nep-cis New Economics Papers
on Confederation of Independent States
Issue of 2016‒01‒29
eleven papers chosen by

  1. Evaluation of Research and Innovation Policies: The Case of Russian Universities By Mikhail A. Gershman; Galina A. Kitova
  2. Internal Migration of Scientists in Russia and the USA: The Case of Applied Physics By Ekaterina L. Dyachenko
  3. The demographic development of the Russia Arctic area’s cities By Sinitsa Arseniy
  4. Modelling Probability of Default of Russian Banks and Companies Using Copula Models By Ilya Khankov; Henry Penikas
  5. How Space Channels Wage Convergence: The Case of Russian Cities By Vera Ivanova
  6. Особенности становления сельскохозяйственной кооперации в Республике Казахстан в процессе реформирования форм хозяйствования By Акимбекова, Галия
  7. Интеграционные процессы на Агропродовольственном рынке Казахстана By Бекенова, Г.Ы.
  8. Explaining Offline Participation in a Social Movement with Online Data: The Case of Observers for Fair Elections By Olessia Y. Koltsova; Galina I. Selivanova
  9. Financial mechanism for sustainable water management in irrigated agriculture of Uzbekistan By Muminov, Sherzod
  10. An Establishment of Agroclusters as a key for the development of Agro-Processing Industry in Uzbekistan By Hasanov, Shavkat; Sanaev, Golib; Ganiev, Ibragim
  11. Assessment of Power Sector Reforms in Georgia: Country Report By Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)

  1. By: Mikhail A. Gershman (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Galina A. Kitova (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: In recent years, evaluation and impact assessments (IA) of research and innovation (R&I) policies have become of interest both to researchers and policy makers. The latter use the results of such assessments when developing new regulations and monitoring the implementation and effectiveness of policies already in place. The practice and methodology of policy evaluation and IA are characterised by the diversity of approaches used and the existence of a number of unresolved methodological problems. At the same time, efforts are being made to define conceptual frameworks for policy evaluation and IA, categorise relevant studies and cases, and draft recommendations. This paper looks at public policies and programmes aimed at stimulating R&I in Russian universities. For this purpose, 299 universities were surveyed in 2013-2014 to reveal their demand for the relevant policies in 2006-2012 and the effects they had. Based on survey results we assess the impact of the policies on universities and suggest recommendations regarding the improvement of state regulations and further conduction of similar assessments.
    Keywords: university; research and innovation; policy; evaluation; impact assessment; Russia.
    JEL: O38
    Date: 2016
  2. By: Ekaterina L. Dyachenko (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: When scientists change jobs they bring to their new workplace the experience, tacit knowledge and social ties they acquired at their previous workplace. Not only is the level of mobility important when discussing knowledge transfer between academic organizations or between regions, but the topology of mobility network is also of crucial importance. This study presents a comparison of the structure of internal migration networks for Russian and American physicists, more specifically for scholars working in the field of applied physics. To build a migration network, we selected physicists who had changed their city of affiliation between 2009 and 2013/2014. Data on scientists’ affiliations were obtained from the Web of Science. After the structures of two networks were compared, we formulated a hypothesis of how the features of the network are connected to the overall scientific productivity of the system
    Keywords: knowledge flows, knowledge transfer, labor mobility, scientific mobility, migrant scientists, network structure
    JEL: Z13 J61 O31
    Date: 2016
  3. By: Sinitsa Arseniy (Department of Economics, Lomonosov Moscow State University)
    Abstract: The issues of the development of the Arctic area of Russia that are linked with its importance for the economy of Russia provide the necessity to study its population. The Arctic area population is mostly an urban one, that’s why the special consideration to it should be taken. We examined the size, the age-sex structure and the natural movement of the urban population of the Russia’s Arctic area. As a result, the regions that belong to the Arctic area have the natural population increase, but its losses from the migratory movement are higher, so the population of the Russia’s Arctic area has been decreasing. At the conclusion different ways of the demographic development of the Russia’s Arctic area and some measures of the demographic policy encourage the population increase are discussed
    Keywords: Russia’s Arctic area, Arctic cities of Russia, natural population movement, socioeconomic development, demographic policy.
    JEL: J10 J11
    Date: 2016–01
  4. By: Ilya Khankov (National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow); Henry Penikas (National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow)
    Abstract: Research is devoted to examination of the classifier, based on copula discriminant analysis (CODA). Performance of the classification of this algorithm was assessed. On samples, modelled with some typical features of corporate default data, sensitivity of the classifier was tested, to sample size, to default rate and to different patterns of variables’ interdependence. Alternative copula families’ selection method is proposed based on certain performance metric optimization. Difference in classification performance of different algorithms are investigated. On real data of Russian corporate defaults, CODA classifier was built. It was supported by single factor analysis, based on discriminant analysis too. Final model demonstrates better classification performance than Linear Discriminant Analysis and Random Forest algorithm, and is comparable to Quadratic Discriminant Analysis. Another experiment was set on data of Russian banks. Single factor analysis was assessed via standard procedure. CODA performance appeared to be lower than of Random Forest here, it was similar to QDA
    Date: 2015–12
  5. By: Vera Ivanova (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: Existing empirical work on the growth of Russian regions mostly covers a short time period and considers only regional-level data, while citylevel spatial data of the postreform era remain largely ignored. Using citylevel geocoded data covering 997 cities and towns from 1996 until 2013, I nd sigma- and betaconvergence across Russian cities in wages. City wages during the period under consideration display signicant and positive spatial autocorrelation. Spatial Durbin models of the Barro regression are estimated using Markov chain Monte Carlo methodology. Estimates of the spatial models for dierent weight matrices indicate that the city wage growth is signicantly aected by wage growth rates in neighboring cities, after conditioning on initial wages.
    Keywords: Russian cities, wages, convergence, spatial autocorrelation, spatial econometrics, Markov chain Monte Carlo.
    JEL: R12 O18
    Date: 2015
  6. By: Акимбекова, Галия
    Abstract: В статье представлен анализ проведенных аграрных реформ, реструктуризация сельскохозяйственного сектора, в центре которых находится преобразование отношений собственности, реформирование организационно-правовых форм хозяйствования и становление кооперативной системы АПК Казахстана. В этих условиях автором обосновывается необходимость углубления и обновления научных подходов к вопросу становления сельскохозяйственной кооперации, разработки методологических основ формирования эффективной системы сельскохозяйственных кооперативов в новых экономических условиях. На базе проведенного анализа сложившихся форм сельскохозяйственной кооперации автором разработаны предложения по совершенствованию нормативно-правовой базы, механизма финансово-кредитной их поддержки и др.
    Keywords: сельскохозяйственная кооперация, формы хозяйствования, особенности становления, agricultural cooperation, forms of economic management, features of formation, Agricultural and Food Policy, Farm Management,
    Date: 2014–11
  7. By: Бекенова, Г.Ы.
    Abstract: Заключение договора между Казахстаном, Россией и Беларусью о создании Евразийского экономического союза (ЕАЭС) на базе Таможенного союза (ТС) и расширение границ ТС за счет вхождения в него новых членов ставит новые задачи по развитию агропродовольственного рынка и обеспечения продовольственной безопасности Казахстана. На основе системного анализа агропродовольственного рынка и происходящих интеграционных процессов установлено, что вовлечение агропродовольственного рынка РК в процессы международной экономической интеграции происходит по двум основным направлениям: - региональная экономическая интеграция, торговля со странами ближнего зарубежья; - интеграция в систему мирохозяйственных связей. Данные баланса импорта-экспорта продовольствия РК за последние годы свидетельствуют о преобладании объема импорта над экспортом почти в 2 раза. В Казахстане объем импорта молочной, мясной и плодоовощной продукции за последние 5 лет с каждым годом лишь увеличивается, варьируясь от 30 до 60% в зависимости от вида продовольствия, а также по большой части завозят основные продукты потребления, а не дорогие деликатесы. Это опасно для экономики страны: зависимость от внешнего рынка лишь увеличивается, конкуренция, как на внутреннем, так и внешнем рынках усиливается. Казахстан обеспечивает себя и близлежащие страны по немногим позициям, в основном хлебом и хлебопродуктами. Размеры предложения отечественной аграрной продукции на рынке напрямую зависят от объемов аграрного производства и развития сбыта. В РК остаются низкими продуктивность животных и птицы, имеет место сокращение поголовья КРС, овец и коз, производство молока сократилось. Слабо развиты сельхозмашиностроение, производство химикатов и удобрений, переработка продукции, целостное транспортное и материально-техническое обслуживание, большая часть инфраструктуры изношена, что приводит к высокой себестоимости и ценовой неконкурентоспособности отечественной продукции, хотя она более органическая. Для повышения эффективности агропродовольственного рынка РК рекомендуется повышение конкурентоспособности отечественной продукции, модернизация АПК, разработка единой внешнеторговой политики стран – членов Таможенного союза как внутри таможенной территории, так и за ее пределами, повышение экспортного потенциала и снижение зависимости внутреннего рынка от импорта основных продуктов питания.
    Keywords: интеграция, агропродовольственный рынок, продовольственная безопасность, конкурентоспособность, integration, the agri-food market, food security, competitiveness, Agricultural and Food Policy, International Relations/Trade,
    Date: 2014–11
  8. By: Olessia Y. Koltsova (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Galina I. Selivanova (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: This research investigates to which extent activity of a social movement on a social networking site is related to participation in the offline collective action. We use the data from 17 online groups representing the branches of the movement for Fair Elections in 17 districts of St.Petersburg, Russia, and compare their online parameters to real offline participation of group members in elections in the role of observers. With around 12,000 online users and over 200 offline participants, we use social network analysis and statistical analysis to obtain our results. We find that both on the group and the individual levels participation is related to online networking features and activity parameters, albeit to a modest degree, and offline leaders are especially different from the rest of the members in terms of most online features
    Keywords: social movements, online communities, social networks, participation, Russia.
    JEL: Z19
    Date: 2015
  9. By: Muminov, Sherzod
    Abstract: More than 80% of Uzbekistan’s agriculture is irrigated and low water quality as well as insufficient water quantity is the main challenges for its development. Transition to a market economy requires reforms in agriculture and especially in water sector. The principal basis for transition to a market economy is introduction of paid water use. The main source of funding for water management in Uzbekistan is the state budget. Allocations from state funds in recent years have grown substantially. Considerable part in the total amount of funding for operational needs accounts for electricity, the cost of which is growing much faster than the increase in appropriations in water sector in general. Fundamental aspects of economic management system should be a mechanism for financing water management organizations, both at the expense of the state budget and at the expense of water users through setting water fees. Payment for water will be a major pre-requisite to save water resources. In Uzbekistan transition to paid water use will allow the more economical use of water resources, and will help to resolve many political, social, economic and environmental problems. Moreover it will solve technical problems which will improve the soil conditions.
    Keywords: Uzbekistan, agricultural sector, strategic crops, water management, water consumers association, Agricultural and Food Policy, Environmental Economics and Policy, Institutional and Behavioral Economics,
    Date: 2014–11
  10. By: Hasanov, Shavkat; Sanaev, Golib; Ganiev, Ibragim
    Abstract: The aim of the study is to review the agricultural sector of Uzbekistan with the purpose of identifying the major constraints of development of the sector with special emphasis on fruit and vegetable subsectors, thereby to suggest policy recommendations for the development of the sector. Fruits and vegetables market and its supply chain potential has been studied in case of Samarkand region. Although analysis of recent reforms has provided opportunities for liberalization and modernization of agricultural production and marketing system in Uzbekistan especially for fruit and vegetable subsector, there is still a precondition for sustainable development of subsector. Hence policy suggestions are still in their implementation stage. Specific recommendations were also outlined pertaining to the key constraints identified; namely, pertaining to agricultural production and productivity, quality of land resources, irrigation, reforms, R&D, and agricultural marketing.
    Keywords: Samarkand region, agricultural marketing, agro-processing, agroclusters, fruit and vegetable subsector, Agribusiness, Agricultural and Food Policy, Crop Production/Industries, Food Consumption/Nutrition/Food Safety, International Development, Marketing, Production Economics, Productivity Analysis,
    Date: 2014–11
  11. By: Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB) (Economic Research and Regional Cooperation Department, ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB) (Economic Research and Regional Cooperation Department, ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)
    Abstract: Reforms pursued by Georgia in recent years have made its power sector commercially viable as well as more efficient and reliable. Now unbundled and largely privatized, the former state monopoly has developed an operational wholesale market and has made great progress in making its operations and system pricing more efficient. However, it still lacks independent regulatory competence and pricing transparency, and it remains vulnerable to external supply shocks, having to balance shortfalls in domestic hydropower generation with fuel imports for its power stations and with gas imports for its thermal plants. This country report assesses the reform efforts and experiences of Georgia’s power sector for lessons and insights that other economies could find useful in their own power sector planning and policy and strategy formulation.
    Keywords: power sector, Georgia, power sector reforms, retail competition, privatization, wholesale power market, competitive power market, transmission and distribution, unbundling, power generation, tariff setting, tariff reform, power supply security, economic outcomes, social outcomes, environmental outcomes, market-based regulation, power sector planning, hydropower
    Date: 2015–06

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