nep-cis New Economics Papers
on Confederation of Independent States
Issue of 2018‒05‒07
five papers chosen by

  1. Foresight in Strategic Planning and Technology Foresight in Kazakhstan: making Decisions about Long-term Investment in Science, International Experience. By Shevchenko, Yelena; Stukach, Victor
  2. Networking of small cities to gain sustainability By Zhanna Mingaleva; Marina Sheresheva; Matvey Oborin; Tatyana Gvarliani
  3. Can economic sanctions be effective? By Smeets, Maarten
  4. Competition agency guidelines and policy initiatives regarding the application of competition law vis-à-vis intellectual property: An analysis of jurisdictional approaches and emerging directions By Anderson, Robert D.; Chen, Jianning; Müller, Anna Caroline; Novozhilkina, Daria; Pelletier, Philippe; Sen, Nivedita; Sporysheva, Nadezhda
  5. Selective Amnesia and Symbolic Violence: The Second World War as Represented in Eastern and Western Ukrainian Historical Museums. By Adi Schnytzer; Alina Zubkovych

  1. By: Shevchenko, Yelena; Stukach, Victor
    Abstract: Development of the national science, technology and innovation (STI) strategy is a complicated process associated with a high level of uncertainty. Establishment of efficient framework for STI policy planning in Kazakhstan is an essential element of the sustainable policy planning system. From a perspective of future management, foresight provides a basis for decision-making process by identifying key areas for a long-term investments and assessing long-term perspectives of science, technology, economy and society. Foresight allows setting up future priorities by focusing on different aspects of anticipated changes. The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of foresight in the decision-making process and to elaborate recommendations on effective integration of national foresight results into the process of STI policy planning in Kazakhstan.
    Keywords: foresight, forecast, future studies, government policies, STI priorities, strategic policy planning, emerging issue analysis, priority setting, S&T program planning, strategic planning system, International Experience foresight.
    JEL: O2 O21 O3 O32 O33
    Date: 2017–02
  2. By: Zhanna Mingaleva (Perm National Research Polytechnic University); Marina Sheresheva (PRUE - Plekhanov Russian University of Economics [Moscow]); Matvey Oborin (MSU - Lomonosov Moscow State University); Tatyana Gvarliani (Sochi State University)
    Abstract: The paper addresses networking as a basis for cooperation of small cities leading to more sustainable regional development at the city, regional, and federal level. It is shown that networking of cities can contribute to increasing sustainability in many ways. Still, additional research is needed to adjust best management practices discussed in the relevant academic literature to the peculiarities of transition economies. The objective of the research presented in the paper was to help regional and municipal authorities in the optimization of territorial development planning aimed at long-term sustainability. Research was carried out in Russia on an example of two regions, namely Perm Krai and Vladimir Oblast. The case study revealed that local authorities underestimate the potential of small cities in raising regional sustainability. Actually, a number of small cities in both regions have hidden competitive advantages but cannot realize them separately, whilst development of regional city networking is a fruitful approach to improve their socioeconomic situation, and to boost sustainable regional development. Therefore, when planning regional development, federal and local authorities should regard the role of small cities, including disadvantaged and depressed ones, as potentially valuable members of a city network. Measures to embed small cities into different types of networks should be based on the thorough assessment of their resources, with the aim to develop collaboration of cities with mutually beneficial network externalities.
    Keywords: sustainability,small city,networking,regional development,planning,specialization
    Date: 2017–09–29
  3. By: Smeets, Maarten
    Abstract: While economic sanctions may be attractive policy tools for governments wanting to express discontent with a country's behaviour, it is arguable if from an economic perspective sanctions can achieve the change that is often envisaged through the punitive measures taken. In fact, the literature does not present conclusive evidence that economic sanctions are an effective policy instrument. Nevertheless the number of sanction episodes is on the rise and have increasingly gained in popularity in recent years. What can explain that? This paper will review how sanctions work from an analytical perspective and the challenges countries encounter in applying sanctions as an effective policy tool. In doing so, it reviews more specifically the sanction episodes against the Russian Federation and Iran and without offering any views on the merits and/or legitimacy of the actions taken by any of the parties. It will be argued that economic sanctions generally inflict economic costs to all countries involved in the sanction episodes, including those taking the sanctions, thus shooting themselves in the foot. The country facing the sanctions is likely to develop trade relations with third parties that are not part of the sanction coalition. It is observed that sanctions are mostly taken in complement of diplomatic and other forms of pressure. The type of sanctions is also evolving, with countries increasingly using 'smart' sanctions, targeting financial transactions, business activities and individuals there were it hurts most and limiting their freedom of movement. From an analytical perspective, it is noted that when various measures are put in place, it is hard to assess the extent to which the economic sanctions per se contribute to the eventual outcomes, hence the question of attribution. It is the combination of various interventions that could eventually make the sanction episodes effective, if at all and not the economic sanctions per se. Despite such shortcomings and lack of evidence of their effectiveness, it can safely be said that they are the preferred option compared to military intervention. At the same time, and regrettably, sanctions do not necessarily prevent armed conflict adding to the economic cost the tragic cost of human life.
    Keywords: trade sanctions,conflict,trade theory and policy,national security,international relations
    JEL: F13 F51 F52 F53
    Date: 2018
  4. By: Anderson, Robert D.; Chen, Jianning; Müller, Anna Caroline; Novozhilkina, Daria; Pelletier, Philippe; Sen, Nivedita; Sporysheva, Nadezhda
    Abstract: Competition agency guidelines, policy statements and related advocacy are an important vehicle for policy expression and the guidance of firms across the full spectrum of anti-competitive practices and market conduct. The role of guidelines and policy statements has, arguably, been particularly important in the context of the competition policy treatment of intellectual property rights, given the complexity of this area, the importance that competition agencies attach to it, and its importance for innovation, technology transfer and economic growth. As such, this important normative material also provides a useful empirical foundation for mapping relevant trends and the evolution of policy thinking over time and across jurisdictions. In this light, the paper examines the competition agency guidelines, policy statements and related initiatives regarding intellectual property (IP) of the following three sets of jurisdictions: (i) the United States, Canada, the European Union and Australia; (ii) Japan and Korea; and (iii) the BRICS economies (Brazil, China, India, Russia, and South Africa). It focuses, to the extent possible, on a common set of issues addressed in one way or another in the majority of these jurisdictions, comprising: (i) the treatment of licensing practices, including refusals to license; (ii) anti-competitive patent settlements; (iii) issues concerning standard-essential patents (SEPs); (iv) the conduct of patent assertion entities (PAEs); and (v) competition advocacy activities focused on the IP system. Additionally, while the primary focus of the paper is on competition agency guidelines, policy statements and advocacy activities relating to IP, reference is also made to enforcement and case developments where they are helpful in illustrating relevant approaches and trends. Overall, the analysis suggests, firstly, that, in contrast to the situation prevailing twenty or thirty years ago, interest in the systematic application of competition law vis-à-vis IP certainly is no longer a preoccupation of only a few traditional developed jurisdictions. Secondly, we find evidence of significant cross-jurisdictional learning processes and partial policy convergence across the jurisdictions surveyed. Thirdly, the analysis also reveals the continuing potential for coordination failures in regard to the approaches taken by national authorities in this area, for example where jurisdictions take different approaches to specific practices such as refusals to license and/or give differing weights to industrial policy as opposed to consumer welfare or other objectives in their policy applications.
    Keywords: competition agency guidelines,intellectual property,antitrust,innovation,licensing agreements,refusal to license,anti-competitive patent settlements,standard-essential patents (SEPs),patent assertion entities (PAEs),competition advocacy
    JEL: K21 L4 L41 L43 O3 O34
    Date: 2018
  5. By: Adi Schnytzer (Bar-Ilan University); Alina Zubkovych
    Date: 2017

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