nep-cis New Economics Papers
on Confederation of Independent States
Issue of 2018‒06‒25
seven papers chosen by
Alexander Harin
Modern University for the Humanities

  1. Just like a Woman? New Comparative Evidence on the Gender Income Gap across Eastern Europe and Central Asia By Blunch, Niels-Hugo
  2. Media Construction of LGBT Prides in Russia: Framing Dynamics and Frame Resonance By Kseniia Semykina
  3. Exploring Emotional Intelligence in Higher Education: Management Programme Students in Russia By Olga Kotomina; Aleksandra Sazhina
  4. Do High Deposit Interest Rates Signal Bank Default? Evidence from the Russian Retail Deposit Market By Maria Bondarenko; Maria Semenova
  5. Development of coopeatives in the Republic of Moldova By Ignat, Anatolie; Stratan, Alexandru; Lucasenco, Eugenia
  6. Republic of Estonia; Selected Issues By International Monetary Fund
  7. Republic of Estonia; 2018 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; and Staff Report By International Monetary Fund

  1. By: Blunch, Niels-Hugo (Washington and Lee University)
    Abstract: I examine the incidence and determinants of the gender income gap in Kazakhstan, Macedonia, Moldova, Serbia, Tajikistan, and Ukraine using recent household data based on an identical survey instrument across countries. Four main results are established, using a range of estimators, including OLS, interval regression, and quantile regression: (1) the presence of a substantively large gender income gap (favoring males) in all six countries; (2) some evidence of a gender-related glass ceiling in some of these countries; (3) some evidence that endowments diminish the income gaps, while the returns to characteristics increase the gaps; and (4) while observed individual characteristics explain part of the gaps, a substantial part of the income gap is left unexplained. In sum, these results are consistent with the presence of income discrimination towards females but at the same time also point towards the importance of continued attention towards institutions and economic policy for decreasing the gender income gap in these former formally gender neutral economies—notably through attention towards the maternity and paternity leave system, as well as public provision of child care.
    Keywords: gender, income gap, Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition, detailed decomposition, maternity/paternity leave policies, Eastern Europe and Central Asia
    JEL: J16 J31 J7
    Date: 2018–05
  2. By: Kseniia Semykina (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: The article analyses representation of LGBT-movement activity, namely Saint Petersburg LGBT prides, in Russia. Framing theory, which views the media as an arena in which groups of interest promote their frames, or interpretations of the discussed issue, is used. Frames juxtapose elements of the text in such a way as to provide the audience with a scheme to perceive the message. Social movements are viewed as a group of interest that introduces new frames in the public deliberation. Two types of frames can be distinguished, namely collective action frames and status quo frames. In this study, usage of two collective action frames were examined (equality frame and victim frame), and two status quo frames (morality frame and propaganda of homosexuality). Additionally, the sources of quotes used in news stories were analyzed. The study focuses on articles dedicated to Saint Petersburg LGBT prides in years 2010-2017 in the most popular local Internet websites. The analysis shows that the coverage of LGBT prides can be divided into two distinct periods: 2010–2013 and 2014–2017. In the first period, LGBT activists dominated the coverage, quoted about twice more actively than government officials. Equality and victim frames were prevalent. In the second period, activists were cited significantly less often, with the propaganda of homosexuality frame dominating in the discourse. However, contrary to findings of previous studies on social movement representation, across the whole period under consideration LGBT activists were quoted more actively than government representatives. This finding calls for further exploration of the conditions which allowed for such coverage in the context of political heterosexism and homophobia.
    Keywords: framing, media, LGBT prides, Russia, Saint-Petersburg
    JEL: L
    Date: 2018
  3. By: Olga Kotomina (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Aleksandra Sazhina (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: Researches have shown that emotional intelligence (EI) plays a crucial role in university education. Students’ EI affects their motivation to learn, perception of information and academic achievements. Educators’ EI impacts their job satisfaction and sense of self-efficacy. Recent researches take into consideration the EI of learners or educators, but ignore the correlation between them. The paper studies how the EI of one group of educational actors (educators) is interconnected with the performance of other actors (learners) in the same context. This study describes the situation at one university in terms of EI, and presents the results of panel data analysis (N=329) showing the relationship between educators’ EI and students’ academic performance. The findings indicate that the educator’s experience and his/her qualification negatively affect the students’ academic performance. These results could be explained by the assumption that teachers might miss certain mistakes on the part of their students at the beginning of their university careers; however, as educators become more experienced, they require more of their students. A relationship between students’ EI and educators’ EI was not found. It is supposed that even though educators seem to be crucial figures in the educational process, students cooperate with different representative groups at the university. Therefore students’ EI could be influenced not only by educators but also by other actors of the educational process (other students, administrative staff etc.).
    Keywords: Emotional intelligence, university education, academic performance, grade, management department students
    JEL: I21 I23
    Date: 2018
  4. By: Maria Bondarenko (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Maria Semenova (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: In recent years the Russian banking system has witnessed numerous bank license withdrawals. Many of the failed banks had significant volumes of retail deposits in their liabilities, thus, transmitting the default burden to the Deposit Insurance Agency and ultimately to the taxpayers. In their attempt to stay in the market banks may try to attract the depositor funds even more intensively when the failure is not far away. The main assumption of this paper is that banks raise additional funds through inflated deposit interest rates – the overstatement strategy – before leaving the market. We use unique data on Russian bank deposit interest rates for deposits of different maturities in 2015–2016 combined with data about bank fundamentals coming from their financial statements. The results suggest that if a bank offers too generous interest rates for deposits for 180-365 days this can be a signal of a significantly higher probability of license withdrawal in 3 quarters. In their attempt to urgently attract funds when moving closer to default banks assign the highest rates for the longest-term deposits, with the maturity over one year. The interest rates higher than the market average dramatically increase the probability of a bank failure in 2 quarters.
    Keywords: Bank failure, Deposit interest rates, Market discipline, Personal deposits, Russia
    JEL: G21 G01 P2
    Date: 2018
  5. By: Ignat, Anatolie; Stratan, Alexandru; Lucasenco, Eugenia
    Abstract: The paper presents the review of the development of cooperatives in the Republic of Moldova during the post independence period. After the massive land privatization a large number of small scale agricultural producers occurred that hardly can compete with large scale producers. This preserves a state of underdevelopment of small farmers and of the rural sector. To identify problems that jeopardize cooperation processes and potential solutions a study on the development of cooperatives in the country was carried out. The major problems and possible solutions were identified through a semi-structured survey that encompassed 150 agricultural producers purposively selected in North, Central and South regions of the country. Addressing this critical situation can be made by coagulating dispersed efforts of small scale farmers to reduce costs of purchasing agricultural inputs and services, improve the access to post harvest, processing, transportation, financing, consulting services. Access to more stable markets and negotiation of better prices and better conditions of delivery can also be achieved through consolidated efforts agricultural producers’ groups.
    Keywords: agriculture, small scale agricultural producers, agricultural cooperatives, marketing groups
    JEL: Q13 Q15
    Date: 2017–11–16
  6. By: International Monetary Fund
    Abstract: Selected Issues
    Date: 2018–05–24
  7. By: International Monetary Fund
    Abstract: Estonia’s economy is performing well, underpinned by prudent economic management, ongoing structural reforms, and strong institutions. Real economic activity has surprised on the upside, bringing output above potential, and the fiscal position remains strong. Inflation has increased, but is expected to decelerate over 2018. The labor market has been tightening, and unemployment is low. Despite continued strong wage increases, rising export prices have eased pressure on corporate profitability. Over the medium term, low productivity and adverse demographics would weigh on long-term growth prospects. The authorities should take advantage of the current favorable conditions to accelerate structural reforms for sustained growth and income convergence, rather than boost demand through the expansionary policies embedded in the 2018 budget.
    Date: 2018–05–24

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