nep-cis New Economics Papers
on Confederation of Independent States
Issue of 2016‒12‒18
eight papers chosen by
Alexander Harin
Modern University for the Humanities

  1. The Health Workforce of the Russian Federation in the Context Of the International Trends By Christopher J. Gerry; Igor Sheiman
  2. The Circulation of Information About the Poll Tax Revenues as an Indicator of Russian Empire Undergoverness in the in the 18th Century By Elena Korchmina
  3. Routine Corruption in Russia During the Reigns of Catherine Ii and Alexander I By Elena Korchmina; Igor Fedyukin
  4. The Self-Concordance Model: The Effects of Autonomy, Effort and Goal Progress on Subjective Well-Being in the Us and Russia By Dmitry D. Suchkov
  5. On the exposure of the BRIC countries to global economic shocks By Ansgar Belke; Christian Dreger; Irina Dubova
  6. The Language and People of Mehweb By Nina Dobrushina
  7. Children with Behavioral Problems in the First Grade of Russian School: Similarities and Differences By Ekaterina A. Orel; Alena A. Kulikova
  8. Antecedents of corporate social responsibility in the banks of Central-Eastern Europe and in the countries of the former Soviet union By Khurshid Djalilov; Jens Hoelscher

  1. By: Christopher J. Gerry (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Igor Sheiman (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: Having one of the highest physician-population ratios in the world, Russia – paradoxically – also faces shortages of physicians. This paper explores the reasons for this paradox through examining the structural characteristics of the Russian health workforce and its development. In comparing Russia with mainstream European countries and in particular the ‘new” EU countries we argue that the shortage of physicians is determined mostly by the prevailing model of health workforce development with its enduring emphasis on quantitative rather than structural indicators. First, the traditional perception of physicians as inexpensive health resources determines the long-term growth of their jobs – irrespective of the new opportunities for substitution and other structural innovations. Second, there is a persistent distortion in the composition of physician supply, of which the most important is the very low share and narrow remit of primary health care providers in comparison to European standards. Third, the international trends in the division of labor between physicians, medical nurses and allied health personnel are not followed in Russia with the result of an inevitable overburden of physicians, the reproduction of a large supply of physicians, while also the paradoxical shortage. Fourth, the system of professional development of physicians does not match international standards. Although with a substantial delay, Russia has now started transition to a workforce model focused on structural characteristics of human resources and so, in the final part of the paper, these new initiatives of the Government are critically assessed.
    Keywords: physicians, health workforce, health workforce policy, health care systems, primary care, Russia, health reforms
    JEL: Z
    Date: 2016
  2. By: Elena Korchmina (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: The article deals with the notion “undergoverness” in the context of the 18th century Russia. It was an attempt to get away from the general discussion based on the number of state officials per capita.The study is devoted to the analysis of the poll tax collection mechanism. We use the new data about regional variations in the number of officials responsible for the poll tax collection. The poll tax collection chain may be split into two relatively connected procedures: the first – money gathering, distribution and delivery (let’s name it a material layer); the second – making reports on cash inflaws and outflaws (let it called an informational layer). The same state officialdom – provincial, regional and local clerks – was in charge of appropriate commitment of both procedures. The results at the first level should be recognized as successful (the collection of the poll tax was about 95%). But the activities of government officials, aimed at informing the government, was close to collapse. So the idea of determining the level of undergoverness through the ratio of officials to the population looks doubtful. It is important to arrange what we mean by the state management: the actual availability of the state to collect and spend money or the knowledge of the state, "St. Petersburg", about what happened to its money?
    Keywords: information, Russia, 18th century, undergoverness, bureaucrats
    JEL: Z
    Date: 2016
  3. By: Elena Korchmina (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Igor Fedyukin (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: This articles uses the account records books from a variety of Golitsyn estates in the late eighteenth- early ninetieth century to assess the level of "routine corruption" in Imperial Russia. The data from these books allows us to identify individual cases of unofficial payments made by the estates and by peasant commune to the district-level officials; to delimit key types of payment situations; and to calculate the overall volumes of payments. The resulting numbers are compared to the overall volume of obligations carried by the serfs to the state and toothier landlords. Our conclusion is that while the routine unofficial payments were ubiquitous and accompanied any interaction with the state, by the time of Catherine II's reign their volume l was quite low and did not put significant burden on the population. Rather, officials made fortunes by extracting unofficial payments in more targeted ways
    Keywords: Russia, corruption, bureaucracy, peasants, Golitsyns, gift-giving
    JEL: Z
    Date: 2016
  4. By: Dmitry D. Suchkov (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: How one perceives one’s own level of autonomy has important consequences for motivational features of goal pursuit and well-being during this process. We tested the hypothesis, inspired by Self-Determination Theory, and the Self-Concordance model, that pursuit of self-concordant goals, emanating from autonomous motivation results in an increase of well-being. This study employed a prospective design assessing several variables related to the goal: intended effort, actual effort, and progress in achieving. In accordance with the self-concordance model, these variables mediated the influence of the autonomy of the goal on well-being during the process of achievement. We replicated the model using SEM methodology, on both the US (N = 200) and the Russian (N = 410) samples. The additional modifications we made in the model kept the main logic of the previous research. Implications and future directions are discussed.
    Keywords: self-determination theory, self-concordance, motivation, goal pursuit, autonomous motivation, controlled motivation
    JEL: Z
    Date: 2016
  5. By: Ansgar Belke; Christian Dreger; Irina Dubova
    Abstract: The financial crisis led to a deep recession in many industrial countries. However, the downturn in large emerging markets turned out to be less persistent. Despite the modest recovery in advanced economies, GDP growth declined in emerging markets in the last years. The higher divergence of business cycles is closely linked to the Chinese transformation. During the crisis, the Chinese fiscal stimulus prevented a decline in GDP growth not only in that country, but also in resource-rich economies. The Chinese shift to consumption-driven growth led to a decline in commodity demand, and the environment became more challenging for many emerging markets. This view is supported by Bayesian VARs specified for the BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India, China) countries. The results reveal a strong impact of international variables on GDP growth. In contrast to the other countries, China plays a crucial role in de-termining global trade and oil prices. Hence, the change in the Chinese growth strategy puts additional reform pressure on countries with abundant natural resources.
    Keywords: business cycle divergence, Chinese transformation, Bayesian VARs
    JEL: F44 E32 C32
    Date: 2016–05
  6. By: Nina Dobrushina (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: This paper describes the sociolinguistic situation of Mehweb, a lect of the Dargwa branch of East Caucasian, in the Republic of Daghestan. In the course of several field trips to the village of Mehweb, sociolinguistic interviews were conducted in four neighbouring Avar- and Lak-speaking villages. The paper describes the demographic situation in Mehweb, the villagers' official status, their social and economic life in the past and at present. The multilingual repertoire of Mehwebs and their neighbours is described in both qualitative and quantitative terms. I conclude that, while there are no signs of language loss, the traditional patterns of multilingualism in Mehweb are highly endangered
    Keywords: Daghestan, minority language, multilingualism, Mehweb, Avar, Lak
    JEL: Z
    Date: 2016
  7. By: Ekaterina A. Orel (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Alena A. Kulikova (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: Recent research indicates that behavioral problems may lead to low academic performance. The present study is aimed to discover, what differences exist between primary school students who meet a sufficient number of ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder) criteria and those who do not experience any behavioral problems, in terms of academic achievements in reading and mathematics, annual progress in these subjects and personal, social and emotional development, based on the Russian sample of first-graders. This paper is a part of Russian iPIPS project and the instruments developed as part of this study were used. The sample consists of 3021 first-graders from two big regions of the Russian Federation. The results showed significant differences in both cognitive and social-emotional development but no differences in annual progress. The absence of differences in progress means that the development of children with behavior problems within the school system goes with the same speed but from the lower start level compared to other children. The results of the study provide important knowledge for the teachers and open a large area of further investigations in the field of ADHD in Russian school settings
    Keywords: behavioral problems, ADHD, first-graders, primary school, iPIPS, cognitive development, social and emotional development
    JEL: I21
    Date: 2016
  8. By: Khurshid Djalilov (Bournemouth University, Executive Business Centre); Jens Hoelscher (Bournemouth University, Executive Business Centre)
    Abstract: This article explores the determinants of corporate social responsibilities (CSR) in the banking sector of the transition countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), as well as those of the former Soviet Union (FSU). Our panel fixed-logit results for 237 banks, covering the period 2000–2012, show that while financial performance is not associated with CSR, larger banks are more likely to engage in CSR. Additionally, a government’s effectiveness and its regulatory quality increase the likelihood that the banks will engage in social activities. A range of possible approaches that governments can take to encourage social activities in the banking sector of transition countries are provided. Overall, our results are consistent with the theory that the necessary conditions must be in place to support CSR, which seem to be absent in the countries under investigation.
    Keywords: Banks; corporate social responsibility; performance; transition economies
    JEL: P20 M14 G21
    Date: 2016–12

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