nep-cis New Economics Papers
on Confederation of Independent States
Issue of 2017‒12‒18
seventeen papers chosen by

  1. Ageing in Russia: Regional Inequalities and Pension Reform By Stuart Gietel-Basten; Vladimir Mau; Warren Sanderson; Sergei Scherbov; Sergey Shulgin
  2. Ранжирование российских экономических журналов: научный метод или «игра в цыфирь»? By Рубинштейн Александр Яковлевич
  3. The Transformation of Working-Class Identity in Post-Soviet Russia: A Case-Study of an Ural Industrial Neighborhood By Polukhina Elizaveta; Strelnikova Anna; Vanke Alexandrina
  4. Вступительная заметка By Рубинштейн Александр Яковлевич
  5. Введение в общую теорию изъянов смешанной экономики By Рубинштейн Александр Яковлевич
  6. Exchange rates of oil exporting countries and global oil price shocks: A nonlinear smooth-transition approach By Haug, Alfred A.; Basher, Syed Abul
  7. Mutual Learning for Reducing Tax Gaps in V4 Countries and Ukraine. Final Report By Iakov Frizis; Krzysztof G³owacki
  8. Patronized goods index (index of human capital formation By Рубинштейн Александр Яковлевич; Slavinskaia O.A.
  9. Moving up the global value chain in Latvia By Naomitsu Yashiro; Koen De Backer; Andrés Fuentes Hutfilter; Marco Kools; Zuzana Smidova
  10. От теории к практике экономического регулирования: десять тезисов к проекту закона о культуре By Рубинштейн Александр Яковлевич
  11. Theory of patronized goods. Liberal evolution of paternalism By Рубинштейн Александр Яковлевич
  12. Eurasian integration and its institutions: possible contributions to security in Eurasia By Vinokurov, Evgeny; Libman, Alexander
  13. Экономический кризис и новая парадигма общественной поддержки опекаемых благ By Рубинштейн Александр Яковлевич
  14. Mutual Learning for Reducing Tax Gaps in V4 Countries and Ukraine Peer Country Paper: Poland By Iakov Frizis; Krzysztof G³owacki; Katarzyna Mirecka
  15. Republic of Lithuania; Selected Issues By International Monetary Fund
  16. Matching between Students and Universities: What are the Sources of Inequalities of Access to Higher Education? By Ilya Prakhov; Denis Sergienko
  17. Optimal Long-Run Inflation and the Informal Economy By Claudio Cesaroni

  1. By: Stuart Gietel-Basten (Division of Social Science, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology; Institute of Emerging Market Studies, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology); Vladimir Mau (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration); Warren Sanderson (Stony Brook University); Sergei Scherbov (International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis); Sergey Shulgin (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration)
    Abstract: The Russian Federation, like most industrial and post-industrial countries, is currently in the midst of a great discussion about how to meet the challenges of population ageing. Again, in common with many other countries, a discussion is taking place regarding both the parameters and, indeed, the very nature of the pension system and the relationship between work and retirement. In this paper, we have sought to present a more systematic representation of ageing in Russia. We have done so by presenting a series of standard and alternative measurements. By doing so, it is possible to suggest that the scale of ageing in Russia is arguably exaggerated precisely by the low pensionable ages. The second contribution of this paper is to explicitly bring in the concept of inequality regarding pension entitlement. Noting that these dimensions of inequality include gender, geography and socioeconomic differentials, we found that the current heterogeneity of conditions of wellbeing in Russia are such that very high degrees of inequality can be detected.
    Date: 2017–12
  2. By: Рубинштейн Александр Яковлевич
    Abstract: Статья посвящена общим проблемам ранжирования журналов на примере критического анализа трех рейтингов российских экономических журналов, предложенных в последние годы. Методология построения данных рейтингов связана с данными РИНЦ, результатами экспертных опросов и комбинацией этих подходов. Выявлены принципиальные недостатки каждого из рейтингов и показано, что уязвимым местом таких разработок являются относительно произвольный выбор библиометрических индикаторов и их слабая корреляция с научным авторитетом журналов, недостаточно обоснованная процедура агрегирования используемых показателей и/ или экспертных оценок, а также нерепрезентативность опросов экспертов. В работе представлен пассивный эксперимент, в рамках которого сопоставлены результаты ранжирования журналов по указанным трем рейтингам и трем дополнительным критериям. Сделан общий вывод о невысоком уровне развития подобных исследований и отсутствии реальных оснований для применения указанных рейтингов в практике управления наукой и стимулирования труда ученых. This article is devoted to general problems of ranking on the example of critical analysis of the three ratings of Russian economic journals suggested in recent years, the methodology of construction of which are connected with the Russian Science Citation Index (RSCI) data, results of expert surveys and a combination of these approaches. The fundamental disadvantages of each of them are revealed and it is shown that the vulnerable points of such developments are relatively arbitrary choice of bibliometric indicators and their weak correlation with academic authority of journals, insufficiently substantiated procedure of aggregation of used indicators and/or expert analysis, as well as surveys of experts are not representative. This paper presents a «passive experiment», in terms of which were mapped the results of the ranking of journals, based on the three ratings and three additional criteria. Made the overall conclusion about the low level of development of such researches and the lack of real grounds for the application of these ratings in the practice of science management and motivation of scientists.
    Keywords: journal ranking, bibliometric indicators, citation, expert analysis, aggregation, arranging
    JEL: A11 A14 I23
  3. By: Polukhina Elizaveta (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Strelnikova Anna (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Vanke Alexandrina (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: This paper presents an analytical description of working-class identity in three key periods of the socioeconomic transformations which changed the structure of a plant’s industry and working-class life: the Soviet era (1930s-1980s), the time of economical change (1990s), and the post-Soviet years (2000s-2010s). The analytical framework of the study is based on the concept of ‘cultural class analysis’ (Savage 2015). It includes the concepts of habitus and cultural capital, and culture as embedded in economic and social relations (Bourdieu 1980). In the course of the research we conducted an ethnographic case-study in 2017 and lived in the neighborhood of Uralmash, which was designed for workers of a heavy machinery plant dating back to the 1920s in the city of Yekaterinburg. Based on 15 in-depth interviews with Uralmash workers living in the neighborhood and 8 experts, and our field observations, we discovered 3 restructuring shapes of the Uralmash worker identity. These working class identities shapes referred to 3 determined periods. The Soviet period showed a ‘consistent’ working-class identity of the Uralmash workers, whereby the plant and working spirits were the centers of their lives. The 1990s was marked by severe deterioration of workers’ social conditions and the loss of their familiar bearings in life. As a consequence, the Uralmash workers perceived themselves as ‘victims of circumstances’ with ‘collapsing’ worker identity in 1990s. Currently, ‘Soviet’ and ‘post-Soviet’ practices and values are combined in today’s ‘mixing’ and an inconsistent worker identity. The notions of ‘simple’ and ‘working-class’ as sense-making images are encapsulated in nostalgic memories and retain their role as criteria for the delineation between inequalities and social discrimination along the ‘them’ and ‘us’: ‘we are those who live belonging to the past’. The Soviet past still continues to be an important sense-making resource; in fact, it is the only ‘universal’ prop for them that support their subjective perception of themselves
    Keywords: industrial neighborhood, worker, working-class identity, ethnographic case-study
    JEL: Z
    Date: 2017
  4. By: Рубинштейн Александр Яковлевич
    Abstract: В заметке описывается ситуация, сложившаяся в результате реформ в секторах, где производятся, распространяются, сохраняются и потребляются опекаемые блага - продукты науки, образования, культуры и здравоохранения, объективно требующие бюджетного финансирования. В связи с этим отмечены ключевые проблемы, стоящие перед экономической наукой применительно к сфере культуры и искусства, испытывающей в Год культуры «наплыв» самых разных и не всегда обоснованных рекомендаций. This paper describes the situation, which resulted from reforms in those sectors, which produce, distribute, store and consume the patronized goods - scientific products, education, culture and health care - undoubtedly requiring budget funding. In this regard, the paper highlights the key challenges facing economic science, experiencing in the “year of culture” influx of different and not always well-founded recommendations.
    Keywords: patronized goods, culture, cultural policy, reform, expenditure on culture, investments in culture, cultural activities, externalities Classification JEL: P35, Z11
  5. By: Рубинштейн Александр Яковлевич
    Abstract: В контексте исследования природы и эволюции патернализма, одного из элементов теории опекаемых благ, представлен новый взгляд на изъяны смешанной экономики. Стандартные провалы рынка дополнены «поведенческим провалом», являющимся прямым следствием иррационального поведения индивидуумов, и «патерналистским провалом», который возникает в результате ошибочных действий государства. Обсуждаются вопросы формирования патерналистских установок, рассмотрены теоретические и прикладные аспекты либерализации процессов принятия политических и экономических решений на основе развития институтов гражданского общества и гражданской активности, направленной на снижение рисков «провалов государства» и потери благосостояния. The author gives a new perspective on defects of the mixed economy in the context of nature and evolution of paternalism as one of elements of the theory of patronized goods. The researcher supplements standard market failures with ‘behavioral failure’, which is a direct consequence of irrational behavior of individuals, and ‘paternalistic failure’, which occurs as a result of erroneous actions of the state. The article also discusses the formation of paternalistic attitudes and reviews theoretical and applied aspects of liberalization of making political and economic decisions based on the development of civil society institutions and civic engagement aimed at reducing the risks of ‘government failures’ and welfare loss.
    Keywords: patronized goods, meritorious goods, market failures,paternalism, libertarian paternalism, state activity, paternalistic failure, government failures, institutions
  6. By: Haug, Alfred A.; Basher, Syed Abul
    Abstract: This paper considers logistic (asymmetric) and exponential (symmetric) smooth transition adjustments of real and nominal exchange rates for six major oil-exporting countries in response to different shocks affecting oil prices. Real exchange rate movements affect the terms of trade and hence may affect relative competitiveness. We detect no statistically significant non-linearities for the adjustment process of real exchange rate returns, be they asymmetric or symmetric, in response to oil supply shocks, idiosyncratic oil-market-specific shocks, and speculative (crude oil inventory) oil-market shocks. On the other hand, global aggregate demand shocks, which are shocks that do not directly originate in the oil market, have nonlinear asymmetric effects on real exchange rate returns for Canada, Mexico, Norway and Russia, and linear effects for the UK. These qualitative results mostly hold for nominal exchange rate returns as well. Exceptions are that linear effects are found for aggregate demand shocks for Brazil and for idiosyncratic shocks for Norway, whereas the aggregate demand shocks for the UK have nonlinear and asymmetric effects instead of linear ones.
    Keywords: Logistic and exponential smooth transition; oil price shocks; exchange rates
    JEL: F31 Q43
    Date: 2017–12–07
  7. By: Iakov Frizis; Krzysztof G³owacki
    Abstract: The paper is a summary of the exchange of knowledge and experience that took place in the course of the project “Mutual Learning for Reducing Tax Gaps in V4 Countries and Ukraine” co-financed by the Visegrad Fund in the years 2016–2017. Five institutions took part in the project: Center for Social and Economic Research (Warsaw, Poland), Center for Social and Economic Research Ukraine (Kiev, Ukraine), INEKO Institute for Economic and Social Reform (Bratislava, Slovak Republic), EUROPEUM Institute for European Policy (Prague, Czech Republic), and Kopint-Tárki Institute for Economic Research (Budapest, Hungary).
    Keywords: tax gap, tax evasion, tax avoidance, tax administration, compliance costs, CIT, PIT, VAT, excise, Visegrad, V4, Ukraine
    JEL: H26 H60
    Date: 2017
  8. By: Рубинштейн Александр Яковлевич; Slavinskaia O.A.
    Abstract: The present work is devoted to development of new index-index of patronized goods, which allows you to determine the level of development in a given time or in a region of such species of patronized goods, such as culture, science, education and health. This paper presents a formula for the determination of these indexes, as well as their informative analysis. There is a theoretical analysis of existing indices, characterizing the development of human potential. The article contains specific empirical research on the basis of which the indexes were calculated for different regions of Russia on various kinds of protected goods: culture, science, education, health care and patronized goods as a whole.
    Keywords: patronized goods, culture, science, education, health, human development
  9. By: Naomitsu Yashiro; Koen De Backer; Andrés Fuentes Hutfilter; Marco Kools; Zuzana Smidova
    Abstract: Stronger integration in global value chains would speed up economic convergence to advanced OECD economies and raise living standards. Participation in global value chains (GVCs) offers opportunities for boosting productivity through knowledge transfer and intensive use of technologically advanced inputs. It also enables Latvia to diversify exports into high value added goods and services. Latvia’s participation in GVC lags behind its Baltic and Central European peers. It also draws less value added from GVCs compared to many OECD economies. Nevertheless, GVC participation boosts the productivity of Latvian firms and enables them to increase employment and wages. Strong skills, high innovation capabilities and efficient resource allocation are essential for Latvian firms to engage in more knowledge intensive activities within GVCs. Improving access to higher education, promoting innovation cooperation between Latvian firms and foreign research institutes, reducing the large informal economy and establishing an effective judiciary and insolvency regime would unlock productivity growth through stronger integration in GVCs. This Working Paper relates to the 2017 OECD Economic Survey of Latvia. ( y-latvia.htm).
    Keywords: education, global value chains, innovation
    JEL: F12 F43 O38
    Date: 2017–11–27
  10. By: Рубинштейн Александр Яковлевич
    Abstract: В статье предложена концепция экономического регулирования в сфере культуры, представляющая комбинацию четырех основных институтов: институт дифференцированных бюджетных нормативов, характеризующий минимальную долю расходов на культуру в бюджетах всех уровней, обеспечивающих выполнение государственных обязательств перед потребителями культурных благ и работниками культуры; институт индивидуальных бюджетных назначений («процентная филантропия»), обеспечивающий непосредственное участие граждан в распределении бюджетных средств, выборе направлений расходования небольшой части налоговых доходов государства; институт маркированных налогов, предусматривающий прямое направление в сферу культуры доходов от конкретных видов налогов и сборов; институт эндаумент-фондов, позволяющий накапливать поступления от маркированных налогов и индивидуальных бюджетных назначений с целью извлечения возрастающего текущего дохода от целевого капитала, направляемого на поддержку культурной деятельности в форме конкурсного финансирования грантов. Предложенную систему экономического регулирования культурной деятельности можно рассматривать в качестве модельной для всех видов опекаемых благ. С определенной адаптацией к конкретным условиям функционирования науки, образования и здравоохранения она может стать основой для соответствующих институциональных реформ. Тhe paper proposes the concept of economic regulation in the sphere of culture, representing combination of four main institutions: institution of differentiated budget performance standards, that characterize the minimum share ofspending on culture in the budgets of all levelsthat enforce to ensure compliance with state obligations to consumers of cultural goods and cultural workers; institution of individual budget allocations (“percentage philanthropy”), which provides a direct participation of citizens in budget allocation, choosing areas of spending of a small part of the state income tax; institution of marked taxes, providing a direct referral into the cultural sphere of revenues from specific taxes and fees; institute of endowment funds, allowing to accumulate revenues from marked taxes and individual budget allocations, in order to derive an increasing current income from the endowment going to support cultural activities in the form of competitive grant funding. The proposed system of economic regulation of cultural activities can be seen as a model for all kinds of patronized goods. With a certain adaptation to the specific conditions of the functioning of science, education and health care, it can be the basis for appropriate institutional reforms.
    Keywords: culture, patronized goods, budget performance standards, tax protectionism, institution of individual budget allocations, “percentage philanthropy”, marked taxes, endowment funds
    JEL: H53 H71 P35 Z11
  11. By: Рубинштейн Александр Яковлевич
    Abstract: The neo-classical principles of rational behavior are considered in the context of the nature of normative interests is discussed in concern of political aspects. The article illustrates the theoretical and the practical aspects of the concept of consociation democracy, providing liberalization of the institutions for making political and economic decisions. The results of analysis reveal a pattern of paternalism drifting towards institutional liberalization. Proposed a hypothesis explaining why the economic policy in modern Russia still remains somewhere between archaic and merit paternalism.
    Keywords: patronized goods, rational behavior, merit paternalism, consociational democracy
    JEL: C70 C72 D5 D6 D7 H41
  12. By: Vinokurov, Evgeny; Libman, Alexander
    Abstract: The authors turn to the large family of institutions that came into existence in post-Soviet Eurasia (and, in some ways, beyond it) over the last two decades. The researchers review their current state, agenda, real and perceived mandate, and their respective achievements and constraints. The main questions of interest are the following: do ‘Eurasian’ institutions serve to provide security/stability and, if so, how? To answer these two questions, the authors identify a number of key challenges to security in Eurasia, review the institutions belonging loosely to the Eurasian Economic Union’s institutional ecosphere, the Collective Security Treaty Organization, and the Shanghai Cooperation Organization. The goal is primarily to find out the possible contributions to security in the region from the point of view of the mandates of regional institutions and their capacity. As the authors will show, the potential of Eurasian regional institutions to provide security is substantial, and it partly materializes itself in concrete policy measures.
    Keywords: regional integration, security, EAEU, CSTO, institutions, regional organization, SCO
    JEL: F15 F52 F53
    Date: 2017
  13. By: Рубинштейн Александр Яковлевич
    Abstract: В работе предложена новая модель экономического регулирования опекаемых благ в гуманитарном секторе экономики, направленная на повышение устойчивости финансового положения организаций культуры, науки, образования и снижение их зависимости от конъюнктурных решений экономических ведомств. Основу данной модели составляют три механизма общественнойподдержки: 1)система финансовых нормативов, характеризующих минимальные доли расходов бюджета на производство соответствующих видов опекаемых благ, отражающих государственные обязательства по их доступности для населения и оплате труда работников культуры,наукииобразования; 2)институт индивидуальных бюджетных назначений, реализующий право участия граждан в выборе направлений расходования ограниченной части налоговых доходов государства; 3) система эндаумент - фондов, позволяющих накапливать поступления от индивидуальных бюджетных назначений и маркированных налогов с целью извлечения возрастающего инвестиционного дохода от целевого капитала, являющегося дополнительным источником финансовой поддержки опекаемых благ в гуманитарном секторе экономики. In this paper,we propose a new model of economic regulation of the patronized goods in the humanitarian sector of the economy,aimed at increasing the sustainability of the financial position of organizations of culture,science,and education and a treduction of their dependence on conjunctural, oropportunistic,decisions of the economicdepartments. Thebasis of this model is composed of three mechanisms of public support: 1) a system of financial performance standards that characterizes a minimumshareofbudgetexpendituresontheproductionoftheappropriatetypesofpatronizedgoods, reflectingstate commitments to their accessibility for the population and the remuneration of labor of workersofculture,scienceandeducation; 2)theinstitution of individual budget appropriations which implements the right of citizens’ participationin the selection ofareas, ordirections of spendinga limited part of state income tax; 3)a system of endowment funds,allowing to accumulate receipts from the individual budget appropriations and labeled taxes,in order to extractthe in creasing in vestment in comefrom the target capital,or the endowment, which is an additional source of financial support for the patronized goods in the humanitarian sector of the economy.
    Keywords: patronized goods, public support, budgetary regulations, the institution of individual budget appropriations, endowment funds, labeled taxes
    JEL: H80 I20 I22 Z11 Z18
  14. By: Iakov Frizis; Krzysztof G³owacki; Katarzyna Mirecka
    Abstract: The paper summarizes knowledge on tax gaps in Poland with respect to PIT, CIT, VAT, and excise. An introduction to the Polish tax system is given, trends in tax collectability and estimates of the tax gaps are discussed, and methods of combating tax evasion and avoidance are reviewed. The paper has been written as part of the project “Mutual Learning for Reducing Tax Gaps in V4 Countries and Ukraine” co-financed by the Visegrad Fund in the years 2016-2017.
    Keywords: tax gap, tax evasion, tax avoidance, tax administration, compliance costs, CIT, PIT, VAT, excise, Visegrad, V4, Poland
    JEL: H26 H60
    Date: 2017
  15. By: International Monetary Fund
    Abstract: Republic of Lithuania: Selected Issues
    Keywords: Europe;Lithuania;
    Date: 2017–06–30
  16. By: Ilya Prakhov (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Denis Sergienko (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: It is assumed that a perfect balance between student academic achievement and university quality is beneficial both for students and higher education institutions (HEIs). Matching theory predicts the existence of perfect matching between the two groups in the absence of transaction costs associated with university enrollment. However, in this study we show cases of mismatch situations in Russia under the Unified State Exam (USE) – the standardized student admission mechanism. This research studies the reasons for this phenomenon for minimal transaction costs and the emergence of unequal access to HEIs. Based on data on Moscow high school graduates who entered university, the determinants of the mismatch between the quality of universities and applicant abilities are assessed. It is shown that although in most cases favorable matching results are established, the individual student achievement results themselves are subject to the influence of school and family characteristics. Thus, inequality of access can be formed at stages preceding HEI enrollment
    Keywords: matching, mismatch, admission, accessibility of higher education, the Unified State Exam
    JEL: I21 I24 I28
    Date: 2017
  17. By: Claudio Cesaroni (Economic Analysis and Research, Sace S.p.A.)
    Abstract: This paper studies the optimal long-run rate of inflation in a two-sector model of the Lithuanian economy with informal production and price rigidity in the regular sector. The government issues no debt and is committed to follow a balanced budget rule. The informal sector is unregulated and untaxed and its existence limits the government’s ability to collect revenues through fiscal policy. Such environment provides therefore the basis for quantifying the possible existence of a public finance motive for inflation. The main results can be summarized as follows: First, there is a strong heterogeneity in the optimal inflation rate which depends on the tax rate that is endogenously adjusted to keep the budget balanced. Inflation can be as high as 6.77% when the capital tax rate is endogenous, but when labor income taxes are adjusted optimal policy calls for a rate of deflation such that the nominal interest rate hits the zero lower bound. Second, the optimal inflation rate is a non-decreasing function of the size of the informal economy and, in most cases, there is a positive relationship between the two. Finally, substantial deviations from zero inflation are observed even in presence of a plausible degree of price rigidity.
    Keywords: Optimal Inflation, Informal Economy, Endogenous Tax Changes
    JEL: E26 E52 H26
    Date: 2017–09–20

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