nep-cis New Economics Papers
on Confederation of Independent States
Issue of 2016‒06‒09
25 papers chosen by

  1. Russia and China in the 21th century. Moving towards cooperative behaviour By Silvana Malle
  2. Russian and Foreign Typology of Rural Areas and Communities: The Search for Interdisciplinary Areas of Rural-Urban Studies in the Context of the E.E. Leizerovich Zoning Model By Nikulin, Alexander Mikhailovich; Kopoteva, Inna; Rizatdinov, R. F.; Trotsuk, Irina Vladimirovna
  3. Академические рейтинги RePEc: вопросы построения и роль российских участников By Shumilov, Andrei; Balatsky, Evgeny
  4. Механизмы регулирования выбросов парниковых газов и Киотский протокол By Bukvić, Rajko; Zakharov, Vladimir; Kartavykh, Marina
  5. Эффективность скотоводства в России в период реализации государственных программ развития сельского хозяйства By Zinchenko, Aleksey; Kagirova, Marya
  6. Technologies of Russian Economic Security: Guidelines for Choosing the Directions of Domestic Research and Development By Kurakova, N.; Zinov, V. G.; Tsvetkova, L.; Yeremchenko, O.
  7. Bank ownership and cost efficiency in Russia, revisited By Mamonov, Mikhail; Vernikov, Andrei
  8. The Ruble between the hammer and the anvil: Oil prices and economic sanctions By Dreger, Christian; Fidrmuc, Jarko; Kholodilin, Konstantin; Ulbricht, Dirk
  9. Features of Development of Regional Research and Innovation Systems (On the Example of Russia and Kazakhstan) By Kleeva, Lyudmila Petrovna; Kleev, Ivan Vladimirovitch; Nikitova, Anna; Krotov, Alexander Yurievitch
  10. Рыночные механизмы сокращения выбросов парниковых газов и активности и перспективы России By Bukvić, Rajko
  11. A large Bayesian vector autoregression model for Russia By Deryugina, Elena; Ponomarenko, Alexey
  12. Assessment of the Extent and Effects of Centralization in Russia in 2014 By Malatyev, A.; Belev, S.
  13. Techniques for Evaluating Staffing Needs and Incentives of Federal Civil Servants, Considering the Implementation of Program-Target Methods of Governance By Yuzhakov, Vladimir Nikolaevich; Dobrolyubova, Elena
  14. Nowcasting and short-term forecasting of Russian GDP with a dynamic factor model By Porshakov, Alexey; Deryugina, Elena; Ponomarenko, Alexey; Sinyakov, Andrey
  15. Economic concentration and finance: Evidence from Russian regions By Hattendorff, Christian
  16. 05-2016 Интервью академика В.В. Ивантера Российской газете - Федеральный выпуск № 6956 (88) "Рубль на доверии" от 23 апреля 2016 г. By Ивантер В.В.
  17. Rediscovery of the Idea of 'Soviet Society' at the End of 1930 - the Second Half of the 1950s By Maiofis, M. L.; Kukulin, Ilya Vladimirovich
  18. Suffer for the Faith? Parental Religiosity and Children’s Health By Olga Popova
  19. A monetary policy rule for Russia, or is it rules? By Korhonen, Iikka; Nuutilainen, Riikka
  20. Republic of Lithuania; 2016 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for the Republic of Lithuania By International Monetary Fund
  21. Measuring Non-Tariff Barriers by Combining Cointegration Tests and Simulation Models with an Application to Russian Chicken Imports By Soon, Byung Min; Thompson, Wyatt
  22. FDI in Central Asia: Uzbekistan By Kechagia, Polyxeni; Metaxas, Theodore
  23. 04-2016 Видеоматериал с участием А.Г.Коровкина на телеканале ОТР (Общественное телевидение России) в программе ПРАВ!ДА? By Коровкин А.Г.
  24. Agricultural policies in Kazakhstan By Petrick, Martin; Pomfret, Richard

  1. By: Silvana Malle (Department of Economics (University of Verona))
    Abstract: Cooperation between Russia and China is a slow process that both countries are pursuing in a difficult context moving from different interests. Russia moves eastwards in search of new partners and tries to foster the development of the Far East. China seeks faster routes to Europe through Central Asia. Given the participation of many actors, state agencies and private companies, negotiations of the terms of trade and investment are laborious. Joint or separate participation in financing require solid legal foundations. Institutions need to adapt. Both countries want to emancipate themselves from the dominance of the dollar in international payments. Domestic national payment systems have been created and the use of own currencies in mutual transactions is on the way in border regions. Some deals, such as in gas and high speed transport, have been successfully concluded, but progress is slow not least because the countries are competitors in Asia. China is stronger in economic terms, Russia’s military power remains unchallenged. Policy dialogue is needed. The Eurasian Economic Union and the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation may provide convenient arenas for an exchange of views ahead of possible broader agreements.
    Keywords: Russia, China, trade policy, transitional economies, industrial policy
    JEL: F13 P27 L52
    Date: 2016–05
  2. By: Nikulin, Alexander Mikhailovich (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Kopoteva, Inna (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Rizatdinov, R. F. (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Trotsuk, Irina Vladimirovna (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA))
    Abstract: In today's inter-disciplinary socio-spatial research, as well as in areas of regional policy related to sustainable development of rural areas and communities in their interaction with the cities gained a significant body of both Russian and foreign approaches requiring synthetic rethinking to generate new research study of modern software rural-urban continuum. One of the possible platforms for the creation and development of such programs could be the E.E. Leizerovich concept of russian neighborhoods. To prepare an analytical review of the major Russian and foreign typologies of rural areas and communities in connection with the current problems of the rural-urban development, we pose the question of the possible ways of adapting the concept of neighborhoods EE Leizerovich to the directions of contemporary interdisciplinary studies of rural-urban typologies.
    Keywords: Leizerovich E.E., socio-spatial research
    Date: 2016–03–10
  3. By: Shumilov, Andrei; Balatsky, Evgeny
    Abstract: Rapidly increasing interest of Russian academic community in bibliometric systems makes it more and more important for researchers to understand properly their advantages and drawbacks. In this study we explore capabilities of popular international electronic library of research materials in economics RePEc and issues of its rankings’ construction. We also analyze positions of Russian authors, institutions, journals and working paper series in various international and regional RePEc rankings during a period since 2010. Ways of improving rankings of Russian authors and series in RePEc are reported. We then discuss major instances of manipulation of bibliometric indicators, and give suggestions on eliminating distorting influence of some of them on rankings. Our analysis shows that RePEc, which earlier covered only a small part of Russian authors, who published in foreign journals, now embraces all segments of Russian economists’ community. Having unique functional capabilities, RePEc system is likely to become the leading integrator of information on economic research in Russia in the nearest future. This, in turn, would allow giving objective estimates of the role of the Russian economic science at the international level.
    Keywords: economics in Russia; bibliometrics; RePEc; ranking economists; ranking journals; ranking research institutions; Russia
    JEL: A11 A13 A14
    Date: 2016
  4. By: Bukvić, Rajko; Zakharov, Vladimir; Kartavykh, Marina
    Abstract: Russian Abstract. В статье раскрыты эколого-экономические механизмы регулирования выбросов парниковых газов. Раскрыты в историческом аспекте усилия мирового сообщества в отношения проблемы глобального потепления климата. В заключении приведены сценарии развития событий относительно эмиссии парниковых газов для России. English Abstract. In article ekologo-economic mechanisms of regulation of emissions of greenhouse gases are opened. Are opened in historical aspect of effort of the world community in the relations of a problem of global warming of climate. Scenarios of succession of events concerning emission of greenhouse gases for Russia are provided in the conclusion.
    Keywords: Киотский протокол, парниковые газы, природопользование. Kyoto Protocol, greenhouse gases, environmental management.
    JEL: H23 K32 L51 Q53 Q56
    Date: 2015–10–01
  5. By: Zinchenko, Aleksey; Kagirova, Marya
    Abstract: The article is devoted to the statistical analysis of the efficiency of dairy cattle breeding in the Russian Federation with regard to the production of conjugate products — milk and livestock production, as well as beef cattle, at enterprises during the implementation of state programs aimed at the development of agriculture and regulation of markets of agricultural products, raw materials and food.
    Keywords: скотоводство, госпрограммы, эффективность производства молока и мяса как сопряженных продуктов, продуктивность животных, себестоимость и цены, интенсивность производства
    JEL: C18 Q1
    Date: 2015–02
  6. By: Kurakova, N. (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Zinov, V. G. (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Tsvetkova, L. (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Yeremchenko, O. (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA))
    Abstract: Bridging the gap and the subsequent maintenance of technological leadership is one of the key tasks in the field of socio-economic development and national security, which must be solved taking into account all the constraints of social and economic development, specific to the current moment. To achieve leadership in various areas, determining the global technology agenda in Russia has developed and implemented the National Technology Initiative. The study analyzed the risks included in the national technology initiative so-called new production technologies and photonics. The complex of measures to achieve global leadership and Russia appreciated the opportunity as soon as possible to implement the scenario of accelerated scientific and technological development. Shows the reasoning for selecting priority research and development in the sector of civil science, which takes into account the existence of absolute and relative advantages of the country, due to the presence of strategic natural resources.
    Keywords: technological leadership, socio-economic development, national security
    Date: 2016–03–04
  7. By: Mamonov, Mikhail; Vernikov, Andrei
    Abstract: This paper considers the comparative efficiency of public, private, and foreign banks in Rus-sia, a transition economy with several unusual features. We perform stochastic frontier anal-ysis (SFA) of Russian bank-level quarterly data over the period 2005–2013. The method of computation of comparative cost efficiency is amended to control for the effect of revalua-tion of foreign currency items in bank balance sheets. Public banks are split into core and other state-controlled banks. Employing the generalized method of moments, we estimate a set of distance functions that measure the observed differences in SFA scores of banks and bank clusters (heterogeneity in risk preference and asset structure) to explain changes in bank efficiency rankings. Our results for comparative Russian bank efficiency show higher efficiency scores, less volatility, and narrower spreads between the scores of different bank types than in previous studies. Foreign banks appear to be the least cost-efficient market participants, while core state banks on average are nearly as efficient as private domestic banks. We suggest that foreign banks gain cost-efficiency when they increase their loans-to-assets ratios above the sample median level. Core state banks, conversely, lead in terms of cost efficiency when their loans-to-assets ratio falls below the sample median level. The presented approach is potentially applicable to analysis of bank efficiency in other dollarized emerging markets.
    Keywords: banks, comparative efficiency, SFA, state-controlled banks, Russia
    JEL: G21 P23 P34 P52
    Date: 2015–07–27
  8. By: Dreger, Christian; Fidrmuc, Jarko; Kholodilin, Konstantin; Ulbricht, Dirk
    Abstract: The exchange rate fluctuations strongly affect the Russian economy, given its heavy dependence on foreign trade and investment. Since January 2014, the Ruble lost 50% of its value against the US Dollar. The fall of the currency started with the conflict between Russia and Ukraine. The impact of the conflict on Russia may have been amplified by sanctions imposed by Western countries. However, as Russia is heavily dependent on exports of natural re-sources, the oil price decline starting in Summer 2014 could be another factor behind the deterioration. By using high frequency data on nominal exchange and interest rates, oil prices, actual and unanticipated sanctions, we provide evidence on the driving forces of the Ruble exchange rate. The analysis is based on cointegrated VAR models, where fundamental long-run relationships are implicitly embedded. The results indicate that the bulk of the depreciation can be related to the decline of oil prices. In addition, unanticipated sanctions matter for the conditional volatility of the variables involved.
    Keywords: military conflict, sanctions, oil prices, Ruble depreciation
    JEL: C22 F31 F51
    Date: 2015–08–21
  9. By: Kleeva, Lyudmila Petrovna (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Kleev, Ivan Vladimirovitch (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Nikitova, Anna (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Krotov, Alexander Yurievitch (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA))
    Abstract: We investigate the impact of regional research and educational facilities for the development of Russia and Kazakhstan. Revealed their negative impact on the development of depressed regions, and this applies not only underdeveloped complexes Kostroma (Russian Federation) and Kyzylorlinskoy (Republic of Kazakhstan) regions, but also a well-developed scientific and educational complex in Irkutsk region. Research has shown that this paradox is due to the fact that the development of science and education in the region is associated not only with all the elements of regional research and innovation system (including research and development, education, innovation infrastructure, real production and regional governments), but and with the elements of research and development and education of a higher level: the national economy, and even megaekonomiki. Because communication within the spheres of science and education are professional, they're pretty close. Therefore, in the case where there is no effective system of functioning of the regional research and innovation system as a whole, the achievements of science and education sector (skilled workers) as a result of professional contacts within the framework of science and education leave the region, reducing its capacity, and are used in other regions and countries. The findings make it possible to generate proposals for a regional research and innovation policy.
    Keywords: Russia, Kazakhstan, depressed regions, development, innovation
    Date: 2016–04–05
  10. By: Bukvić, Rajko
    Abstract: English Abstract. This article considers the problem of reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, observed as one of the main anthropogenic causes of the increasing carbon concentration in the atmosphere, and consequently the global climate change. Until the Industrial Revolution, the emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere amounted to 300 gigatonnes of carbon. The fight against atmosphere pollution goes in three directions: administrative regulations, a system of economic mechanisms and market relations building. In the second half of the XX century many schemes for involving the market mechanism in solving these problems were proposed. These efforts especially increased in the last decade of XX century and finally the Kyoto Protocol 1997 supported many flexible mechanisms (trade of quotas – cap and trade, joint implementation projects and clean development mechanisms), as a solution to these problems, which was explained in 2001 in Marrakesh. In spite of all these efforts, during the first period of its implementation (2008–2012) the emissions of carbon increased. This issue has been especially pronounced in Russia, one of the main global emitters. The paper explores the mechanisms and projects in Russia, and its importance for reducing the GHG emissions and fulfilling the commitments of Kyoto Protocol and other international documents. Today, the world “carbon” market is moving to the development of national, regional and sub-regional regulation systems while keeping its international level (system UNFCCC). The Doha Conference held in 2012 precised the conditions upon which the convention parties would define its climate policies in the next years. The leading tendency (transition to regional, sub-regional and national regulation systems) was maintained, as well as the “Kyoto” system, which in the new stage would play a transitional role on the road to a new expected global agreement. Russian Abstract. Статья рассматривает проблему сокращения выбросов парниковых газов (ПГ), считающихся одной из главных антропогенных причин роста концентрации углерода в атмосфере, и впоследствии глобальных климатических перемен. С времени Индустриальной революции эмиссия ПГ в атмосферу достигла 300 гигатонн углерода. Борьба с атмосферным загрязнением пока шла тремя путями: административное регулирование, система экономических механизмов и формирование рыночных отношений. Во второй половине 20 века для решения проблем были предложены многие схемы создания рыночного механизма, считающегося более подходящим во многих отношениях. Эти усилия особенно увеличились в последнем десятилетии 20 века, и наконец Киотский протокол в 1997 году поддержал несколько так называемых гибких механизмов: торговля квотами (квотирование и торговля), проекты совместного осуществления и механизмы чистого развития, которые были разработаны в 2001 году в Марракеше. Но, несмотря на все эти усилия, в течение первого периода их применения (2008–2012), выбросы углерода в атмосферу возросли. Эти вопросы являются особенно важным в России, одном из крупнейших эмиттеров ПГ. Статья рассматривает также механизмы и проекты в России, и их важность для сокращения ПГ выбросов и выполнение обязательств из Киотского протокола и других международных документов. В настоящее время мировой «углеродный» рынок идёт к развитию национальных, региональных и субрегиональных систем регулирования, но при сохранении международного сегмента (системы РКИК ООН). Конференция в Дохе в 2012 году дополнила и уточнила те условия, в которых Стороны Конвенции, будут выстраивать свою климатическую политику в следующие годы. Ведущая тенденция (перенос акцентов на региональные, субрегиональные и национальные системы регулирования) сохранилась, но сохранилась и «киотская» система, которая на новом этапе будет играть роль переходной на пути к новому ожидающемуся глобальному соглашению.)
    Keywords: greenhouse gases (GHG), anthropogenic impact, the Kyoto Protocol, carbon markets, flexible mechanisms, Russian actions (парниковые газы, антропогенные влияния, Киотский протокол, рынки углерода, гибкие механизмы, активности России)
    JEL: H23 K32 L51 Q53 Q56
    Date: 2015
  11. By: Deryugina, Elena; Ponomarenko, Alexey
    Abstract: We apply an econometric approach developed specifically to address the ‘curse of dimensionality’ in Russian data and estimate a Bayesian vector autoregression model comprising 14 major domestic real, price and monetary macroeconomic indicators as well as external sector variables. We conduct several types of exercise to validate our model: impulse response analysis, recursive forecasting and counter factual simulation. Our results demonstrate that the employed methodology is highly appropriate for economic modelling in Russia. We also show that post-crisis real sector developments in Russia could be accurately forecast if conditioned on the oil price and EU GDP (but not if conditioned on the oil price alone). Publication keywords: Bayesian vector autoregression, forecasting, Russia
    JEL: E32 E44 E47 C32
    Date: 2014–12–04
  12. By: Malatyev, A. (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Belev, S. (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA))
    Abstract: This paper presents an analysis of the extent and specificity of procurement centralization in Russia in 2014, as well as an attempt by the example of the individual items purchased nomenclature evaluate the savings from consolidation hosted the state order.
    Keywords: procurement centralization, Russia, 2014
    Date: 2016–04–05
  13. By: Yuzhakov, Vladimir Nikolaevich (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Dobrolyubova, Elena (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA))
    Abstract: The paper presents the method of estimating the staffing requirements of the federal bodies of executive authority in the framework of the implementation of program-targeted methods of governance and methods of performance evaluation of professional performance of federal civil servants, taking into account the implementation of program-target methods of management. These techniques are designed to meet the challenges identified in the analysis of the number of valuation practices and material incentives for civil servants, take into account the international experience of the implementation of strategic human resource management mechanisms, as well as the practices and requirements for the implementation of program-target methods of management in the Russian Federation.
    Keywords: civil servants, professional performance, program-target methods of governance
    Date: 2016–03–10
  14. By: Porshakov, Alexey; Deryugina, Elena; Ponomarenko, Alexey; Sinyakov, Andrey
    Abstract: Real-time assessment of quarterly GDP growth rates is crucial for evaluation of economy’s current perspectives given the fact that respective data is normally subject to substantial publication delays by national statistical agencies. Large information sets of real-time indicators which could be used to approximate GDP growth rates in the quarter of interest are in practice characterized by unbalanced data, mixed frequencies, systematic data revisions, as well as a more general curse of dimensionality problem. The latter issues could, however, be practically resolved by means of dynamic factor modeling that has recently been recognized as a helpful tool to evaluate current economic conditions by means of higher frequency indicators. Our major results show that the performance of dynamic factor models in predicting Russian GDP dynamics appears to be superior as compared to other common alternative specifications. At the same time, we empirically show that the arrival of new data seems to consistently improve DFM’s predictive accuracy throughout sequential nowcast vintages. We also introduce the analysis of nowcast evolution resulting from the gradual expansion of the dataset of explanatory variables, as well as the framework for estimating contributions of different blocks of predictors into now-casts of Russian GDP.
    Keywords: GDP nowcast, dynamic factor models, principal components, Kalman filter, nowcast evolution
    JEL: C53 C82 E17
    Date: 2015–05–28
  15. By: Hattendorff, Christian
    Abstract: ​The paper investigates the relationship between economic concentration and level of financial development to illuminate the linkage of real economy structure and financial markets. Using data from 81 Russian regions for the period 2005–2011, empirical evidence is offered to show that poor diversification weakens credit. Geographical variables are used as instruments of concentration in accounting for endogeneity. This work supports previous findings at the national level that policymakers seeking to promote economic development should place stronger emphasis on output diversification.
    Keywords: economic concentration, diversification, financial development, Russia
    JEL: E51 O11 R11
    Date: 2015–05–18
  16. By: Ивантер В.В. (Институт народнохозяйственного прогнозирования)
    Date: 2016–05–26
  17. By: Maiofis, M. L. (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Kukulin, Ilya Vladimirovich (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA))
    Abstract: The article is focused on difficulties, boundaries and new approaches in the study of the institutional history of the USSR. It demonstrates applicability and usefulness of microhistory and history of ideas and concepts for this work. It is based on a micro-historical study. Analyzing the documents from the personal archival collection of a social activist, pedagogue and military expert Boris Ivanovitch Zhurin (1890-1964), the authors demonstrate that the 1939 turned to be very important in his career. It was just in 1939 when Zhurin changed his previous “modest” profession of engineer-constructor specializing in concrete buildings for a profession of military expert and for the role of social activist and publicist. As a military expert, Zhurin spent the years 1939 and 1940 writing a monograph about interaction of different combat arms, including artillery and reconnaissance aviation, during the advance of Russian troops in June, 1917. He was convinced that this experience would be vital during the next war. As a social activist and publicist, in 1939 Zhurin elaborated a program of mobilization of the so called “parental public” (roditelskaya obshestvennost) for the purposes of supporting Soviet school. Zhurin invented, described and promoted a new social institute which he called “parents’ committees in multiple dwellings,” insisting that this would have been the best instrument to control and improve family education. This second “know-how” was also based on the idea of interaction, as the parents’ committees had to establish close relationship with district executive committees (ispolkom), school administration and school parents’ committees, local Komsomol departments, and house management as well. This program was partly implemented in the 1950s. Zhurin’s program greatly anticipated the new notion of “public” (obschestvennost) and new social politics promoted by N. Khruschev on the XXth Party Congress in 1956. Thorough observation of Zhurin’s archive and publications and reconstruction of the historical context of both 1939 and the “Thaw” years bring the author to the conclusion that Zhurin perceived Soviet society after the Great Terror as being completely atomized, demoralized by low competence of higher command (in army) and state bureaucrats and lacking the channels of knowledge and experience transmission, and strived to invent new models to rebuild and intensify “horizontal” social ties.
    Keywords: Soviet Society, 1930s, 1950s
    Date: 2016–03–10
  18. By: Olga Popova
    Abstract: Abstract This paper provides novel evidence on differences in health outcomes of children in religious and non-religious families in Russia. The health indicators analyzed include the subjective health status and anthropometric outcomes. The endogeneity of religiosity is accounted for. The empirical findings suggest that if both parents are religious, their religiosity does not affect children’s height-for-age, but increases children’s body mass index and subjective health. Father’s religiosity has a stronger salutary effect than mother’s religiosity. In fatherless families, children’s health is more strongly affected by mother’s education and employment status than in two-parent families. All findings are stronger for older children. These results underscore the importance of considering both maternal and paternal characteristics for family-oriented policies that target the protection of children’s health. Also, policies protecting children’s health should target single mothers as a particularly vulnerable social group.
    Keywords: children, health, religiosity, parental beliefs, Russia
    JEL: I15 J13 O12 P36 Z12
    Date: 2016–04
  19. By: Korhonen, Iikka; Nuutilainen, Riikka
    Keywords: monetary policy rule, Taylor rule, McCallum rule, Russia, inflation
    JEL: E31 E43 E52 P33
    Date: 2016–02–10
  20. By: International Monetary Fund
    Abstract: Thanks to sound macroeconomic management and an overall favorable business climate, income convergence with Western Europe is advancing. In 2015, sharply contracting exports to Russia temporarily dragged down growth. Ensuring good economic progress over the medium term requires continued productivity improvements, safeguarding competitiveness in a tightening labor market, and beginning to address high income inequality.
    Keywords: Article IV consultation reports;Economic growth;Fiscal consolidation;Fiscal reforms;Productivity;Income distribution;Labor market reforms;Financial sector;Economic indicators;Balance of payments statistics;Debt sustainability analysis;Staff Reports;Press releases;Lithuania;
    Date: 2016–05–18
  21. By: Soon, Byung Min; Thompson, Wyatt
    Abstract: Non-tariff barriers (NTBs) to agricultural trade are believed to have increased as tariffs fell. Hence, measuring NTBs has become important and several alternative methods to do so are used. We develop a method that combines cointegration tests and an equilibrium model. We use these two seemingly disparate methods not only to estimate the size of NTBs, but also to assess its economic impact. We apply our method to the Russian chicken import ban and find larger impacts as compared to a common method based on price gaps. Trade policy analysts can use our method to convert the implicit economic assumptions of cointegration test results into explicit measures of NTBs or other factors that can explain the observed pattern in time series price data and estimate their impacts.
    Keywords: Cointegration test, Non-tariff barriers, Partial equilibrium model, Agricultural and Food Policy, Demand and Price Analysis, International Relations/Trade, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods, F13, F14, Q17,
    Date: 2016–08–02
  22. By: Kechagia, Polyxeni; Metaxas, Theodore
    Abstract: FDI inflows are a significant form of capital flows mostly towards the developing countries and they decisively affect the host country’s economic growth, the macroeconomic stability, the infrastructure and the governmental policy. The present paper focuses on the FDI inflows absorbed by the Central Asian countries, studying the case of Uzbekistan that attracts limited amount of FDI contrary to other countries of the region. It is argued that Uzbekistan attracts FDI mostly because of its market size and its adequacy on natural resources; however, the transformations performed failed to further increase the country’s attractiveness to foreign investors.
    Keywords: FDI, developing countries, Uzbekistan, Central Asia, capital inflows
    JEL: F21 O16 O18 R11
    Date: 2016
  23. By: Коровкин А.Г. (Институт народнохозяйственного прогнозирования)
    Date: 2016–04–26
  24. By: Petrick, Martin; Pomfret, Richard
    Abstract: Agriculture plays an important part in Kazakhstan´s self-image, and continues to be a significant economic sector, employing about a third of the workforce. In the two decades since independence, agriculture has experienced dramatic swings in performance and in public policy. During the 1990s the sector suffered from external shocks, reduced public support and inchoate land tenure reform, while providing a safety net for families suffering from the transitional recession. Since the turn of the century, the booming economy has seen ruralurban migration and substantial public funds devoted to the agricultural sector. This article illustrates the steps taken to consolidate and improve Kazakhstan´s position as a major agricultural producer and exporter, while also highlighting the shortcomings of current policies. It places Kazakhstan´s agricultural policy evolution in the broader context of political independence from the Soviet Union and the general course of economic reforms. We highlight the driving forces of agricultural policy evolution from a political economy perspective and give an overview of specific policy measures.
    Abstract: Die Landwirtschaft spielt eine bedeutende Rolle in Kasachstans Selbstverständnis und stellt mit einem Drittel der Beschäftigten einen wichtigen Wirtschaftssektor dar. Seit der Unabhängigkeit erfuhren sowohl der Agrarsektor selbst als auch die Agrarpolitik dramatische Umschwünge. Während der 1990er Jahre litt der Sektor unter externen Schocks, einer verringerten staatlichen Unterstützung und einer unausgegorenen Bodenreform. Gleichzeitig stellte er ein Sicherheitsnetz für die vom Transformationsprozess gebeutelten Familien dar. Nach der Jahrtausendwende führte das starke Wirtschaftswachstum zu ländlicher Abwanderung und einer starken Ausweitung der staatlichen Hilfen für den Agrarsektor. Dieser Beitrag zeigt auf, wie Kasachstan zu einem wichtigen globalen Getreideerzeuger und -exporteur wurde, und macht deutlich, wo die Schwächen der derzeitigen Politik liegen. Er verortet die Entwicklung der kasachischen Agrarpolitik in einem breiteren Kontext der politischen Unabhängigkeit von der Sowjetunion und dem übergreifenden Gang der Wirtschaftsreformen. Die Autoren arbeiten die politökonomischen Triebkräfte dieser Entwicklung heraus und geben einen Überblick über aktuelle politische Maßnahmen.
    Keywords: agricultural policy,agriculture in transition,political economy,Kazakhstan,Agrarpolitik,Landwirtschaft im Transformationsprozess,politische Ökonomie,Kasachstan
    JEL: P26 P28 Q15 Q18
    Date: 2016
  25. By: NUMA MAZAT
    Date: 2016

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NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.