nep-cis New Economics Papers
on Confederation of Independent States
Issue of 2015‒09‒26
twenty-one papers chosen by

  1. Food Security in Russia: Monitoring, Trends and Threats By Natalia Shagaida; Vasiliy Uzun
  2. Estimation of Costs in the Russian Public Procurement System: A Case Study of Voronezh State University By Olga N. Balaeva; Andrei A. Yakovlev
  3. The Impact of Strategic Management System on the Quality of Budgetary Process in Russia By Ilya Sokolov
  4. Main Characteristics of the Development and Structure of the Russian Financial and Bank System at Various Levels of Modern Development (1999-2012) By Alexey Vedev
  5. Russia's Economy under Putin: From Crony Capitalism to State Capitalism By Simeon Djankov
  6. Attitude to the National Leader Through the Lenses of Investment Climate Assessment: The Case of Russia By Andrei Yakovlev; Irina Levina; Anastasia Kazun
  7. The Role of Precedent in the Tax Legislation By Anna Zolotareva; Stanislav Shatalov
  8. Methodology of Compiling Sectoral Financial Balances in the National Economy By Alexey Vedev; Mikhail Khromov
  9. Prospects for the Russian Ruble to Become Regional Reserve Currency By Pavel Trunin; Sergey Narkevich
  10. Social Policy in the Provinces. Urgent Issues By Irina Starodubrovskaya
  11. Republic of Kazakhstan: 2015 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; Staff Report for the Republic of Kazakhstan By International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.
  12. Asymmetric Granger Causality between Military Expenditures and Economic Growth in Top Six Defense Suppliers By Abdulnasser Hatemi-J; Tsangyao Chang; Wen-Yi Chen; Feng-Li Lin; Rangan Gupta
  13. Understanding energy politics: from geopolitics to market explanations By Filippos Proedrou
  14. Monthly Report No. 3/2015 By Amat Adarov; Vasily Astrov; Doris Hanzl-Weiss; Sandra M. Leitner; Robert Stehrer
  15. The Eurasian Economic Union: An EU-Like Legal Order in the Post-Soviet Space? By Maksim Karliuk
  16. Генезис методов ресурсного контроля в контексте решения задач социального управления By Kuznetsova, Elena
  17. The Traces of “Koroghlu” Epos in World Folklore By Almaz Hasangizi
  18. Analysis of Economic Agenda of G20 Member States and Their Current Economic Outlook By Sergey Drobyshevsky; Pavel Trunin; Alla Sorokina; Anna Kiyutsevskaya; I. Bakalova
  19. XX Century Azerbaijanian Emigration Folklore Studies (In the context of Epos Researches) By Vagif Sultanly
  20. Time-Varying Individual Risk Attitudes over the Great Recession: A Comparison of Germany and Ukraine By Dohmen, Thomas; Lehmann, Hartmut; Pignatti, Norberto
  21. Coordination of Spatial and Sectoral Development within Clusters. International Experience By Alla Sorokina

  1. By: Natalia Shagaida (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy); Vasiliy Uzun (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy)
    Abstract: This paper focuses on monitoring, assessment and threats of food security in Russia. The authors propose methodologies and submit calculations of aggregate indices of assessment of the food security. Economic accessibility of food for groups of population with different income levels in the country as a whole and in the constituents of the Russian Federation.
    Keywords: Russian economy, food security
    JEL: Q17 Q18
    Date: 2015
  2. By: Olga N. Balaeva (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Andrei A. Yakovlev (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: The growing attention of governments, international organizations and NGOs to public procurement issues over the last two decades has been accompanied by many studies of the efficiency of public procurement. However, few researchers have considered the costs of procurement regulation for public customers and private suppliers. This problem is especially acute for the public procurement system in Russia. In this paper, taking into account recent PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC) report for European Commission, we propose an approach for measuring the procurement costs of public customers. We have tested this approach with data on a large Russian public customer — Voronezh State University (VSU). We show that the proposed approach is universal and can be applied at a micro—level by other public customers to measure the efficiency of their procurement and to optimize the costs. This approach can also be used as a basis for a larger inquiry into the costs and effectiveness of procurement at the level of regional authorities or ministries
    Keywords: public management, public procurement, transaction costs
    JEL: Z
    Date: 2015
  3. By: Ilya Sokolov (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy)
    Abstract: Over the last decade, the Russian Government is persistently heading for a transition to the strategic governance and shifting of the budgetary system of all levels of government to the long term planning cycle which should contribute to the higher predictability of the budgetary policy and correspondingly to the formation of conditions for sustainable economic development of the country.
    Keywords: Russian economy, budgetary policy, strategic planning, long term planning, sustainable development
    JEL: H6 H7
    Date: 2014
  4. By: Alexey Vedev (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy)
    Abstract: Evolution of the Russian bank system separates into several stages in the aftermath of the 1998 systemic crisis. Each of the stages is characterized by different external parameters and direct strategies of implementation: monetary policy, funds borrowing, financial markets development. At each of the stages structure of the institutional financial flows was changing. Analysis of the development stages of the Russian economy and its financial sphere is presented not only and not so much in the context of evolution description. Each of the stages represents economic development model ( however, far from a full one). Main issue is the selection of the economic development model for Russia in the current decade. Economic development ideally should be accompanied by not structural disproportions nut, on the contrary, improvement of the structure of institutional financial flows envisaging ability of the national financial system promote sustainable development and counteract external shocks.
    Keywords: Russian economy, financial system, bank system, economic development
    JEL: E21 E41 E51 E58 G21
    Date: 2014
  5. By: Simeon Djankov (Peterson Institute for International Economics)
    Abstract: In the 15 years of President Vladimir Putin's rule, state control over economic activity in Russia has increased and is greater today than in the immediate postcommunist era. The concentration of political and economic power in Putin's hands has led to an increasingly assertive foreign policy, using energy as a diplomatic tool, while plentiful revenues from extractive industries have obfuscated the need for structural reforms at home. The West's 2014 sanctions on Russia have brought about economic stagnation, and with few visible means of growth, the economy is likely to continue to struggle. Watching Europe struggle with its own growth, in part because of deficiencies in its economic model, Russia will not be convinced to divert from state capitalism without evidence of a different, successful economic model. Changing course can only be pursued in the presence of political competition; the current political landscape does not allow for such competition to flourish.
    Date: 2015–09
  6. By: Andrei Yakovlev (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Irina Levina (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Anastasia Kazun (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: This paper considers two issues. First, it evaluates the changes in Russia’s investment climate in 2012-2014 after the announcement of an ambitious governmental program to improve the conditions for doing business. Second, because the relevant reforms were personally initiated by Vladimir Putin, we carried out a survey experiment designed to find out how references to a popular politician influence respondents’ opinions about the business climate. We used the data of a large-scale survey of top managers in Russian manufacturing sector conducted in July-October of 2014. Contrary to the World Bank report, Easy Doing Business, our empirical data shows that there was practically no improvement in the investment climate in Russia in 2012-2014. Also contrary to the results of population surveys showing extremely high public support for Vladimir Putin after Crimea’s accession to Russia, our survey experiment demonstrated that referring to the President Putin as the initiator of business climate reform improves assessments of the business climate change only slightly. However, the effect of reference to the President’s initiative differs significantly for firms from different size groups – we revealed no effect of question wording in the group of small firms, much higher share of non-answers in the group of large firms and a significant increase in the share of positive assessments of business climate among mid-size firms when Vladimir Putin was mentioned.
    Keywords: economic policy, business climate, enterprises behavior, experiments
    Date: 2015
  7. By: Anna Zolotareva (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy); Stanislav Shatalov (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy)
    Abstract: The paper analyses available in theory approaches to the definition of judicial precedent. Authors compared precedent and judicial legislation in the countries jus commune and Russia. They assess wide powers of the courts in Russia at the expense of the Constitutional Court and introduction of precedent system in arbitrage
    Keywords: Russian economy, precedent law
    JEL: Y80
    Date: 2014
  8. By: Alexey Vedev (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy); Mikhail Khromov (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy)
    Abstract: This paper is focused on the investigation of the model for compiling sectoral financial balances in the Russian economy in the context of the development of tools for the analysis of intersectoral financial flows. The paper is aimed at the drafting of methodological recommendations for compiling and analysis of balance of financial results as one of the element of macroanalysis method. Methodology of the research is based on the analysis of the available statistical sources and their comparison for the creation as far as it is feasible full and noncontradictory picture of the financial system of the Russian economy.
    Keywords: Russian economy, sectoral balances
    JEL: E21 E41 E51 E58 G21
    Date: 2015
  9. By: Pavel Trunin (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy); Sergey Narkevich (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy)
    Abstract: 2007-2009 global financial crisis demonstrated that financial markets of major countries can be subject to the large scale system shocks. One of the manifestations of the crisis was the slump of the global trade and significant capital outflow from the emerging markets. This papers deals with the issue of the Russian ruble becoming a regional reserve currency.
    Keywords: Russian economy, financial crisis, reserve currency, regional reserve currency, Russian ruble
    JEL: E42 E44 E58 F31 F33 F36 F42 F55 G15
    Date: 2013
  10. By: Irina Starodubrovskaya (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy)
    Abstract: This papers deals with the issues related to the service provision in the regions which can be called as "Russia's depth", in the provinces which are plagued by depopulation. Outflow of the population, degradation of human capital, ageing of social sphere staff: all these issues require special approach to the organization of social services provision. At the federal level these features often are not taken into consideration which put rigid barriers for the optimization of social expenditure in such territories. This paper is based on field research of such provinces as Tomsk, Vologda, Kostroma regions and Perm Krai.
    Keywords: Russian economy, social services, human capital
    JEL: R11 R12 R13 R14
    Date: 2014
  11. By: International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.
    Abstract: Context: Over the past two decades, Kazakhstan has successfully harnessed its oil resources to bolster economic growth, increase buffers, and reduce poverty. However, in the face of recent large and likely long-lasting external shocks?lower oil prices, Russia slowdown, and corollary exchange rate (ER) movements (ruble depreciation, dollar appreciation)—growth has decelerated rapidly, financial conditions have tightened, and pressures on the balance of payments and exchange rate have built up. The shocks have also increased financial sector vulnerabilities, where nonperforming loans (NPLs), while declining significantly, remain high, and rising balance sheet risks and tight exchange rate management, have put further drag on banks’ lending and economic activity. Nevertheless, more recently, and in response to reduced currency pressures and reduced spreads, the authorities successfully tapped the international capital markets and widened the ER band. Focus of consultation and key recommendations: The consultation focused on calibrating the policy response to address Kazakhstan’s near-term challenges and long-term goals of becoming a dynamic emerging market economy. Principally, there is need to (i) identify credible medium-term fiscal consolidation measures to ensure sustainability; (ii) introduce greater exchange rate flexibility to help the economy absorb current and future external shocks; (iii) bolster financial sector resilience to limit adverse spillovers back to the real sector; and (iv) implement structural reforms to ensure durable growth and shared prosperity. Previous consultation: During the 2014 Article IV Consultation, Directors stressed the importance of restoring confidence in the post-devaluation environment and further strengthening the policy frameworks to bolster the economy’s resilience to shocks. Specifically, Directors (i) urged appropriate supervisory actions to enforce the NPL ceilings effectively, while ensuring adequate provisions; (ii) highlighted the need to speed up the introduction of a new policy interest rate instrument; (iii) stressed the need to enhance fiscal coverage and integration into a consistent macro-fiscal framework; and (iv) noted the priority of strengthening human capital and institutions, and lowering the role of the state in the economy. Since then, the authorities’ resolute efforts on lowering NPLs have begun to pay off, and important early steps have been taken to enhance monetary policy operations, ER flexibility, and communication. Progress in bolstering the fiscal policy framework, however, has been slow. The authorities have also embarked on an ambitious structural reform program and recently completed negotiations to join the WTO within 2015.
    Date: 2015–09–03
  12. By: Abdulnasser Hatemi-J (Department of Economics and Finance, UAE University, P.O. Box 15551, Al Ain, UAE); Tsangyao Chang (Department of Finance, Feng Chia University, Taichung, TAIWAN); Wen-Yi Chen (Department of Senior Citizen Service Management, College of Health, National Taichung University of Science and Technology, Taichung, TAIWAN); Feng-Li Lin (Department of Accounting, Chaoyang University of Technology, Taichung, TAIWAN); Rangan Gupta (Department of Economics, University of Pretoria)
    Abstract: This study applies asymmetric Granger causality test, proposed by Hatemi-J (2011; 2012) to revisit military expenditures-growth nexus for the world top 6 defense suppliers over 1988-2013. Empirical results indicate that the military expenditure-led hypothesis is supported in China and Japan. However, the growth-led hypothesis is supported in four countries, i.e. France, Russia, Saudi Arabia and US. Except for Saudi Arabia, strong economic growth by no means implies automatic expansion of military expenditures. Defense planning in these two countries is a matter of matching their limited resources to attain the suitable priorities. The more threats they perceived, the more military spends. This evidence provides useful insight into the behavior of other potential defense suppliers.
    Keywords: Growth, Military Expenditures, Symmetric and Asymmetric Panel Granger Causality
    JEL: C33 H56 O40
    Date: 2015–09
  13. By: Filippos Proedrou (American College of Thessaloniki, Greece)
    Abstract: Energy politics is very often analyzed as a fundamentally geopolitical scramble. Accordingly, the states are viewed as the main actors in the energy field; their motives as essentially political; and the outcomes of their decisions and actions as pivotal to the overall geopolitical reordering of the world. While there is definitely some truth in these patterns of analysis, it is hard to sideline both other actors, such as energy corporations and institutions with a clear economic mindset, as well as motives of profitability and parameters of competitiveness. This paper aims to demonstrate that since the outbreak of the global financial crisis, it is essentially market parameters that discipline state actors and render the geopolitically-centered analyses problematic and inadequate. To the contrary, the finalization of the single EU energy market, the shale gas revolution, the globalization of LNG markets, and the interests of rising economic actors within Russia frame increasingly the gas field in Eurasia. The evolution of the gas field is hence determined to a significant extent by economic(-minded) actors, and on the basis of motives of profitability and parameters of competitiveness. Geopolitical aspirations and perspectives should be integral in the analysis, but kept at bay so that rather frequent exaggerations are avoided.
    Keywords: Russia, EU, supply and demand, LNG, shale gas, competitiveness
    JEL: Q40 Q41 Q48
  14. By: Amat Adarov (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw); Vasily Astrov (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw); Doris Hanzl-Weiss (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw); Sandra M. Leitner (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw); Robert Stehrer (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw)
    Abstract: Graph of the month Direct cost shares of selected business services in manufacturing (p. 1) Opinion corner Financial assistance to Ukraine will it help? (by Amat Adarov and Vasily Astrov; pp. 2-4) Specialisation in manufacturing and business services in the EU, with a particular focus on the new Member States (by Doris Hanzl-Weiss and Robert Stehrer; pp. 5-9) The use of services in European manufacturing (by Robert Stehrer; pp. 10-13) The role of business services linkages for manufacturing performance in EU Member States (by Sandra M. Leitner; pp. 14-17) Recommended reading (p. 18) Statistical Annex Monthly and quarterly statistics for Central, East and Southeast Europe (pp. 19-40)
    Keywords: business services, manufacturing, financial assistance, services, business services linkages
    Date: 2015–03
  15. By: Maksim Karliuk (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: The Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) is an emerging regional organization of economic integration in the post-Soviet space. Following the limited success of previous integration attempts, it seeks to pursue deeper integration, borrowing features from the EU. The EAEU possesses a complex system of elements of an emerging legal order, some of which have distinct similarities with the EU, but others are decisively different. This paper analyses these features in order to find whether the legal changes that accompany the creation of the new entity allow ensuring the effective functioning of the EAEU and whether the respective legal order is autonomous similar to that of the EU. The author argues that the EAEU lags behind the EU in terms of the autonomy of the legal order and in its ability to ensure the effective functioning of the organization. Supranational features are limited, while it relies predominantly on intergovernmental elements with a view to preserve the interests of all Member States
    Keywords: Eurasian integration, Eurasian Economic Union, European Union, Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, constitutional law, autonomous legal order, regional integration, supranationality.
    JEL: K33
    Date: 2015
  16. By: Kuznetsova, Elena
    Abstract: The article is about the peculiarities of genesis the resource control methods as one of the main mechanisms for the implementation of social management. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of resource control methods applicable to different types of objects of social control.
    Keywords: resource control, resource control methods, social management, social control
    JEL: D7 E6 F3 F5 H5 J5
    Date: 2014
  17. By: Almaz Hasangizi (Institute of Folklore National Academy Sciences of Azerbaijan)
    Abstract: Azerbaijanian emigrant folklore scholars in different countries of the world have done remarkable work in the collection, conservation, publication and popularization of the folklore samples which were either forbidden by the censorship or were falsely propogandized as a result of soviet ideology. Their scientific-theoretical researches cover all genres of the folk literature and as they were created in a liberal atmosphere, they differ with their objectivity and individualism from the researches done under the soviet pressure. “Koroghlu” epos is most widespread epos for its popularity after “Kitabi-Dada Gorgud” in Azerbaijanian folk literature; this epos about heroism has many different versions. “Koroghlu was collected by Alexandor Xodzko, Polish who was working in Iran during 1830-1832 and published in English in London in 1842, after this it gained popularity in Western world. Afterwards the epos was translated to different languages and republished many times. Thus, the history of publishing of “Koroghlu” epos is not very old. But, it is still the subject of research when the epos was created.Different reserches have been conducted on the history of its creation, main hero, other personages and etc. both in Azerbaijan and the wide geographical area where the epos was disseminated. The main protagonist Koroghlu, his battlefield friends, the time and place of its creation and etc.have been the subject of different researches.
    Keywords: folklore, Koroghlu, epos, emigration laiterture
    JEL: Z11
  18. By: Sergey Drobyshevsky (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy); Pavel Trunin (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy); Alla Sorokina (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy); Anna Kiyutsevskaya (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy); I. Bakalova (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy)
    Abstract: This paper focuses on the economic agenda of G20 member states. The authors analyze current state of economic development of G20 member states.
    Keywords: Russian economy, G20, economic policy, economic crisis
    JEL: F53 F55
    Date: 2013
  19. By: Vagif Sultanly (Professor of Baku State University)
    Abstract: Researches on eposes occupy one of the most important parts of Azerbaijanian emigration folklore studies. As one of the richest and monumental genres of folk literature, eposes play an essential part in the emigration scientific-theoretical contemplation. Their close connection to the history, culture, morals, ethics, traditions and way of thinking of Azerbaijanian nation created a platform for their systematic and consistent research. Emigration folklore studies could raise a number of issues more early and bravely than Soviet time Azerbaijanian folklore studies and reached interesting scientific results. Thus, learning epos issues in emigration folklore studies is essential for creating a comprehensive panorama of XX century Azerbaijanian folklore study researches. The emigrant folklore scholars were the literary-political individuals who represented Azerbaijanian political emigration; therefore a political-ideological attitude along with esthetic approach can be felt towards the eposes in the researches created in the emigration. Thus, some epos samples in the writings of Azerbaijanian independence fighters served for the political ideals and the history of fight of the nation for the independence was accompanied by the samples chosen from epos materials.
    Keywords: Azerbaijanian folklore, emigration, epos
    JEL: I23 C18
  20. By: Dohmen, Thomas (University of Bonn); Lehmann, Hartmut (University of Bologna); Pignatti, Norberto (ISET, Tbilisi State University)
    Abstract: We use the panel data of the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) and of the Ukrainian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (ULMS) to investigate whether risk attitudes have primary (exogenous) determinants that are valid in different stages of economic development and in a different structural context, comparing a mature capitalist economy and a transition economy. We then analyze the stability of the risk measures over time. Between 2007 and 2012 we have the Great Recession, which had a mild impact in the German labor market while it had a more profound impact on the Ukrainian labor market. This enables us to investigate whether and how the crisis impacted on the risk attitudes in the two countries. By focusing on self-employment we also investigate whether the reduced willingness to take risks as a consequence of the Great Recession affects labor market dynamics and outcomes.
    Keywords: risk attitudes, Great Recession, time variation, labor market outcomes, Germany, Ukraine
    JEL: J64 J65 P50
    Date: 2015–09
  21. By: Alla Sorokina (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy)
    Abstract: This paper features synopsis of main approaches to the coordination of sectoral and spatial development overseas. Analysis of the documents related to the strategic planning demonstrates that recently in the majority of countries cluster initiatives are aimed at the resolution of multiple tasks of economic development: fostering of the innovative activity, creation of new employment, starting small businesses, attraction of investment, creation of positive image and promotion of the territory's brand. All this allows to implement cluster approach for the coordinating resolution of the issues of sectoral and spatial development.
    Keywords: Russian economy, sectoral development, spatial development, clusters,
    JEL: A1 R1 R12
    Date: 2014

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