nep-cis New Economics Papers
on Confederation of Independent States
Issue of 2015‒03‒13
ten papers chosen by
Alexander Harin
Modern University for the Humanities

  1. The State of Defense Innovation in Russia: Prospects for Revival? By KASHIN, Vasily
  2. Institutional Approaches to The Development of Solid Waste Treatment and Its Staffing in the Russian Federation By Vasiliy Rud’; Serguey Trukhachev
  3. The Evolution of Conflict Regulation in Private International Law of Russia and Poland By Natalia Yu. Erpyleva
  4. Defense Innovation in Russia: The Current State and Prospects for Revival By ADAMSKY, Dmitry
  5. The Limits of Lending : Banks and Technology Adoption Across Russia By Bircan, Cagatay; de Haas, R.
  6. Boosting Productivity in Russia: Skills, Education and Innovation By Lilas Demmou; Andreas Wörgötter
  7. Sovereign Default Risk and State-Owned Bank Fragility in Emerging Markets By Deev, Oleg; Hodula, Martin
  8. Regional Inflation, Financial Integration and Dollarization By de Haas, R.; Brown, M.; Sokolov, V.
  9. Institutional Deficit and Health Outcomes in Post-Communist States By Vladimir A. Kozlov; Dina Y. Balalaeva
  10. Reshaping the financial architecture for development finance: the new development banks. By Rajiv Biswas

  1. By: KASHIN, Vasily
    Keywords: Social and Behavioral Sciences, defense innovation, Russia, aircraft, rearmament, weapons systems
    Date: 2014–01–01
  2. By: Vasiliy Rud’ (Saint-Petersburg Polytechnical University); Serguey Trukhachev (Department of Economics, Lomonosov Moscow State University)
    Abstract: Research, the results of which will be discussed in the present report were obtained in the framework of the Commission under the President of the Russian Federation for Modernization and Technological Development of Russia's Economy. Key issues affecting the management of the flow of all types of waste in Russia are: A huge number of unsorted household waste and unprocessed Extremely high yield landfill business and its criminal Lack of waste treatment business Possibility of selling the energy received from the recycling can not be considered as an incentive for the development of business Building regulations do not provide for the installation of systems for separate collection of household waste Public services and private investors are not able to effectively solve the problem of eliminating the effects of pollution of waste production and consumption with the formation of an efficient, cost-effective and environmentally sound waste management industry. It is necessary to pay more attention to not direct support projects on waste recycling, and introduce restrictive measures for the development of businesses not harmless to the garbage. We need to develop a "roadmap" of joint actions of government and business to create a national market for emissions trading of greenhouse gas emissions on the basis of voluntary commitments by companies to reduce them. As a result of the work done has been formulated for a number of assignments signed by the President of the Russian Federation .
    Keywords: municipal solid management, public-private partnership, institutionalism, project management.
    JEL: D00 D02
    Date: 2015–03
  3. By: Natalia Yu. Erpyleva (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: The present article examines the evolution of conflict regulation in the private international law of Russia and Poland. The author identifies the concept, structure and types of conflict rules, stressing that the conflict of laws is the most important category of private international law. A detailed classification of the types of connecting factor formulas under which connecting factors of bilateral conflict rules are formed is undertaken. The detailed analysis of conflict rules contained in Russian and Polish legislation set forth mainly in the Civil Code of the Russian Federation and the Law of Poland “On Private International Law” is conducted with the help of the comparative and formal-logical methods of research. The author also scrutinizes different conflict rules contained in the Treaty between Russia and Poland on legal assistance and legal relations in civil and criminal matters. The author concludes that modern conflict regulation in Russia and Poland is in accordance with those trends in private international law, which can be seen through the prism of the international dimension.
    Keywords: Private International Law, conflict of laws rules, conflict regulation, connecting factor formulas, domestic legislation, international treaties
    JEL: K33
    Date: 2015
  4. By: ADAMSKY, Dmitry
    Keywords: Social and Behavioral Sciences, defense innovation, Russia, military technology, revolution in military affairs
    Date: 2014–01–01
  5. By: Bircan, Cagatay; de Haas, R. (Tilburg University, Center For Economic Research)
    Abstract: We exploit historical and contemporaneous variation in local credit markets across Russia to identify the impact of credit constraints on firm-level innovation. We find that access to bank credit helps firms to adopt existing products and production processes that are new to them. They introduce these technologies either with the help of suppliers and clients or by acquiring external know-how. We find no evidence that bank credit also stimulates firm innovation through in-house R&D. This suggests that banks can facilitate the discussion of technologies within developing countries but that their role in pushing the technological frontier is limited.
    Keywords: Credit Constraints; firn innovation; technological change
    JEL: D22 G21 O12 O31
    Date: 2015
  6. By: Lilas Demmou; Andreas Wörgötter
    Abstract: The labour market in Russia is very flexible. Firms adjust to economic shocks through wage cuts, working hour reductions and minimisation of non-wage labour costs. Workers react by changing jobs. This results in a high and stable overall employment rate, but also high wage inequality, informality and labour turnover, which limits incentives for firms to invest in human capital and productivity improvements.<P> While educational attainment is very high, the education system needs to be strengthened to respond to the needs of a skill-based economy. School-employer cooperation is low and opportunities for higher education are unequally distributed. Adequate funding for education institutions is not assured everywhere while inefficiencies persist.<P> Private spending on innovation is very low and Russia underperforms in terms of scientific outputs and patents. Support for low-tech innovation and technology adoption, especially among SMEs is narrow because of a bias towards large and high-tech projects, which however are only loosely related to Russian manufacturing capacity. Reform of the public R&D sector is incomplete, notably with respect to strengthening funding on a competitive basis.<P>Stimuler la productivité en Russie : Les compétences, l'éducation et l'innovation<BR>Le marché du travail en Russie est très flexible. Les entreprises s’ajustent face aux chocs économiques grâce à une réduction des salaires, des heures de travail, et des coûts non salariaux. Les travailleurs réagissent en changeant d'emploi. Il en résulte un taux d'emploi global élevé et stable, mais également un niveau élevé des inégalités salariales, de l’emploi informel et du taux de rotation de la main d’oeuvre, ce qui limite les incitations pour les entreprises à investir dans le capital humain et l'amélioration de la productivité. Bien que le niveau de scolarisation soit très élevé, le système d'éducation doit être renforcé pour répondre aux besoins d'une économie fondée sur les compétences. La coopération entre les entreprises et le système éducatif est faible et les opportunités d’accès à l’éducation supérieure sont inégalement réparties. Un financement adéquat des établissements d’enseignement n'est pas assuré sur l’ensemble du territoire alors que des zones d’inefficacités persistent. Les dépenses privées consacrées à l'innovation sont très faibles et les performances de la Russie en termes de production scientifiques et de brevets sont insatisfaisantes. Le soutien aux innovations à faible contenu technologique et à l'adoption des technologies, en particulier dans les PME, est faible en raison d'un biais en faveur des grands projets et des projets high-tech, qui ne sont cependant que faiblement liés aux capacités de production manufacturière russe. La réforme du secteur public de la R&D est incomplète, notamment en ce qui concerne le rôle joué par les financements accordés sur des principes de compétitivité.
    Keywords: human capital, education, innovation, active labour market policies, flexibility, inequality, PISA, VET, life-long learning, labour turnover, skills matching, collective bargaining, trade unions, unemployment benefits, prestations de chômage, adéquation des compétences, convention collective, capital humain, inégalités, PISA, politiques actives du marché du travail, innovations, rotation de la main d’oeuvre, enseignement et formation professionnelle, éducation, syndicats, flexibilité, formation continue
    JEL: I2 J21 J24 J31 J50 J60 O3
    Date: 2015–03–05
  7. By: Deev, Oleg; Hodula, Martin
    Abstract: In this paper we investigate the interdependence of the sovereign default risk and banking system fragility in two major emerging markets, China and Russia, using credit default swaps as a proxy for default risk. Both countries’ banking industries have strong ties with their governments and public sector, even after a series of significant reforms in the last two decades. Our analysis is built on the case studies of each country’s two biggest banks. We employ bivariate vector autoregressive (VAR) and vector error correction (VECM) framework to analyse the short- and long-run dynamics of the chosen CDS prices. We use Granger causality to describe the direction of the discovered dynamics. We find evidence of a stable long-run relationship between sovereign and bank CDS spreads in the chosen time period. The more stable relationship is found in cases, where biggest state-owned universal banks in emerging markets are closely managed by the government. But the fragility of those banks does not directly affect the state of public finance. However, in cases, where state-owned banks directly participate in large governmental projects, the banking fragility may result in deteriorations of state funds, while raising the risk of sovereign default.
    Keywords: sovereign default risk, bank default risk, CDS, emerging markets, risk transfer, financial stability
    JEL: G18 G21
    Date: 2014–12
  8. By: de Haas, R. (Tilburg University, Center For Economic Research); Brown, M. (Tilburg University, Center For Economic Research); Sokolov, V.
    Abstract: We exploit variation in consumer price inflation across 71 Russian regions to examine the relationship between the perceived stability of the domestic currency and financial dollarization. Our results show that regions with higher inflation experience an increase in the dollarization of household deposits and a decrease in the dollarization of loans to households and to firms in non-tradable sectors. The impact of inflation on credit dollarization is weaker in regions with less integrated banking markets. This suggests that the currency-portfolio choices of households and firms may be constrained by the asset-liability management of banks.
    Keywords: Financial dollarization; Financial Integration; regional inflation
    JEL: E31 E42 E44 F36 G21 G22 G24
    Date: 2015
  9. By: Vladimir A. Kozlov (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Dina Y. Balalaeva (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: In this paper we explore political-economic determinants of health. We draw upon the unique natural experiment of post-communist transitions to show the effect on health (measured as life expectancy and cause-specific mortality) of the interaction between institutions for political (democratic rules) and economic (free market entry) competitiveness. To analyze this relationship empirically, we employ panel regression analysis with country and time fixed effects. We find that, ceteris paribus, political and economic institutions exert cumulative positive impact upon health (even if their separate effects are negative or insignificant). One potential causal pathway is that political-economic liberalization increases certainty and people start investing in their health. Our findings are highly relevant to other countries that experience similar reforms
    Keywords: Democratization, Liberalization, Institutions, Mortality, Stress, Post-communist states
    JEL: P36 I15 J11
    Date: 2015
  10. By: Rajiv Biswas
    Abstract: In 2014 several groupings of developing countries agreed to set up a series of new multilateral development finance institutions. These include the BRICS-sponsored New Development Bank, the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and the Silk Road Fund. This paper examines the role these new institutions might play in reshaping the international financial architecture of development finance. A key concern of developing countries is the widening gap between the weight of developing countries’ GDP in the global economy and their voting rights in the IMF and World Bank governing structures. Unless substantial reforms are made to the distribution of voting rights, the asymmetry between the importance of developing countries to the world and their governance of the Bretton Woods institutions will continue to worsen, particularly for the Asian BRICS. Recognising that these new development finance initiatives can strengthen its political and economic ties with other developing countries, China has played a significant leadership role in launching these initiatives, and has become the key source of capital for the new institutions. However, a major challenge for these new institutions will be to craft governance structures and decision-making procedures that have a high degree of integrity, transparency and independence from political influence when making lending decisions.
    Keywords: development �nance; BRICS; Bretton Woods system; China; New Development Bank; Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank
    JEL: F3 G3
    Date: 2015

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