nep-cis New Economics Papers
on Confederation of Independent States
Issue of 2015‒06‒27
four papers chosen by
Alexander Harin
Modern University for the Humanities

  1. О формировании системы национального планирования в России By Polterovich, Victor
  2. Перспективы развития вендингового бизнеса в Российской Федерации By Alexeev, Anton
  3. La Modelización de la Demanda de Turismo de Economías Emergentes: El caso de la Llegada de Turistas Rusos a España By Marcos Alvarez-Díaz; Mª Soledad Otero-Giraldez; Manuel González-Gómez
  4. Labor Market Distortions and Welfare-Decreasing International Emissions Trading By Shiro Takeda; Toshi H. Arimura; Makoto Sugino

  1. By: Polterovich, Victor
    Abstract: We propose to distinguish between two “ideal” types of national planning: the universal and the program planning. The first is aimed at accelerating the balanced development of industries and regions through large-scale investment projects; it requires a hierarchy of specialized planning institutions. The second uses a relatively small number of programs aimed at addressing key economic problems. These programs are worked out by the ministries and agencies, which are also engaged in the current management. In developing countries, national planning tends to be the first type, and in the developed ones, it tends to be the second. In Russia, elements of both types of systems have spontaneously arisen. From them, it is necessary to form a mixed system that would be adequate to the Russian level of development. Its contours are discussed in the paper.
    Keywords: indicative planning, budgeting, industrial policy, national innovation system
    JEL: L52 O21 O25 P11 P21
    Date: 2015–06–20
  2. By: Alexeev, Anton
    Abstract: The article deals with vending, namely his views, positive and negative aspects and advice on the implementation of the vending trade. Characterization and analysis of the locations of automated equipment . The tax system considers the available vending business in Russia , and the average payback period of projects.
    Keywords: Vending, machines, coffee, automated trading.
    JEL: D14 D2 D21 D31
    Date: 2015–06–23
  3. By: Marcos Alvarez-Díaz; Mª Soledad Otero-Giraldez; Manuel González-Gómez
    Abstract: El turismo internacional se ha convertido en uno de los principales sectores económicos en España. Sin embargo, a pesar de esta importancia, no hay muchos estudios que hayan analizado los determinantes de la demanda internacional a España. Los pocos estudios existentes se han centrando en el análisis de visitantes alemanes y británicos, obviando otras nacionalidades importantes y emergentes como la rusa. Rusia es uno de los principales mercados emisores de turismo a nivel mundial. El dinamismo mostrado por este mercado revela una elevada potencialidad y supone una gran oportunidad para que el sector turístico español aumente su participación en el mercado del turismo internacional. Es por esta razón que el principal objetivo de nuestra investigación es (i) conocer las variables más importantes que expliquen la demanda de turistas rusos a España, y (ii) cuantificar los impactos de estas variables en base a un modelo econométrico robusto. Los resultados obtenidos muestran la importancia de los factores económicos como la renta de los rusos, la de los costes relativos de la vida en España respecto a Rusia y los costes relativos de la vida en España respecto a una serie de países competidores por atraer el turismo ruso. También se pone de manifiesto la importancia de ciertos eventos puntuales como pueden ser los atentados de ETA y del 11-M, las revueltas en algunos países árabes de la cuenca mediterránea y el cambio en la política de visados entre la Unión Europea y Rusia. International Tourism is one of the most important economic sectors for the Spanish economy. However, in spite of this importance, there are not many studies that have identified the main determinants of demand for international tourism to Spain. The few existing studies are focused on the analysis of British and German visitors, without paying attention to other important and emerging nationalities like Russians. Russia is one of the main outbound tourism markets worldwide. The dynamism showed by this market reveals a high potential, and involves a great opportunity for the Spanish tourism sector to increase its participation in the international tourism market. It is for this reason that the main objective of our research is to build a robust econometric model that allows us (i) to know the most important variables that explain the Russian demand for tourism to Spain and (ii) to quantify the impacts of these variables on this tourism demand. Our results show the importance of economic factors such as the income of Russians, the relative cost of living in Spain with respect to Russia, and the relative cost of living in Spain with respect to other competing countries to attract Russian visitors. Our results also show the importance of certain specific events such as the terrorist attacks of ETA and the 11-M, the riots in some Arab countries of the Mediterranean basin, and the change in the visa policy between the European Union and Russia.
    Keywords: Tourism demand, cointegration, elasticities, bootstrapping
    JEL: L83 C22 C51 C52
    Date: 2015–06
  4. By: Shiro Takeda (Kyoto Sangyo University); Toshi H. Arimura (Waseda University); Makoto Sugino (Yamagata University)
    Abstract: International emissions trading (IET) has been widely recognized as a preferred approach for tackling the climate change because it would equalize total abatement costs and generates gains for all participants. However, this argument is heavily premised on the notion of partial equilibrium and ignores general equilibrium effects of IET. Using a multi-region, multi-sector CGE model, this paper analyzes effects of IET with focus on labor market distortions. We construct four separate models with several different labor market specifications: i) a model without labor market distortions (i.e. where the labor supply is determined exogenously and wages are flexible); ii) a model with tax-interaction effects in the labor market (i.e. where the labor supply is endogenously determined and a labor tax exists); iii) a model with a minimum wage; and iv) the final model is one in which a wage curve determines wages. We use these models to analyze how the effects of IET change according to model specification. The main results from the analysis are as follows. First, we found that IET generates gains for all participants in the model without labor market distortions. Second, even in the models with labor market distortions, importers of emissions permits are highly likely to benefit. Conversely, we show that the possibility of a welfare loss from IET is not as small for exporters of permits. In particular, in the minimum wage and wage curve models, we found that the exporters of emissions permits are likely to be disadvantaged. However, this also depends on the region in question. For example, China is likely to suffer under IET, whereas Russia, also an exporter, is likely to benefit. We also make clear that if policies are employed to correct (i.e. reduce) labor market distortions when emissions regulation is introduced, all participants will benefit from IET in almost all cases. It is generally recognized that IET is a desirable policy that benefits all participating regions. However, we show that an analysis that does not take account of such labor market distortions will likely overestimate the benefits of IET for permit exporters.
    Keywords: international emissions trading, labor market, computable general equilibrium analysis, tax-interaction effect, minimum wage, wage curve
    Date: 2015–03

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