nep-cis New Economics Papers
on Confederation of Independent States
Issue of 2015‒11‒01
forty-one papers chosen by

  1. European Integration and the Nation-State: A Study of the Social and Political Attitudes of Russians By Voynilov, Yuriy; Chursina, Yuliya
  2. Role of SMEs in regional innovation systems in Russia By Vera Barinova; Stepan Zemtsov; Alla Sorokina
  3. SME?s cluster identification in Russia By Vera Barinova; Stepan Zemtsov
  4. Практическое использование основных понятий муниципальной службы в субъектах Российской Федерации By Muravchenko, Viktor
  5. The Development of Collective Investments in Russia By Abramov, Alexander E.; Akshentseva, Ksenya
  6. Armenia, Moldova, and Tajikistan: Is it Possible to Interact with the Customs Union and Common Economic Space Without Joining Them? By Poyker, Mikhail; Baeva, Marina Alekseevna
  7. Knowledge economy formation in Russian regions in 2000th By Stepan Zemtsov; Vyacheslav Baburin
  8. The Synergistic Effect of Public Procurement in the Economies of the Common Economic Space By Agapova, E.; Grinenko, A. V.; Lobov, Artem; Tatarnikov, A. S.
  9. Diagnosing Growth Constraints in Central Asia: The Case of the Kyrgyz Republic By Meerim Sydykova
  10. Cultural Values as Predictors of Positive or Negative Attitude Towards Innovation Among Representatives of Various Generations of Russian People By Vera A. Fedotova
  11. Conceptual Bases of Creation and Functioning of a Mega-Regulator of the Financial Market in Russia By Turbanov, Aleksandr; Oleg, Ivanov; Yudenkov, Yuri; Nikolay, Evstratenko; Mikitasov, Oleg
  12. The French Bar and the Emerging Legal Profession in Russia By Elizaveta Blagodeteleva
  13. Forming of the new ethnic image of St.Petersburg By Anton Krasnov; Dmitriy Zhitin
  14. Opportunities and benefits of local content requirement policy: case of Eastern Siberian oil and gas industry By Irina Semykina
  15. System Algorithms of Adaptation of Economies to WTO Criteria By Gubenko, Roman Mikhailovich; Vorobiev, Maxim Alekseevich; Klueva, Alla Gennadievna; Salamatov, V. Y.
  16. Effects of Cultural Diversity on Economic Performance in Russian Regions By Marina Nesena; Leonid Limonov
  17. Improving the Relationship of Government Programs, Long-Term Programs and Departmental Target Programs During the Transition to Program Budgeting Principles By Klimanov, Vladimir V.; Kosendyak, Elena Vladimirovna; Mikhailova, Anna Alexandrovna
  18. Creation and Development of Corporate Retirement Systems in the Russian Federation By Maleva, Tatyana Mikhailovna; Gorlin, Yury Mikhailovich; Nazarov, Vladimir; Grishina, Elena E.; Kirillova, M. K.; Fedorov, Valery V.
  19. Knowledge economy infrastructure formation in the northern regions of the Russian Federation By Valentina Zhideleva; Natalia Sedusova
  20. Conceptual Bases of Effective Use of the Integration Potential of the CIS By Ulyukaev, Sergey; Sheryay, K. I.
  21. Trends in inter-city inequalities in level of living in Russia By Anna Bufetova
  22. Interregional Differentiation of the Youth Unemployment Rate in Russia By Tatiana Blinova; Vladimir Markov; Victor Rusanovskiy
  23. Environmental Development of Rural Russia: Innovative Projects and Social Environment By Kurakin, Alexander; Nikulin, Alexander Michailovich; Trotsuk, Irina Vladimirovna
  24. The Concept of the Federal Law on Public Administration in the Russian Federation By Yuzhakov, Vladimir Nikolaevich; Talapina, E. V.; Alexandrov, Oleg; Tikhomirov, Y. A.; Dobrolyubova, Elena
  25. The Relationship between Social Identities and Acculturation Strategies of the Ethnic Minority and Majority in the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania: An Intergenerational Analysis By Victoria Galyapina; Nadezhda Lebedeva
  26. Innovative Urban Development Trends for Development of Areas of Agglomerations By Bachurina, Svetlana Samuilovna; Voloshin, D.; Ivankina, Elena Vladimirovna; Safiullina, Regina S.; Solntseva, M. G.; Rujitskaya, S. A.
  27. Macroeconomic Effects of Competition Restrictions By Shastitko, Andrey E; Golovanova, Svetlana; Kurdin, Alexander; Novikov, Vadim; Pavlova, Natalia
  28. Толкование отдельных ключевых понятий муниципальной службы By Muravchenko, Viktor
  29. Time-Varying Individual Risk Attitudes over the Great Recession: A Comparison of Germany and Ukraine By Thomas Dohmen; Hartmut Lehmann; Norberto Pignatti
  30. Development of the Conceptual Foundations of Integration of Tax and Budget Systems of the Eurasian Economic Space By Klimanov, Vladimir V.; Altyntsev, Aleksey; Yagîvkinà, Vità
  31. Industrial policy under Neo-Schumpeterian concept of structural technological dynamics: Case of Ukraine By BAZHAL, IURII
  32. The well-being of Russian cities: does location matter? By Vera Ivanova
  33. Contest as a method of exposure of the quality of municipal strategies By Boris Zhikharevich; Taras Pribyshin
  34. Формирование эффективной долговой политики в области государственного внутреннего долга By Agafonova, Maria
  35. Dependence of spatial effects on the level of regional aggregation, weights matrix, and estimation method By Olga Demidova; Tatiana Bukina; Natalia Sverchkova
  36. Forced Savings in the Soviet Republics: Re-examination By Shida, Yoshisada
  37. Qualitative Performance Indicators of Latvia’s Technology Transfer Offices By Just V
  38. Economic Role of Population Density By Yuri Yegorov
  39. Учреждение муниципальных должностей By Muravchenko, Viktor
  40. Соотношение основных понятий и терминов муниципальной службы By Muravchenko, Viktor

  1. By: Voynilov, Yuriy (Poletayev Institute for Theoretical and Historical Studies in the Humanities); Chursina, Yuliya (Moscow Institute of Social and Cultural Programs)
    Abstract: The article overviews work on the conceptualization of the concepts of borders, national state and regional integration. Produced descriptive analysis units of the population with respect to the integration into the European space. Four main population cluster on foreign installations are highlighted. 1) "Supporters of integration," pro-Russian accession to the European Union. 2) "indifferent to integration." 3) "Beware of integration" 4) "The opponents of integration." The results are interesting, first of all, from a theoretical point of view, allowing you to form the basis of analytical constructs to further develop specific language for the selected direction. Secondly, the results of the project serves a resource for decision-making in foreign policy. Detection of foreign plants in relation to the population of Russia's integration into the European space becomes a resource socially informed decision-making in the field of international relations.
    Keywords: nation state, Russia, Eurasian union
    Date: 2014–07–09
  2. By: Vera Barinova; Stepan Zemtsov; Alla Sorokina
    Abstract: SMEs play an important role in the development of regional innovative systems because of their potential to accept new technologies and show fast growing rates. There is an interdependence between emergence of fast growing SMEs (?gazelles?) and innovative development of regions. High level of regional innovative development creates a fertile environment for increasing the number of fast growing companies, while we assume that large number of ?gazelles? creates a favourable environment for the dissemination of innovations in regions via spillover effect (NESTA Business growth and innovation, 2009). Fast-growing companies may contribute more than 50% to GDP growth (Europe INNOVA Gazelles Innovation Panel, 2008). There are several works, that explain growth of firms as a stochastic phenomenon (Gibrat, 1929), or as a combination of endogenous (Penrose, 1955) and exogenous factors (Delmar, Davidsson, Gartner, 2003). In our work we assume that regional innovation performance (as a share of RnD personnel in employment, share RnD expenditures in gross regional product, etc.) may be a significant factor because of knowledge spillover effects (Audretsch, Feldman, 2004), affecting more competitive firms. There were no works on Russian regional data that could prove it. The article analyses a variety of endogenous (intra-firm) and exogenous (regional) factors, which determine the share of fast-growing firms in Russian regions. The analysed firms were fast-growing manufacturing SMEs during post-crisis period (2009-2012), the main focus was on the determinants of the companies? share in total number of manufacturing firms in a region. The dataset was collected from SPARK (Professional market and company analysis system), and consists of information about income, owners, location, industry and several financial indicators. Regional factors, according to Russian Federal State Statistical service, include research and development indicators (such as RnD expenditures, RnD employees, etc.), urbanization rate, human capital, investment climate, etc. There are 419 manufacturing fast-growing companies (?gazelles?) from 9220 companies in database, which is approximately 5%. Econometric analyses demonstrates a strong correlation between the share of high-growth companies in regions and indicators of regional innovation performance: number of researchers per 10 000 people, the number of PCT applications per economically active population, the share of employees with higher education in the total number of population in economically active age, and the number of applications for inventions submitted to the Russian Patent Bureau by national applicants per the economically active population. Determined factors could be used for elaborating recommendations for implementation of industrial policy in Russia.
    Keywords: SME; Russian regions; regional innovation systems
    JEL: L25 O31
    Date: 2015–10
  3. By: Vera Barinova; Stepan Zemtsov
    Abstract: Russia inherited pattern of economic activity location from the Soviet Union, where the main forms of industry organization were territorial-production complexes (TPC) - networks of industrial organizations united by a single technological process or the chain of raw materials processing. In a market economy in the 90s, economic ties within the TPC were destroyed, leading to a drop in the level of production, fragmentation of large enterprises and the formation of a set of independent and often competing firms. Some scientists believe that this situation over the last 20 years could serve as a necessary foundation for the formation of industrial clusters (in interpretation of modern regional science). Today, interest in clusters in Russia rises again due to the need to find new mechanisms to support production and innovation in a stagnant economy. Ministry of Economic Development of Russia has developed a project to support the pilot territorial innovative clusters by providing funding for infrastructure formation. The selection of cluster initiatives was based on applications from regional governments, interested in attracting of additional investment. Most of the clusters, formed in Russia, are not in innovative sectors, as shown by studies of the Russian Cluster Observatory. But a lot of potential clusters in Russia is not formed due to the high level of distrust between firms, due to lack of understanding of the potential benefits, etc., although these clusters can develop due to geographical proximity (high concentration) of firms. The aim of our work is to identify clusters as areas of geographical concentration of small and medium businesses (SME). We also wanted to check whether the existing cluster initiatives correspond to the concentration of economic activity and whether there is potential for increasing the cluster initiatives. In our work, we use the analysis based on the localization index, but on three geographical levels for verification reasons: regions, districts and cities. Most of the data were collected from RUSLANA database, consisting information of Russian firms. After identifying a high degree of localization of a particular industry or a group of industries, we analyze the location of enterprises, based on distance-oriented methods in specific regions or between regions. The result is a map of the high concentration and localization of small and medium businesses in certain areas in a number of industries. The authors confirmed the existence of traditional and well-known clusters and identified previously unknown concentration of firms that did not declare their interaction. In the last step, the authors conducted field research - a survey of firms in areas of concentration, where clusters today are not formed, for determining the reasons for the lack of interaction.
    Keywords: cluster identification; localization; SME; Russian regions
    JEL: C19 L70 R12
    Date: 2015–10
  4. By: Muravchenko, Viktor
    Abstract: In article practical use of the basic concepts of municipal service in subjects of the Russian Federation is considered. It is adumbrated about definition of these concepts on the basis synthesis of its use in the legislation of subjects of the Russian Federation.
    Keywords: municipal service, municipal employee, municipal position, rights of the municipal employee, municipal bodies.
    JEL: K2 K23 K3 K30 R5 R58
    Date: 2015
  5. By: Abramov, Alexander E. (Russian presidental academy of national economy and public administration (RANEPA)); Akshentseva, Ksenya (Russian presidental academy of national economy and public administration (RANEPA))
    Abstract: The aim of the present work is identifying the main factors affecting the economics of open and interval mutual funds to manage the process of increasing the efficiency and competitiveness of collective investments in Russia. The study was conducted on the basis of the financial statements of management companies of mutual funds and information resource of the National League of Governors (NLU) in 709 open and interval mutual funds over the period of 2000-2012, Including 535 funds, which continued to operate in 2012. Analysis of factors affecting the excess return of open and interval mutual funds, the balance of the sales of shares, the amount of compensation management companies mutual funds showed that, despite the small size of the collective investment industry, Russian mutual funds follow many patterns that are typical for similar funds in other countries. Increasing the scale of operations and reducing costs for managing OIF are the most significant reserves for increasing the profitability of their portfolios. Low competitiveness and insufficient size OIF are largely influenced by shortcomings in the regulation.
    Keywords: collective investments, investment funds
    Date: 2014–07–18
  6. By: Poyker, Mikhail (Russian presidental academy of national economy and public administration (RANEPA)); Baeva, Marina Alekseevna (Russian presidental academy of national economy and public administration (RANEPA))
    Abstract: This article is devoted to development of possible forms of close collaborative relationship between the economies of neighboring countries of the Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia (CU) and the common economic space of these countries (CES) without joining of these associations, in relation to Armenia, Moldova, and Tajikistan. On the basis of the analysis of both the common features and areas of possible cooperation and collaboration tools, as well as the specifics of each country, taking into account the world experience major economic cooperation alliances with other countries authors provide the analysis of the economic effects of the certain forms of collaboration between the countries.
    Keywords: Customs Union, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Russia, CES, Armenia, Moldova,Tajikistan
    Date: 2014–08–08
  7. By: Stepan Zemtsov; Vyacheslav Baburin
    Abstract: ?Knowledge economy? as a concept describes a stage of socio-economic development, when knowledge become a major growth factor. In modern economy, it can be associated with processes of knowledge acquiring, creation and dissemination; its main agents are educational, scientific organizations and innovative business. In conditions of oil prices falling and sanctions, it is important to identify the Russian regions, where knowledge economy is forming, as new areas of growth. Another aim was to estimate whether economic growth of 2000s promote knowledge economy formation. We used methodology of World Bank with some modifications according to available statistics. The Russian knowledge economy index (RKEI) consisted of four blocks: the level of economic development (GRP growth rate and GRP per capita), education and human capital (number of students per capita and the average number of education years for employees), science and innovation (number of researchers and PCT-applications per capita) and information infrastructure (number of cell phones and computers with Internet access per capita). Since the performance of education and science are relatively stable for the Russian regions, characteristics of GRP and information infrastructure, which grew throughout the 2000s, hold the largest share in the variation of the RKEI. We used calculation of the average rank index (measured from to 10), according to the formula: Ri = 10*(Rlow / R), where Ri is a desired figure, Rlow is a number of regions with a lower rank, R is the total number of regions. The calculation was carried out for the whole period from 1998 to 2012 to review the dynamics. The highest level of the RKEI in 1998 (in descending order) was observed in Moscow (6.5) and St. Petersburg (5.9), Tomsk (4.5), Moscow (4.5), Samara (3.6), Khabarovsk (3.48), Primorsky (3.4) and Novosibirsk (3.3) regions; in 2012 the leaders were St. Petersburg (8.8), Moscow (8.7), Tomsk (8.3), Samara (8.1) regions, Tatarstan (8) and Novosibirsk (7.95) region. The areas with the most diversified economy are among the leaders; monospecialized regions (agriculture, mining) are among the laggards. The RKEI increased for all regions during the period, especially for low rank regions (<4: the North Caucasus and the Far East). Voronezh and Tyumen regions, Tatarstan and Bashkortostan have the highest RKEI growth rates (2012/1998) among high rank regions (>5). These regions established more innovative infrastructure and form a better investment climate. All regions have experienced the negative effects of the crisis in 2009, especially Moscow agglomeration. As a result, Moscow gave the leadership in the RKEI to St. Petersburg in 2010 and Moscow region left the top ten leading regions in 2011. The methodology allows us to track the RKEI framework for every region via the radar chart to identify problem areas and competitive advantages.
    Keywords: knowledge economy; index; Russian regions; education; human capital; information
    JEL: O31 O47 R11 R58
    Date: 2015–10
  8. By: Agapova, E. (Russian presidental academy of national economy and public administration (RANEPA)); Grinenko, A. V. (Russian presidental academy of national economy and public administration (RANEPA)); Lobov, Artem (Russian presidental academy of national economy and public administration (RANEPA)); Tatarnikov, A. S. (Russian presidental academy of national economy and public administration (RANEPA))
    Abstract: Economic relations arising in the implementation of state functions when placed, execution and control of public procurement of the Russian Federation and throughout the common economic space allow us to study the norms of competition policy and procurement for state and municipal needs and natural monopolies, to identify the main trends of contemporary national economic policy, identify key issues and prospects for the development of a single economic space. Extensive and comprehensive review of the various aspects allow for a fresh look at modern national economic policies in Russia and a number of recommendations to adapt the national economy to the conditions of the functioning of the multilateral trading system.
    Keywords: economic relations, common economic space, synergistic effect, public procurement
    Date: 2015–07–29
  9. By: Meerim Sydykova
    Abstract: The Kyrgyz Republic is a country with transition economy. Its growth performance is constantly one of the lowest compared to other CIS countries. Growth rates reduce due to strong political instability and high corruption level in the country. Despite being leading reformer in the region, the Kyrgyz Republic has not done enough to solve the key problems. The main objective of this paper is to identify the most problematic and binding constraints for economic growth in the Kyrgyz Republic. Growth Diagnostic approach proposed by Hausmann et al. (2005) is applied in order to identify the most binding constraints. The analysis is based on qualitative and quantitative data on economic indicators at national and international levels. The CIS countries such as Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan were chosen as comparator group of countries. Data for this study were collected from the research, publications, reports of the National Bank of the Kyrgyz Republic, the National Statistical Committee of the Kyrgyz Republic as well as statistical data published by the World Bank, IMF?s World Economic Outlook, UNDATA, Economic Freedom network, Global economic Forum, the Heritage Foundation and etc.. Time period is from 2004 till 2013 years. The results of the study were used to identify the most problematic factors for economic growth of the country. The study indicates that the most binding constraints for economic growth in the Kyrgyz Republic are (a) widespread corruption, (b) weak property rights, (c) inefficient energy sector and (d) low quality of education system. The same results were confirmed by ADB studies that found corruption level is the highest compared to other CIS countries and it is the strongest obstacle for growth. Despite the fact that the Kyrgyz Republic is the second richest country in water resources, it faces number of problems such as low productivity, outdated equipment from Soviet Union era, shortage of qualified workers and low efficiency. Lack of qualified labor force and low quality of education system is also binding constraint for growth for The Kyrgyz Republic. The Kyrgyz Republic ranked the lowest in comparison with comparator countries on all indicators assessing the quality and quantity of educational system. This paper is organized as follows: section 2 provides literature review on Growth Diagnostic methodology, section 3 gives an overview of economic development of the Kyrgyz Republic, section 4 is an analytical part which provides analysis of the Kyrgyz Republic?s economy. The final part gives concluding remarks.
    Keywords: development economics; economic growth; growth diagnostic
    Date: 2015–10
  10. By: Vera A. Fedotova (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: In the course of the last few years, the Russian society has been going through a stage of political, cultural and economic transformations that bring changes into the lifestyle, attitudes, and worldview of Russian citizens. The process of development has embraced not only science and technology, but also the social and cultural aspects of life. The contemporary image of Russia is in many ways defined by its younger generation that grew up within new economic, social and political standards. Young people’s values, attitudes and aspirations differ from those of the adult generation of Russians, since the last years have been marked by transformations inside the country, as well as by some global changes. The paper demonstrates the results of a study which aimed to identify the relationship between individual values and attitude towards innovation. 380 respondents, young and adult representatives of the Russian population, took part in the research. The respondents belonged to the younger generation (under 25 years old) or to the adult generation (over 45 years old). The principal instrument used was the method of questionnaires. The methodic inventory consists of three main blocks oriented to the study of the following constructs: the PVQ-R method of measuring individual values (Schwartz et al., 2011) and the method of “Self-assessment of innovative qualities of a personality” (Lebedeva, Tatarko, 2009).The goal of the research is to reveal the age differences in values and attitudes towards innovation, and to find out which values determine positive or negative attitude towards innovations among representatives of different generations of Russians. The younger generation values " Self-Direction Thought", "Stimulation", "Achievement", " Power Dominance" stimulate the adoption of innovations.
    Keywords: cultural values, values of individual level, innovation, attitude towards innovative
    JEL: A13
    Date: 2015
  11. By: Turbanov, Aleksandr (Russian presidental academy of national economy and public administration (RANEPA)); Oleg, Ivanov (Russian presidental academy of national economy and public administration (RANEPA)); Yudenkov, Yuri (Russian presidental academy of national economy and public administration (RANEPA)); Nikolay, Evstratenko (Russian presidental academy of national economy and public administration (RANEPA)); Mikitasov, Oleg (Russian presidental academy of national economy and public administration (RANEPA))
    Abstract: Transferring powers to the Bank of Russia supervision and regulation of financial markets is a significant structural transformation of the organizational management of the Russian financial system, the answer to the challenges of the phenomena generated by the global crisis of 2008-2009. The paper considers the system of economic, organizational and legal relations developing between the single body of financial market regulation, the various segments of the market and financial organizations, as well as other public authorities. Also analyzed the basic principles, models and approaches, which underlie the common activity of regulation and supervision in the financial market.
    Keywords: bank of Russia, financial market, financial system
    Date: 2015–08–09
  12. By: Elizaveta Blagodeteleva (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: The complex and seemingly inconsistent use of the social vocabulary has been on the research agenda of those who study the Russian Empire for quite some time. Historians have long believed that the indiscriminate use of such terms as “estate” (“soslovie”) and “corporation” reflected Russian backwardness and eventually impeded further social and economic development, especially when it came to professional groups. The paper examines this assumption by focusing on the terminology deployed for the designation of Russian lawyers, in comparison to their French counterparts. Therefore, it dwells at length on the references to the French Bar in the bureaucratic discussion and in current press at the time of drafting the basic principles of the future Bar organization in Russia between 1857 and 1864. The comparison of the two sets of references provided plenty of evidence that the French notion of the estate (l'ordre des avocats) had a dramatic impact on the interpretation of Russian soslovie of legal practitioners. The French model seemed to spur social imagination and eventually helped Russian political and intellectual elites envisage a new type of social organization encompassing free, well-educated and politically engaged men.
    Keywords: Russian Empire, France, legal profession, lawyers, the Bar, estate, estate paradigm
    JEL: Z
    Date: 2015
  13. By: Anton Krasnov; Dmitriy Zhitin
    Abstract: Ethnic and migration processes in Russia after the collapse of The Soviet Union have significantly changed the ethnic composition of major Russian cities. On the one hand, we see continuing of assimilation of most national communities which historically lived in the largest Russian cities (Ukrainians, Belarusians, Tatars, Jews etc.). On the other hand, the increased influx of migrants from the Republic of former Soviet Union led to the formation of new large ethnic communities. The paper deals with the transformation of the ethnic population structure of Russian cities on the example of St. Petersburg. Although St. Petersburg has five million inhabitants and national minorities accounts less than 8 percent in the population, this figure is increasing. In contrast to the situation 25 years ago, today we can see the areas where the concentration of different ethnic diasporas is significantly different from the mean value of the city. Thus, there are quite clearly distinguished areas where the prevalence of a particular ethnic group is significant. But on the contrary, there are areas where some ethnic groups almost completely absent. Since St. Petersburg is observed as a combination of more than hundred municipalities, all patterns can be seen quite clearly in a spatial aspect. And the phenomenon of spatial heterogeneity of resettlement of ethnic groups in St. Petersburg is the subject of the paper. The article contains materials of the censuses of the Soviet and Russian periods. Also we used cartographic techniques and methods of mathematical statistics to calculate the indicators needed to describe the degree of localization of the various ethnic groups. In addition, the correlation analysis of the resettlement of various ethnic groups has done.
    Keywords: migrations; ethnic minorities; ethnic segregation; St.Petersburg
    JEL: J15
    Date: 2015–10
  14. By: Irina Semykina
    Abstract: This paper explores the regional economic impact of mineral resource endowment and offers specific inputs to the debate on the local content requirement (LCR) policy, gaining urgency in modern economic and political environment. Focusing on the experience of the Eastern Siberia the paper examines the way national companies operate in the newly developing oil and gas provinces of Russia. The analysis of key economic indices shows that the existing approach based on rent-seeking strategy doesn?t allow having any significant benefits from resource endowment in the regions. The key idea is that the establishment of completely new industry has to affect regional economic development, budget revenues dynamics, and employment, to influence the related industries and services in the region. Such benefits are of great importance especially for the Eastern Siberian regions which had been endured the alarming depopulation and deindustrialization processes since the collapse of Soviet Union in 1991. Oil and gas production is capital intensive industry, but at the same time involves quite limited number of employees. Equipment and machinery producing industries, as well as oil and gas related services and engineering, on the contrary can be referred to the highly skilled and labor intensive sectors. Moreover linkages between oil and gas industry and other local industries can impact regional economic growth through investments and creating value added activities in equipment and materials. Nowadays Russian national oil and gas companies don?t have a clear local content strategy, it?s mainly addressed as part of the ?corporate social responsibility agenda?. The paper provides the review of the LCR policy which has been widely used in some countries with similar industry pattern like Norway, Brazil and Malaysia. The conducted analysis let to form possible scenarios and evaluate the dynamics of regional economic development depending on the scale of LCR policy. The developed approach based on statistical modeling allows assessing both direct and indirect (via intersectoral relations) effects of LCR policy. The obtained results allow to conclude that the implementation of LCR policy lead to the growth of real income per capita and the job creation in the region which give the opportunity to reverse the population decrease trend. The development of equipment and services suppliers for oil and gas industry by ripple effects can boost socio-economic development and diversify regional economics. The paper also dwells on some pitfalls and risks accompanying LCR policy and considers crucial points of introducing this kind of policy for local and federal government.
    Keywords: regional economics; oil&gas resources; local content requirement policy; Siberia
    JEL: O20 Q32 R11 R58
    Date: 2015–10
  15. By: Gubenko, Roman Mikhailovich (Russian presidental academy of national economy and public administration (RANEPA)); Vorobiev, Maxim Alekseevich (Russian presidental academy of national economy and public administration (RANEPA)); Klueva, Alla Gennadievna (Russian presidental academy of national economy and public administration (RANEPA)); Salamatov, V. Y. (Russian presidental academy of national economy and public administration (RANEPA))
    Abstract: International practice shows convincingly that the newly acceding to the World Trade Organization (WTO) countries, the period of economic adjustment to the criteria of the organization is not limited to the date of accession. Despite the fact that most of the adaptation measures are usually carried out before the formal date of accession, a substantial part of the actions should be undertaken in the first years of membership in the WTO. This, in particular, due to the presence of transition periods for reducing import duties on sensitive commodity items for acceding to the WTO, the economy. In addition, work continues to bring the legislation to the economy of the acceding to WTO rules, both at the federal and regional levels. Russia became a full member of the WTO 23 August 2013. By separate headings transition period, according to the commitments made in the framework of the accession procedure is completed in 2019. During this period, there will be changes that will have an impact on some sectors of the economy and of economic operators carrying out their business activities in these sectors. Therefore, a systematic understanding of the processes of adaptation of the economy to the WTO criteria and the availability of algorithms adaptation measures can reduce the risk of negative consequences for Russia's participation in the organization and improve the effect of the use of instruments of the WTO Russian economic operators.
    Keywords: WTO, adaptation of economy
    Date: 2014–08–08
  16. By: Marina Nesena; Leonid Limonov
    Abstract: Cultural diversity in modern Russian society is determined, first, by the composition of the ethnic and cultural space, sometimes historically rooted in the distant past, and, second, by migration. Given the spatial characteristics of Russia, cultural diversity of cities and regions is driven not only by international, but also by internal migration. When studying the topic of cultural diversity, economic researchers are primarily interested in assessing its effects on economic performance. Over the past decades, the topic has been explored by a wide range of researchers. ?Is a culturally diversified community more successful than a homogenous one?? is one of the major questions addressed in such research. Conclusions from theoretical models offered by M. Berliant and M. Fujita with respect to the impact of cultural diversity on economic growth and its role in the creation of new knowledge suggest that productivity of knowledge creation in a region with a homogeneous culture is lower than where cultures are diverse and R&D workers are heterogeneous. The empirical literature on effects of cultural diversity offers both positive and negative evidence. The authors of this study aim to explore the cultural diversity of Russia and assess its economic value. This paper presents the first outcomes of the study. To assess cultural diversity the Simpson?s index was used. Empirical research was conducted using an open system of cities modeled by G. Ottoviano and G. Peri in which ?diversity? has impact on both performance of firms and satisfaction of customer needs through localized externalities. Preliminary evaluation of correlation between growth of income, wages and increase in the share of foreign migrants, and the share of non-native population shows that regardless of the characteristics of a region, significant correlation is only observed between growth of income, wages and share of international migration. Econometric estimation of the theoretical model used regressions of wages and rent. Per capita income and average monthly wage were alternately used as dependent variables in the regression of income. Explanatory variables were indices reflecting cultural diversity: the Simpson?s index based on country of origin, the Simpson?s index among foreign migrants and the share of foreign migrants in the population of a region. Control variables in the regressions were a set of standard control variables used in regressions of income and growth [Temple.1999; Bellini et al. 2009] that reflect differences between regions in human capital, the share of agricultural employment in total employment in the region, population density and market potential of the region.
    Keywords: Cultural diversity; migration; productivity; regional economy
    JEL: O4 R1
    Date: 2015–10
  17. By: Klimanov, Vladimir V. (Russian presidental academy of national economy and public administration (RANEPA)); Kosendyak, Elena Vladimirovna (Russian presidental academy of national economy and public administration (RANEPA)); Mikhailova, Anna Alexandrovna (Russian presidental academy of national economy and public administration (RANEPA))
    Abstract: In 2013, in the Russian Federation at the federal level an active phase of the transition to the formation of the federal budget on a program basis has started. In the near future we expect a similar transition at other levels of the budget system. Despite the accumulated experience of program budgeting in the Russian Federation at the moment there has no scientific basis for the implementation of this process, including the use of mechanisms in the budget process of state programs in the new format. The main purpose of the transition to the program budget is to improve the social and economic cost-effectiveness. A key advantage of the program approach compared to the traditional budget based on cost-resources is to increase fiscal sustainability and efficiency of public authorities that characterizes the presence of closer ties with the strategic objectives of the budget development. At present, almost a third of the subjects of the Russian Federation has transferred to the formation of their budgets in accordance with the program-target method of budget planning. In the majority of subjects of the Russian Federation legal framework for the development of state programs is now accepted.
    Keywords: budget, Russia, federal budget, fiscal sustainability
    Date: 2014–05–28
  18. By: Maleva, Tatyana Mikhailovna (Russian presidental academy of national economy and public administration (RANEPA)); Gorlin, Yury Mikhailovich (Russian presidental academy of national economy and public administration (RANEPA)); Nazarov, Vladimir (Russian presidental academy of national economy and public administration (RANEPA)); Grishina, Elena E. (Russian presidental academy of national economy and public administration (RANEPA)); Kirillova, M. K. (Russian presidental academy of national economy and public administration (RANEPA)); Fedorov, Valery V. (Russian presidental academy of national economy and public administration (RANEPA))
    Abstract: This paper focused on the analysis of the following tasks: 1. An overview of legislation in terms of the functioning of the corporate pension system in the Russian Federation was performed; 2. The basic terms and definitions used in corporate pension schemes were overviewed; 3. Review of corporate pension schemes in countries such as USA, UK, Germany, France, Belgium, Ireland, New Zealand, South Korea, China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Japan, Mexico and Brazil were analyzed; 4. Review of key global trends in the development of corporate pension systems were highlighted and addressed; 5. Analysis of the corporate pension system in the Russian Federation in 1990-2000-s was performed, including the change of the basic characteristics; 6. Analysis of the corporate pension system in the Russian Federation; 7. Analysis os issues hindering the development of the corporate pension system in the Russian Federation; 8. Provide key proposals for the development of the corporate pension system in the Russian Federation, taking into account international experience and recommendations of international organizations such as the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, the International Organization for Standardization, International Association of Insurance Supervisors and others. 9. Main results of this work will be used in the formation of proposals for the establishment of mechanisms and incentives for the creation and development of the corporate pension system in the Russian Federation.
    Keywords: pension reform, retirement age, corporate retirement systems, Russian economy
    Date: 2014–08–09
  19. By: Valentina Zhideleva; Natalia Sedusova
    Abstract: When we consider knowledge economy as the top level of innovative economical development and the basis for the scientific knowledge, there is a need to make a favorable environment that might provide its efficient function. Knowledge economy that follows postindustrial society includes the increased quality of the human capital, increased life level, knowledge and high technologies production as well as production of innovations and qualitative services. The human capital has become the key productive factor in creation of up-to-date new high technologies, production development, and their efficiency increase that leaves behind development of science, culture, healthcare, safety and social spheres. According to the United Nation Organization?s report about the human capital development, the human capital ratio in such well developed countries like the USA, Finland, Germany, Japan and Switzerland makes about 80 % of the national wealth. Research and development, increased investments into the human capital and hi-tech inventions precisely guarantee those countries the world?s leadership. Summarizing the results of the recent 20-years period of the Russian economy development, unfortunately we have to take a note that, production efficiency and economy of the whole Russia and its northern regions in particular hasn?t increased, but decreased in most cases compared to the soviet period results. The quality of the human capital requires increase of its techno-technological characteristics. Creation of hi-tech productions with the high adding value requires first and foremost contemporary knowledge economy infrastructure that includes: ? Top quality of education; ? Efficient fundamental science; ? Venture business; ? High quality of the human capital; ? Knowledge and new technologies production; ? Knowledge society; ? Infrastructure for the ideas, inventions and researches transfer into production. All the above mentioned is acute and crucial for the Russian northern regions development. The Komi Republic is studying the world?s best practices and establishes professional clusters in order to create efficient productive environment for its economical development.
    Keywords: Knowledge economy; innovations; human capital development; quality of education
    Date: 2015–10
  20. By: Ulyukaev, Sergey (Russian presidental academy of national economy and public administration (RANEPA)); Sheryay, K. I. (Russian presidental academy of national economy and public administration (RANEPA))
    Abstract: Under the current Russian Foreign Policy Concept «the task of forming a Eurasian Economic Union, designed to not only maximize the use of mutually beneficial economic relations within the CIS, but also to become a defining model for the future of the Commonwealth states» is a priority for Russia. The reflections of the stated role of the regional economic integration are observed in recent years in the form ofRussia’snumerous attempts to strengthen cooperation between the CIS countries and, above all, with the countries most open to those attempts, such as Belarus and Kazakhstan. The result of those actions is the creation of the Customs Union and Common Economic Space (CES) of Russia, Kazakhstan and Belarus. Russia is actively trying to engage Ukraine in these processes and there are objective economic grounds for that (for example, Ukraine is a major recipient of Russian direct investment in CIS). Long-term effects (up to 2030) of the «quartet»’s (consisting of Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan andUkraine) integration are expressed as annual average GDP growth rates’ addition from 2% for Russia up to 14% for Belarus. Moreover a qualitative leap into the change of the GDP’s structure could also be achieved as a result of the integration. For the «quartet» in general the share of mining sector in the GDP is expected to decline and the share of value added by processingis expected to increase. The growth of competitiveness through the implementation of the accumulated integration potential and interstate technological cooperation is possible first of all in the following sectors: energy engineering, production of conventional weapons, rocket-space industry, aircraft and helicopter engineering, metallurgy, energy, nuclear industry, transport infrastructure and telecom. The future economic development of Russia and other CES countries and Ukraine is impossible without modernization of existing and launching new high-tech industries. In this regard, technological cooperation on the basis of Soviet relationship, but with application of the new market principles is coming to the forefront. Unified banking system and a unified Eurasian currency is planned to be developed on the base of the Eurasian Economic Union in which CES is going to be transformed. While the transition to a unified regional currency is a matter of the distant future, which requires considerable study, an important task of today is the «quartet»’s financial integration, i.e. through the creation of large regional financial institutions, banks, currency and stock exchanges. Unified monetary and fiscal policy is also an important component of financial integration. The Agreement on coordinated macroeconomic policy provides the CES member countries with quantitative macroeconomic parameters, including the limit of the annual budget deficit no higher than 3 % of GDP and public debt not exceeding 50 % of GDP and the inflation rate no more than 5% above the inflation of a CES state with the smallest prices increase. One of the most important preconditions for the «quartet»’s financial integrationis the increase of ruble’s role as a settlement currency in the region. In 2012 payments in Russianrubles prevailed in the EurAsEC region both in number and in volume: 79.0 and 55.4%, respectively. It is noteworthy that ruble is used as the settlement currency between the countries of the region besides the Russian Federation. The use of ruble as a regional currency is of great importance for the creation of regional and further international financial center in Russia. If CES countries and Ukraine don’t form a regional financial center in the near future, the countries of the region will remain the global financial peripherals, dependent on foreign capital, subject to undue influence of global economic processes, will continue to be weak, have illiquid currency and on the whole the problems of economic integration and a successful transition to investment-based growth model will not be executed.
    Keywords: Russian Foreign Policy, Eurasian Economic Union, integration, CIS, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Ukraine
    Date: 2014–08–11
  21. By: Anna Bufetova
    Abstract: At the turn of XX-XXI centuries new trends emerged in the development of Russian cities which were closely related to changes in the institutional and socio-economic conditions in a transition economy. One of the most prominent phenomena in the post-Soviet urbanization processes is growth of inequality in the level of economic and social development of cities. Deepening of social and economic disparities between cities in the transition period has led to the fact that the level of inter-city inequality is significantly higher than disparities between subjects of the Russian Federation. Most studies of spatial disparities in levels of living in Russia refer to the period of the 1990s and concern the interregional inequalities. Inequality of levels of living between cities is much less explored. In our study we consider the results of the uneven development of Russian cities, trends in convergence or divergence of level of living between cities of different size, specialization and status. We study the dynamics of inter-city disparities for a number of characteristics of level of living. The study is fulfilled on the basis of data provided by FSSS of the RF for the period of 2001-2013 ãã. and covers about 170 cities of the RF with population over 100,000. In this work we attempt to assess the degree of inequality in level of living between cities both on the basis of separate social indices and synthetic integral indicator of level of living. Constructed synthetic indicator of level of living allows to classify cities according to level of living and to evaluate convergence trends between cities, between and within their groups. We obtain evidence for slight mitigation of inter-city inequality of level of living in the beginning of XXI. But between considered set of cities we observe groups that characterized by different dynamics of level of living. Analyzing these groups we identify factors that determine the spatial trends in inequality in levels of living. In addition to the analysis of primary data, we summarized secondary sources and works on the topic, official documents and analytical reports. On this basis we discuss the role of different factors that determine inequality in level of living between Russian cities (objective and subjective which refer to implemented socio-economic policy) and make forecast of inter-city convergence trends in level of living.
    Keywords: Level of living; inequality; cities; city size; regional capitals; convergence;
    JEL: I31 R11
    Date: 2015–10
  22. By: Tatiana Blinova; Vladimir Markov; Victor Rusanovskiy
    Abstract: The Russian labor market is not homogenous, representing a diversity of regional segments. The paper presents a statistical assessment of interregional differences in youth unemployment in Russia. The unemployment rate was decomposed into fundamental and cyclical components, which was essential for deeper understanding of the specificity of the youth labour market. We made a typology of the regions of RF according to similar trends of youth unemployment and an empirical analysis of the rates, dynamics and factors of unemployment among the young people aged 15-19 and 20-29 years for 77 regions of Russia between 2005 and 2013. We also analysed the response of the regional rates of youth unemployment to crises. For analysing the regional parameters of youth unemployment we employed economical-statistical methods. We identified the interregional differences in the youth labor market and the nature of their changes in the time of economic crisis. The statistical database for this study was the Rosstat data posted on the official website of the Federal State Statistics Service. We found that in the time of crisis the interregional differences in unemployment rates decreased and in the period of recovery growth they increased. For the 20-29-age group, the convergence was only observed between 2007 and 2009, while the other years of the period saw a divergence, which, according to the rates (the curve?s angle), was noticeably higher than that for the 15-19-age group. This can be a token of a higher economic activity of the young people aged 20-29 years. The convergence in the crisis years meant that the regions were converging to a higher unemployment rate. The divergence of the regional youth unemployment rates depicts the different rates of the recovery growth in the regions of Russia, as well as the unequal efficiency of the employment policies. The study was conducted at the Institute of Agrarian Problems of RAS with the financial support from the Russian Scientific Foundation (RSF), project # 14-18-02801.
    Keywords: Russian regions; youth unemployment; modeling; interregional differences
    JEL: C51 E24 J64
    Date: 2015–10
  23. By: Kurakin, Alexander (National Research University Higher School of Economics, Russian presidental academy of national economy and public administration (RANEPA)); Nikulin, Alexander Michailovich (Independent); Trotsuk, Irina Vladimirovna (Russian presidental academy of national economy and public administration (RANEPA))
    Abstract: In the first chapter are indicated the general logic and history of innovation in Russian agriculture, namely: agrotechnical ensure agricultural activity at the beginning of the twentieth century, the Soviet experience in implementing agroinnovatsy and objective conditions of innovative development of agrarian and industrial complex in the post-Soviet period. The second presents the results of empirical research conducted by the Center for Agricultural Research in the three districts of the Altai Territory. In conclusion summarizes the basic provisions and the findings of the work carried out.
    Keywords: innovations, agriculture
    Date: 2014–08–11
  24. By: Yuzhakov, Vladimir Nikolaevich (Russian presidental academy of national economy and public administration (RANEPA)); Talapina, E. V. (Russian presidental academy of national economy and public administration (RANEPA)); Alexandrov, Oleg (Russian presidental academy of national economy and public administration (RANEPA)); Tikhomirov, Y. A. (Russian presidental academy of national economy and public administration (RANEPA)); Dobrolyubova, Elena (Russian presidental academy of national economy and public administration (RANEPA))
    Abstract: The concept of the federal law "On the fundamentals of public administration in the Russian Federation" is based on the study of Russian and foreign legislation and legal doctrine, and aimed at improving the systems of legal regulation of the Russian government, the creation of legal conditions for effective and efficient public administration.
    Keywords: legislation, legal doctrine, legal regulation, federal law, Russia
    Date: 2015–05–20
  25. By: Victoria Galyapina (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Nadezhda Lebedeva (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: This paper examines relationship between social identities and acculturation strategies of Russians (the ethnic minority) and Ossetians (the ethnic majority) in the Republic of North Ossetia-Alania (RNO-A). This study reveals the similarities and differences in relationships between social identities and acculturation strategies of integration and assimilation in three generations of Russians and Ossetians, living in RNO-A. The sample included 109 grandparent-parent-adolescent triads from Russian families and 106 triads from Ossetian families (N=645). Acculturation strategies and acculturation expectations were measured with MIRIPS scales, for ethnic, civic, religious, republic, regional identities. Data processing was carried out using structural equation modelling (SEM) separately for the ethnic minority and the ethnic majority. In the Russian sample there is a negative correlation between Russian cultural identity and the preference of assimilation strategy, and a positive correlation between their other (Ossetian) cultural identity and their integration strategy in all three generations. Among Ossetians no clear relationship between their Ossetian cultural identity and acculturation expectations was found in any of the generations. In Ossetian grandparents and adolescents the other (Russian) cultural identity is positively associated with the acculturation expectation multiculturalism. In adolescents (unlike grandparents and parents) this identity also has a positive correlation with the acculturation expectation melting pot. For Ossetian parents and adolescents their own cultural identity is positively associated with the acculturation expectation multiculturalism. For Ossetian parents (unlike for grandparents and adolescents) their own cultural identity negatively correlates with the acculturation expectation melting pot. In both ethnic groups their own cultural identities promote the preservation of their own culture while other cultural identities help them to adapt successfully in a multicultural society
    Keywords: acculturation strategy, acculturation expectation, cultural identity, ethnic minority, ethnic majority, generation, multiculturalism, intergroup relations
    JEL: Z
    Date: 2015
  26. By: Bachurina, Svetlana Samuilovna (Plekhanov Russian University of Economics); Voloshin, D. (Russian presidental academy of national economy and public administration (RANEPA)); Ivankina, Elena Vladimirovna (Russian presidental academy of national economy and public administration (RANEPA)); Safiullina, Regina S. (Russian presidental academy of national economy and public administration (RANEPA)); Solntseva, M. G. (Russian presidental academy of national economy and public administration (RANEPA)); Rujitskaya, S. A. (Russian presidental academy of national economy and public administration (RANEPA))
    Abstract: Urban planning science in Russia had several stages of intensive development under the influence of economic and social reforms, reflecting the evolution of the political system and the geopolitical upheavals. At the present stage of the transcontinental monopolies, economic unions and associations, intergovernmental agreements, to a large extent influence and determine the development of individual countries, regions, resursoobespechivayuschih global industries, financial markets and capital flows, a more comprehensive approach to the analysis of the rapidly growing urbanization, detection of all kinds of dependencies and factors for the establishment of an appropriate level of legislative and legal regulatory framework.
    Keywords: urban planning, Russia, reforms
    Date: 2014–08–11
  27. By: Shastitko, Andrey E (Lomonossov Moscow State University; Russian presidental academy of national economy and public administration (RANEPA)); Golovanova, Svetlana (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Kurdin, Alexander (Russian presidental academy of national economy and public administration (RANEPA)); Novikov, Vadim (Russian presidental academy of national economy and public administration (RANEPA)); Pavlova, Natalia (National Research University Higher School of Economics; Lomonossov Moscow State University; Russian presidental academy of national economy and public administration (RANEPA))
    Abstract: The work is an attempt to give the first Russian integrated quantitative assessment of the losses arising from the restrictions of competition. For the analysis of selected several key areas: gas industry, railway cargo transportation, construction, pharmaceutical industry and the restriction of competition from imports. Presented in the report empirical estimates allow to rethink the role of competition policy in promoting economic growth and development. For experts in the field of competition policy and economic regulation, students current problems of economic development, as well as all interested in the modern development of the Russian economy.
    Keywords: Russian economy, macroeconomy, competition restrictions, industry
    JEL: Y30
    Date: 2014–07–31
  28. By: Muravchenko, Viktor
    Abstract: In article the basic concepts of municipal service are considered: "municipal service", "the municipal employee", "a municipal position". It is adumbrated about definition of these concepts, limits of powers on the basis synthesis of its use in the legislation of subjects of the Russian Federation, and also in sciences of the state and municipal law.
    Keywords: municipal service, municipal employee, municipal position, non-state service,signs of municipal service, task of municipal service, principles of municipal service.
    JEL: K23 K3 K30 R5 R58
    Date: 2015
  29. By: Thomas Dohmen; Hartmut Lehmann; Norberto Pignatti
    Abstract: We use the panel data of the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) and of the Ukrainian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (ULMS) to investigate whether risk attitudes have primary (exogenous) determinants that are valid in different stages of economic development and in a different structural context, comparing a mature capitalist economy and a transition economy. We then analyze the stability of the risk measures over time. Between 2007 and 2012 we have the Great Recession, which had a mild impact in the German labor market while it had a more profound impact on the Ukrainian labor market. This enables us to investigate whether and how the crisis impacted on the risk attitudes in the two countries. By focusing on self-employment we also investigate whether the reduced willingness to take risks as a consequence of the Great Recession affects labor market dynamics and outcomes.
    Keywords: risk attitudes, Great Recession, time variation, labor market outcomes, Germany, Ukraine
    JEL: J64 J65 P50
    Date: 2015
  30. By: Klimanov, Vladimir V. (Russian presidental academy of national economy and public administration (RANEPA)); Altyntsev, Aleksey (Russian presidental academy of national economy and public administration (RANEPA)); Yagîvkinà, Vità (Russian presidental academy of national economy and public administration (RANEPA))
    Abstract: The paper assessed, from a methodological and practical point of view, opportunities available in the fiscal sphere and limitations arising from the formation of the integration associations of the former Soviet Union, and to develop proposals for improving the agreements between integrating countries.
    Keywords: Eurasian Economic Space, taxation, budget systems
    Date: 2015–10–16
    Abstract: In nowadays the conception of “Industrial Modernization” has become a popular in many countries, especial amongst those that have weaknesses of the innovation development potential. In Ukraine also many experts suggest to build a strategy of economic development on a base of supporting the traditional industrial enterprises through their modernization. This point of view has limitation due to the modern traditional industrial markets become mature very quickly, and their profitability decreasing. The current economic crisis has confirmed this finding. In controversy to “Industrial Modernization” approach this paper examines the Neo-Schumpeterian “Technological Paradigms” concept according to which the wealth growth of country or region depends first of all on development of a new high technology sectors. Such attitude creates theoretical basis for a new vision of the basic principles to ensure economic development and sets new requirements to the state economic policy. Such attitude creates theoretical basis for a new vision of the basic principles of economic policy where the evaluation the structure of national economy is measured by proportion of sectors that belong to the different technological paradigms. Neo-Schumpeterian approach has been used to calculate indicators of the corresponding structural dynamics of Ukrainian industrial sectors for the country and regions. It is proposed the classification of statistics indicators in order to estimate the industrial structure by technological levels of different sectors according to "technological paradigms" concept. The corresponding policy recommendations are offered.
    Keywords: Neo-Schumpeterian concept; technological paradigms; innovation development; industrial structural policy; economy of Ukraine
    JEL: O14 O33 O38 O57
    Date: 2014–10–01
  32. By: Vera Ivanova
    Abstract: Using the data covering the time period from 1996 till 2011, I estimate a spatial autoregressive model of wages' growth rates across Russian cities. I _x001C_find that wages in Russian cities exhibit convergence. I also test whether city population (which is a proxy for city size) has positive impact on the speed of convergence. Using geographical location characteristics (longitude, latitude, average annual temperature, soil quality) and historical data (the fi_x001C_rst two censuses of the country) as instruments for population, I _x001C_find a positive relationship between city size and city growth. In other words, cities converge in wages, but diverge in size.
    Keywords: cities; wages; convergence; spatial econometrics
    JEL: R12 O18
    Date: 2015–10
  33. By: Boris Zhikharevich; Taras Pribyshin
    Abstract: Objectives. Find the answer to the question ?What are the qualities of a ?good? municipal strategy of socio-economic development??. Methods. In order to reach a consensus about the quality of municipal strategy it was proposed to use the Contest of the urban strategies, which was held in the cities in Russia with population over 100.000 people. The contest resulted in division of the participants in 3 groups: winners: Orsk, Samara, Cherepovets; finalists: Vologda, Irkutsk, Kaliningrad, Novoshakhtinsk; semifinalists: Bryansk, Krasnoyarsk, Sochi, Tambov, Ulan-Ude. The contest created three sources to define a good strategy: feedback from the jury; analysis of strategies of the winners; feedback from mayors of the finalist cities. Results. 1. Analysis of the feedback from the jury gives us the following list of successful strategy characteristics: Frequently occurring: ? Existence of monitoring system and established implementation mechanism ? Ambitiousness correlative with the city scale and implementation mechanism ? Existence of title projects Less frequently occurring: Involvement of the head of the city and the whole community; Human-oriented; Focus on specific projects etc. 2. The content of all the strategies was coded with the special code developed by Leontiev?s Center to formalize the comparison of the leading and outsiders strategies. Common features of leading strategies: -ambitiousness -complexity (big number of declared and elaborated routes) -active use of title projects -attention to economical diversification issues -usage of institutional and constitutional economic support -special attention to educational and cultural development -special attention to implementation via mechanisms of civil autonomy and effectiveness of local authorities 3. Leading cities mayors stated that a good strategy is the one which is: Cooperative ? a strategy elaborated collectively leading to consolidation of local community and key authorities; Independent ? a strategy elaborated by the local community with no governmental influence, irrespective; Deliberative - a strategy elaborated by the local community considering its own interests; Ambitious - a strategy elaborated to reveal the potential of local resources and inspired by enthusiasm of locals; Realistic ? a strategy based on adequate situation analysis and establishing achievable goals and purposes; Realizable ? a strategy provided with an elaborated mechanism of implementation; when goals and purposes are being ambitious but provided with clear instruments of resource mobilization, performance control and results overview; Stable ? a strategy that does not change dramatically despite radical changes or possible power shifts. The prevalent opinion in Russia in 2014 is: a good municipal strategy is supposed to be ambitious, provided with an elaborated mechanism of implementation and monitoring, focusing on title projects, developed under control of city head in cooperation with key participants of urban development which is clear and approved by local community.
    Keywords: Municipal strategic planning; strategies; socio-economic develjpment
    JEL: R11
    Date: 2015–10
  34. By: Agafonova, Maria
    Abstract: This article considers the problem of determining the criteria of the effective public debt policy in the sphere of internal debt. It raises a question of possibility of the initial formation of the effective debt policy.
    Keywords: debt policy, internal debt, efficiency.
    JEL: G28 H6 H63 H68
    Date: 2015–10–18
  35. By: Olga Demidova; Tatiana Bukina; Natalia Sverchkova
    Abstract: Researchers have repeatedly noted that the results in spatial-econometric studies depend significantly on the level of regional aggregation (Jacobs-Crisioni et al., 2014; Kang et al., 2014, Baltagi, Li, 2014). Currently, hierarchical models can contribute a lot to the studies of spatial effects since they take into account nested structure of regions (Dong, Harris, 2014). In addition, some studies say that econometric results also depend on the choice of the weights matrix W and the estimation method used (Elhorst, Vega, 2013; Kukenova, 2008). In different studies Monte-Carlo method with specially generated data is used to justify the selection of models or estimation method and to test the goodness-of-fit criteria (Kukenova, 2008, Piras, 2012). There are not so many studies that use real data. In this work we try to fill this gap by using different models for economic growth in the Russian regions. The data for 75 Russian regions within the period between 2005 and 2011years are used. We also include two levels of data aggregation: into 12 economic regions and into 8 federal districts. We are testing three main hypotheses: H1: The estimation results of spatial-econometric models depend on the level of regional aggregation. H2: The estimation results of spatial-econometric models depend on the choice of the method of estimation. H3: The estimation results of spatial-econometric models depend on the choice of the weighs matrix. To test these hypotheses SAR models are estimated with and without hierarchical regional structure. As a dependent variable in these models we use the GRP growth in analyzing spatial units. As the spatial weighs matrix we use the binary contiguity matrix, matrix of boundaries lengths and matrix of inverse distance between the capitals of the regions by road. Methods of estimation used are ML, difference GMM and system GMM. According to the results obtained from estimated models we get the empirical support for the first and second hypotheses. This means that the level of regional aggregation and the choice of estimation method significantly influence the results of spatial analysis. Our third hypothesis has been rejected for the vast majority of cases, except for those, where system GMM and difference GMM provide different results in the significance level of the coefficients in accordance to the weights matrix used. Thus, obtained results provided by the data on Russian regions largely confirm the findings of the articles cited above (Elhorst, 2013), (Kukenova, 2008), (Piras, 2012), and other studies related to the importance of choosing the right level of aggregation, model specification and estimation method when working with spatial data. However, all of estimated models show the stable positive spatial effect at any level of aggregation, any specification and estimation method used.
    Keywords: spatial effects; aggregation; weights matrix; Russian regions; economic growth
    JEL: R11 C21
    Date: 2015–10
  36. By: Shida, Yoshisada
    Abstract: The current paper empirically examines the determinants of household savings rates in the Soviet republics, by utilizing the panel data of an aggregated household budget survey in the period from 1965 to 1989. Earlier studies claimed that increases in household savings starting from the late 1950s were the direct result of worsening shortages of consumer goods; therefore, they considered Soviet households' savings to be involuntary ones and that households were "forced" to save under severe shortage conditions in the official consumer market. But they failed to fully investigate this problem mainly because of unavailability of data on household incomes and expenditures and of ignorance of a widespread informal economy ("second economy"). When the informal economy could at least partly provide households with opportunities to spend their money on lacking goods, households would be able to choose whether to save money and stand in line for scarce goods at the official retail shops, or move to the informal market. This understanding leads to the implication that there existed neither involuntary nor forced savings. In order to tackle this unsolved research problem, the Soviet households' savings rate function is estimated by taking into account shortages, the informal economy, and other factors, among them life-cycle factors, and then the "forced savings rate" is calculated. The main findings of this study are as follows: Firstly, even taking into account these factors, there existed Soviet-unique factors, namely the shortage factor, informal factor, and demand-spillover effect. Secondly, the magnitudes of these three factors varied among regions, so forced savings rates also varied. According to our estimation results, forced savings in the Slavic and Baltic regions accounted for more than 40% of the total savings just before the collapse of the Soviet Union, while those in the Caucasian and Central Asian regions accounted for less than 10%.
    Keywords: forced savings, shortages, informal economy, centrally planned economies, Soviet Union
    JEL: N34 P24 P32 P36 P51
    Date: 2015–10
  37. By: Just V (R)
    Abstract: In Latvia Technology Transfer Offices (TTO) are comparatively new support units for the development of economics. As it has been indicated in a number of reports, a support programme for the establishment of TTO was commenced in 2005 in Latvian universities in order to improve technology transfer system for the improvement of cooperation between scientists and entrepreneurs and ensuring more efficient introduction of research results in production. Establishment of six TTO was supported within an open competition.The year of 2008 marks further TTO development, when eight TTO commenced / continued operation in Latvian universities. Between 2008 and 2013 performance of TTO was ensured within the operational programme “Entrepreneurship and Innovation” (financed by the European Regional Development Fund) and aimed at supporting and promoting activities regarding knowledge and technology transfer. Performance of TTO was assessed quantitatively within the project. However, qualitative performance indicators of TTO must be identified in order to characterize TTO contribution to the technology transfer system.Objectives of the research are as follows: identification of the qualitative performance indicators of TTO by singling out benefits gained by the parties involved in technology transfer process. Research included both secondary and primary data. Primary data were obtained by the qualitative method of data collection: semi-structured interview with the heads and specialists of Latvian TTO.All the above mentioned resulted in identification of the qualitative performance indicators of TTO and benefits of the parties involved in technology transfer process (scientists, management of a universities, entrepreneurs). Majority of the heads and specialists of TTO admitted – it was important to establish and strengthen cooperation of the university with representatives of the sector to achieve quantitative indicators, therefore, firstly, establishment of the scientists’ contacts with the industry was considered. The contacts obtained by scientists should be assessed as one of the most significant qualitative achievements of TTO. Secondly, understanding of scientists regarding their role and benefits within the process of provision of research services and commercialization of scientific developments was formed.The majority of TTO staff indicates that the management of university view systematic establishment of internal processes related to registration procedure of intellectual property rights, process of commercialization of scientific developments and licensing procedure as a benefit. The party involved in the technology transfer – entrepreneurs – has admitted the following benefits to the heads and specialists from TTO: existence of a unified information centre in scientific institutions, as well as decrease of bureaucratic burden.
    Keywords: Technology transfer, TTO
    JEL: I20 L26 O32
  38. By: Yuri Yegorov
    Abstract: The role of population density for economic activity was neglected in most part of economic theory. This paper is a review and extension of the previous works of the author in this field. So far, densities did not become common economic variables in economic analysis, and two countries with different densities of population and infrastructure but similar in macroeconomic parameters are treated as similar. One of the presented models is about an influence of population density on infrastructure development, and later on country potential for economic growth (Yegorov 2005a). Self-organization of production activity in space is elaboration of the ideas of von Thunen. When a city emerges as a center of industrial activity, it deforms the space, and agricultural land rent becomes a function of distance due to transport cost to bring the good to the market. Population density plays an important role in harvesting societies, i.e. those that depend on agriculture and natural resources. Too high population density decreases the natural endowment per capita, but eases the development of infrastructure, leading to existence of an optimal population density for economic growth (Yegorov, 2009). The trade-off between scale economies and transport costs leads to an optimal area served by a local monopolist. In the world with low population density competition might not even emerge because even monopolist can become bankrupt due to low demand density, especially in the environment of high transport costs. Such situation took place on the most part of Russian territory after liberalization that also lead to an increase in relative transport costs. Population density also can play role for an optimal size of a country. While there are many other reasons (mostly historical), spatial structure is also important. Land area of a country is considered as some capital bringing rent from natural resource extraction. The length of a border requires protection efforts and thus is a first type of cost. Commuting with the capital is another type of cost, and here the population density also matters. All these 3 factors enter with different power, and optimization with respect to linear scale give different results (Yegorov, 2005b). Literature 1. Yegorov Y. (2005a) Role of Density and Field in Spatial Economics. ? In: Yee Lawrence (Ed). ?Contemporary Issues in Urban and Regional Economics?. Nova Science Publishers, 2005, N.Y., p.55-78. 2. Yegorov Y. (2005b) Dynamically Sustainable Economic Equilibria as Self-Organized Atomic Structures (2005b) ? In: M.Salzano, A.Kirman, Eds., ?Economics: Complex Windows?, Springer-Verlag Italia, 2005, p.187-199 3. Yegorov Y. (2009) Socio-economic influences of population density. - Chinese Business Review, vol.8, No. 7, p.1-12.
    Keywords: population density; optimization; economic growth; transport costs
    JEL: O18 Q10 R14 R40
    Date: 2015–10
  39. By: Muravchenko, Viktor
    Abstract: In article the standards of the regional legislation defining classification of positions of municipal service are considered. It is shown that positions of municipal service are established by charters of municipalities, proceeding from registers of the municipal positions approved by subjects of Federation.
    Keywords: municipal position, classification of positions, categories of municipal positions, criterion of division of positions, groups of positions.
    JEL: K2 K3 K30 R5 R58
    Date: 2015
  40. By: Muravchenko, Viktor
    Abstract: In article that circumstance is considered that among the basic concepts and terms in the field of local government the law doesn't mention the municipal employee. It suggests an idea that this concept for the legislator is equivalent to concept of the official of local government.
    Keywords: official, municipal service, municipal employee, municipal position, local governments, sign of the municipal employee, established post, register of municipal positions.
    JEL: K2 K23 K3 K30 R5 R58
    Date: 2015
  41. By: Anna Vizkeleti (University of Miskolc)
    Date: 2015–10–15

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