was a success. It was also a tough and unequal environment in which to be born, live, and grow old. The Soviet focus on building national capabilities did improve opportunities for many citizens. Most important were the education of women and the increased survival of children. The Soviet economy was designed for the age of mass production and mass armies. That age has gone, but the idea of the Soviet economy lives on, fed by nostalgia and nationalism.
    Keywords: Financial Economics, International Development
    Date: 2017–05–05
  7. By: Gil-Alana, Luis A.; Yaya, OlaOluwa S
    Abstract: This paper investigates BRIC markets’ integration and segmentation between REITs and stock indices, and the possibility of establishing “wealth” and “credit” effects. The analysis of the relationship is based on updated techniques in time series using the concepts of fractional integration and cointegration and Granger causality. This allows us to look at bi-directional long-run equilibrium relationships between the two variables in the five countries. The results indicate that all the series are highly persistent, with orders of integration around 1. However, we do not find any evidence suggesting long run equilibrium relationships between the REITs and the stocks. Meanwhile, causality is bidirectional in the case of South Africa, thus both “wealth effect” and “credit effect” exist, while only “credit effect” is established in India and Russia.
    Keywords: Credit and wealth effects; Fractional integration; fractional cointegration; BRIC countries; REIT indices
    JEL: C22 C50 R30 R39
    Date: 2018–03
  8. By: Seheda, Serhii
    Abstract: The overall objective of this study was to analyze per capita food consumption trends in Ukraine from 1991 to 2016 and estimate the main factors responsible for its changes. According to the study per capita food consumption has shown a "gap" during the period of 1991-2001 years. The next decade was characterized by rising with a "peak" in 2013-2014. The main factors influencing on food consumption were the average annual nominal wage adjusted by consumer price index and absolute share of income spend on food. The report has emphasized the importance of providing deep global reforms of Ukrainian economic.
    Keywords: Demand and Price Analysis
    Date: 2018–04–26
  9. By: Harrison, Mark
    Abstract: This paper reviews two decades of research on the political economy of secrecy, based on the records of former Soviet state and party archives. Secrecy was an element of Soviet state capacity, particularly its capacity for decisiveness, free of the pressures and demands for accountability that might have arisen from a better informed citizenry. But secrecy was double-edged. Its uses also incurred substantial costs that weakened the capacity of the Soviet state to direct and decide. The paper details the costs of secrecy associated with “conspirative” government business processes, adverse selection of management personnel, everyday abuses of authority, and an uninformed leadership.
    Keywords: Financial Economics
    Date: 2017–02–02
  10. By: Daiva Rimkuvien? (Aleksandras Stulginskis University)
    Abstract: Regional development differences in Lithuania are the result of various factors such as available natural resources, human capital, access to transport, public services etc.The aim of this paper is to assess socio-economic development of regions in Lithuania over the 2011-2016. The research has been focused on both aspects ? regional differences and changes over time. The research was based on the data of the Statistics Lithuania ( Study uses ten regional indicators which represent Lithuanian counties classified by NUTS 3 administrative unit. Kruskal-Wallis test (K-W) was used to determine if there are statistically significant differences among counties and years. The conducted analysis showed, that there was a statistically significant difference of the activity rate, the average disposable income and the number of households that have internet access, comparing by years. During the analysed period, these indices were increasing in all of the counties. It is possible to conclude that regional contrasts in Lithuania are still strong. Summing up the results of the analysis, there is a clear predominance of three regions ? Kaunas, Klaip?da and Vilnius counties. The highest GDP is in Vilnius County. The highest number of investments was in Vilnius and Klaip?da counties. The activity rate increased the most in Tel?iai County. The disposable income was growing unevenly in the counties. Comparing 2016 and 2011 years, the difference between the highest disposable income of Vilnius County and the lowest disposable income of another county has doubled. The research on regional differences in Lithuania has shown that present regional policy should be revised. The disparities in the level of regions contrasts in the population living standards can lead to social tension.
    Keywords: Regions, Regional Development, Differences, Lithuania
    JEL: A19 I31
    Date: 2018–07
  11. By: Akinsomi, Omokolade; Coskun, Yener; Gil-Alana, Luis A.; Yaya, OlaOluwa S
    Abstract: The BRICS market represents high growth economies. This paper empirically examines the long-run equilibrium as well as the short-run linkages between the BRICS REIT markets and the REIT markets in developed countries (United States, Australia and the United Kingdom). We employ fractional co-integration techniques between the BRICS REIT markets and 3 most developed REIT markets. This paper tests the hypothesis of fractional integration, our results showed no evidence of co-integration between BRICS REIT markets and the REIT markets of any of the developed economies in the long run, while the result only indicated that the BRICS REIT markets is influenced by the developed economies in the short run. The implications of this study shows that a portfolio of developed REIT markets are diversifiable when added into a portfolio of BRICS REIT markets. This is particularly significant for investors and fund analysts in other to reduce portfolio risks.
    Keywords: BRICS; Fractional integration; Fractional cointegration; Real estate investment trust
    JEL: C22 C30 R0 R2
    Date: 2018
  12. By: Akinsola, Foluso A.; Odhiambo, Nicholas M.
    Abstract: The mad rush for rapid economic growth led by industrialization in emerging economies is having a negative impact on ecological management. Rapid economic growth and expansion of economic activities in most developed countries have resulted in acceleration of global warming and climate change. The direction of causality between carbon emission and economic growth varies from one country to the other depending on the data set and methodology employed by the researcher. In this paper, we examine the causal relationship between carbon emission and economic growth in five selected countries namely China, United States, Russia, India, and Japan. These countries are selected because they are the largest carbon emitters in the world. The study used two types of unit root test technique Levin-Lin-Chu (LLC) and Im-Pesaran-Shin (IPS) unit-root tests to ascertain the order of integration. Johansen Fisher Panel cointegration techniques and Pairwise Dumitrescu Hurlin Panel Causality Tests were applied to determine the existence of a long run relationship causal relationship between carbon emission and economic growth. Using panel cointegration approach, Fully Modified OLS and panel granger causality test, we found that there is a unidirectional causal flow from carbon emission to economic growth in most of the largest carbon emitters in the world in the long run. Therefore, the five most significant carbon emitters need to strengthen their carbon management and efficiency policies to avoid further environmental damages associated with rapid economic growth.
    Keywords: Carbon Emission, Economic Growth, Panel Cointegration Test
    Date: 2018–08–24
  13. By: Krzysztof Stepaniuk (Białystok University of Technology)
    Abstract: Objectives: The scientific aim of the study was the implementation of the assumptions of tourist experience formation model according to Quan and Wang (2004) in the context of meme theory (i.e. carriers of cultural information, Dawkins, 1976) for evaluation and visualization of the expression of regional cuisine culinary experience by social network users. The quality of culinary service influencing consumer's experience is equal to memetic transmission forming and broadcasting. Such type of transmission is acquired and decoded by consumers for further expression, i.a. through social networks. According to meme theory, the formation and expression of culinary experience is the building of memetic maps described by the frequency of the appearance of certain memes. Data and methods: Research included ten catering facilities, serving dishes of the regional cuisine (Polish, Belarussian, Ukrainian, Lithuanian and Tartar), located in the Podlaskie Voivodeship and having an active profile in Facebook social network. 370 comments were considered from the period between May and September 2016, referring to the contents connected only with the culinary offer of the facilities taken into account. The quantitative and qualitative content analysis was performed. The classification of emotion according to Xu et. al (2015) was used in the semantic decomposition of posted comments. Positive (enjoyment, confidence, safety, positive associations) and negative (dissatisfaction, distrust, anxiety, lack of positive associations) content of posted comments referred to the decor of the inside (mechanic factor), the quality of service (humanic factor) and served dishes (functional factor) were distinguished and analysed (Wall and Berry, 2007).Results: The analysis of the obtained meme maps suggests the presence of positive relationship between presence of memes of holistic enjoyment and enjoyment associated with regional dishes (rS=0.67; p
    Keywords: culinary experience,meme transmission,memes,social network,user generated content
    Date: 2018–03–30
  14. By: Quentin Lippmann (Paris School of Economics); Claudia Senik (Sorbonne University and Paris School of Economics)
    Abstract: This paper argues that the socialist episode in East Germany, which constituted a radical experiment in gender equality in the labor market and other instances, has left persistent tracks on gender norms. We focus on one of the most resilient and pervasive gender gaps in modern societies: mathematics. Using the German division as a natural experiment, we show that the underperformance of girls in math is sharply reduced in the regions of the former GDR, in contrast with those of the former FRG. We show that this East-West difference is due to girls' attitudes, confidence and competitiveness in math, and not to other confounding factors, such as the difference in economic conditions or teaching styles across the former political border. We also provide illustrative evidence that the gender gap in math is smaller in European countries that used to be part of the Soviet bloc, as opposed to the rest of Europe. The lesson is twofold: (1) a large part of the pervasive gender gap in math is due to social stereotypes; (2) institutions can durably modify these stereotypes.
    Keywords: gender gap in math, institutions, German division, gender stereotypes.
    JEL: I2 J16 J24 P36 Z13
    Date: 2018–05

General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.