nep-cis New Economics Papers
on Confederation of Independent States
Issue of 2015‒01‒14
forty-four papers chosen by

  1. Human Resource Management In Russian Manufacturing Subsidiaries Of Multinational Corporations By Igor B. Gurkov
  2. Криптовалюта в экономике Российской Федерации: положительные и отрицательные стороны By Urlapov, Pavel
  3. Modern Approaches To The “Regionalization” Of Federal Policy In Russian Higher Education By Oleg Leshukov; Mikhail Lisyutkin
  4. The Virtual Water Of Siberia And The Russian Far East For The Asia-Pacific Region: Global Gains Vs Regional Sustainability By Anastasia B. Likhacheva; Igor A. Makarov
  5. School System And Educational Policy In A Highly Stratified Post-Soviet Society: The Importance Of Social Context By Sergey G. Kosaretsky; Irina G. Grunicheva; Marina A. Pinskaya
  6. A large Bayesian vector autoregression model for Russia By Deryugina , Elena; Ponomarenko , Alexey
  7. Program Diversification And Specialization In Russian Higher Education Institutions By Daria P. Platonova; Dmitry S. Semyonov
  8. Проблемы и перспективы cекьюритизации активов на российском рынке By Velikodnaya, Polina
  9. Russians’ Participation In Cash Donations: Factors And Level Of Involvement By Irina Mersianova; Natalya Ivanova; Irina Korneeva
  10. Перспективы и проблемы развития "зеленых" инвестиций в России By Yakovleva, Natalia
  11. Contextualizing Academic Performance In Russian Schools: School Characteristics, The Composition Of Student Body And Local Deprivation By Gordey A. Yasterbov; Alexey R. Bessudnov; Marina A. Pinskaya; Sergey G. Kosaretsky
  12. Indicators Of Corruption In Public Procurement: The Example Of Russian Regions By Anna Balsevich; Elena Podkolzina
  13. Academic Luck: General And Particular Scenarios Of Academic Attestation In Russia In The 1830s By Kira Ilina
  14. Tourism Companies: Values And Norm. Profiles: The Case Of A Russian Tour Operator By Veronika I. Kabalina; Kira V. Reshetnikova; Marina D. Predvoditeleva
  15. Who Demands Collective Action In An Imperfect Institutional Environment? A Case-Study Of The Professional Community Of Attorneys In Russia By Anton P. Kazun; Andrei A. Yakovlev
  16. Polarization or Upgrading? Evolution of Employment in Transitionary Russia By Gimpelson, Vladimir; Kapeliushnikov, Rostislav
  17. Mapping gaps and challenges in building effective wage policies in the Russian Federation By Bolsheva, Anna
  18. Religiosity And Political Participation In Contemporary Russia: A Quantitative Analysis By Anna Y. Kulkova
  19. Russian Mutual Funds: Skill vs. Luck By Petr Parshakov
  20. Monetary Policy of Quantitative Easing at the Central Bank’s High Interest Rates By BLINOV, Sergey
  21. Regional Foresight for Bridging National Science, Technology and Innovation with Company Innovation: Experiences from Russia By Alexey A. Kindras; Dirk Meissner; Konstantin O. Vishnevskiy; Mario Cervantes
  22. Nobility, And Schooling In Russia, 1700s-1760s: Westernization Of An Elite As A Social Process By Igor Fedyukin
  23. Youth Unemployment In Italy And Russia: Aggregate Trends And The Role Of Individual Determinants By Enrico Marelli; Elena S. Vakulenko
  24. Нови факти за живота на професор Симеон Демостенов (1886–1966) By Nenovsky, Nikolay
  25. Language Interference In Heritage Russian: Constructional Violations By Ekaterina Rakhilina; Anastasia Vyrenkova
  26. Socio-Psychological Capital, Values And Emigration Intentions Of Russian Youth By Sergey V. Chuvashov
  27. From Chips To Pulp In Minutes”: Innovations And Continuous Pulp Cooking In The Soviet Union In The 1940s-1950s By Elena A. Kochetkova
  28. 2D:4D and Life Outcomes: Evidence from the Russian RMLS Survey By John V.C. Nye; Maxim V. Bryukhanov; Sergiy S. Polyachenko
  29. IRT Analysis And Validation Of The Grit Scale: A Russian Investigation By Yulia Tyumeneva; Julia Kuzmina; Elena Kardanova
  30. The Birth Of An Entrepreneurial Board In Emerging Markets: A Russian Case By Alexander Libman; Tatiana G. Dolgopyatova; Andrey A. Yakovlev
  31. The Effects Of Prenatal Testosterone On Adult Wages: Evidence From Russian Rlms Data And Measured 2d:4d Digit Ratios By John V.C. Nye; Maria M. Yudkevich; Ekaterina A. Orel; Ekaterina V. Kochergina
  32. The Role Of The Ipips Assessment In Providing High Quality Value Added Information On School And System Effectiveness Within And Between Countries By Kardanova Elena; Ivanova Alina; Merrell Christine; Hawker David; Tymms Peter
  33. Combining University Studies With Work: Influence On Academic Achievement By Diana M. Yanbarisova
  34. The Dynamics Of Investment In Pre-Entry Coaching And The Returns From Private Tutoring In Russia By Ilya A. Prakhov
  35. Measuring financial conditions in major non-euro area economies By Wacker, Konstantin M.; Lodge, David; Nicoletti, Giulio
  36. The Fluke Of Stochastic Volatility Versus Garch Inevitability : Which Model Creates Better Forecasts? By Valeria V. Lakshina
  37. “Gaining Literary Citizenship”: Translators In The Soviet Literary Bureaucracy Of The 1930s By Elena E. Zemskova
  38. Performance in banking: theory and practice peculiarities By Buriak, Anna
  39. Republic of Moldova: Second Post-Program Monitoring Discussions-Staff Report; Staff Statement; Press Release; Statement by the Executive Director By International Monetary Fund. European Dept.
  40. Инвестиции в недвижимость в городе Омске By Velikodnaya, Polina
  41. The Pronoun Sawi And Its Functions In Dargwa Mehweb By Alexandra A. Kozhukhar
  42. Modifier Incorporation In Dargwa Nominals By Yury A. Lander
  43. Методологічні проблеми фінансового управління в банківському секторі України: уроки кризи By Voloshyn, Ihor; Lubich, Oleksandr
  44. Uzbekistan’s Development Strategies: Past Record and Long-term Options By Giovanni Andrea Cornia

  1. By: Igor B. Gurkov (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: The paper reports the results of a survey of top executives of Russian manufacturing subsidiaries of multinational corporations (MNCs). We reveal the prevailing types of job contracts and the use of monetary and non-monetary benefits, and find the similarities with and differences from such arrangements in locally owned industrial companies. We also reveal the differences in human resource management (HRM) policies based on the source of authority over HRM issues (global headquarters, regional headquarters, local groups of companies, etc.). The findings assist in predicting the possible evolution of HRM policies in Russian manufacturing subsidiaries of MNCs during the anticipated period of economic recession in Russia.
    Keywords: Multinational corporations, Human resource management policies, Russia, Manufacturing, International management
    JEL: F23 M12 M11 L60 L23 J32 J32
    Date: 2014
  2. By: Urlapov, Pavel
    Abstract: An article about the impact of digital currency into the global economy processes. The author analyzes working principle of cryptocurrency and electronic commerce, as well as expected economic and scientific implications of integration cryptocurrency into economy of Russian Federation.
    Keywords: Digital currency, cryptocurrency, Internet, economics, Bitcoin, IT, Russian Federation.
    JEL: F0 F4 F52 G2 H0 O3
    Date: 2014
  3. By: Oleg Leshukov (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Mikhail Lisyutkin (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: The significant differentiation and heterogeneity of Russian regional higher education systems requires a thoughtful federal policy which takes into account the peculiarities and unique features of the regional socio-economic situations. The research presented in the paper elaborates the rationale and basis for the “regionalization” of public policy in Russian higher education. Different approaches to the development of the regional higher education systems in Russia are explored in the paper. The analysis is based on the presupposition that the governance of the higher education systems should take into account regional socio-economic development priorities. The typology of regional higher education systems in Russia is presented in the paper. The consideration of the types in the context of the regional socio-economic situations allows authors to offer public policy mechanisms for the development of regional higher education systems in the context of the compliance with the objectives of regional development.
    Keywords: regional higher education system, federal policy, development, typology, Russia.
    JEL: I23 I28
    Date: 2014
  4. By: Anastasia B. Likhacheva (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Igor A. Makarov (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: Though Siberia and the Russian Far East are often considered oil and gas reservoirs, the southern areas of these regions have significant potential for water-intensive production, such as agricultural goods, chemicals, pulp and paper, metals, hydro energy. This potential is strengthening due to the proximity of the most dynamic and water demanding region of the world—the Asian-Pacific region (APR), where the challenge of water and food security is recognized as strategic. Russian political discourse has always been determined by a Eurocentric focus which has seriously constrained intensive cooperation with Asia. This paper investigates the opportunities and challenges to Siberia and the Russian Far East from the perspective of interdependence theory and its water specification—the virtual water concept. The most significant outcomes of the research refer to both theory and strategy. We show that in some cases the virtual water trade may help the water economy on a global scale but worsen the long-term regional water security status and increase the level of water stress in particular areas. The implication for Russia and APR is that Russia’s integration into the APR virtual water market would provide considerable benefits for Russia which include economic gains. More importantly, according to the interdependence theory, as well as a defensive realism, Russia, acting as a guarantor of Asia’s food and water security, would provide long-term positive effects for the whole APR through reduced water stress, and the desecuritization of the food trade and water allocation in the region
    Keywords: virtual water, water scarcity; Asia-Pacific, Russian Far East, international trade, food security
    JEL: F50 F18 Q25
    Date: 2014
  5. By: Sergey G. Kosaretsky (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Irina G. Grunicheva (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Marina A. Pinskaya (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: This article presents the results of a study on Russian education policy. It explores how compulsory and secondary education meet contemporary social challenges, and how they should be adjusted to account for acute social inequality. The authors present evidence of the growing social polarization in post-Soviet Russia. This is discussed against the current situation in compulsory and secondary education, which is characterized by strong differentiation between schools in terms of their performance, enrollment, and availability of resources. They further discuss the possible impact of major turns in Russia’s education policy on the processes of social stratification, and whether it was effective enough to provide equal access to quality education for all social groups. The analysis concludes by making several suggestions about how education policy in Russia needs to be adjusted for it to become more targeted and relevant to the context in which its education institutions operate.
    Keywords: educational inequality, social inequality, education policy, school social context, school resources, academic performance, post-soviet Russia, compulsory education, secondary education
    JEL: I28
    Date: 2014
  6. By: Deryugina , Elena (BOFIT); Ponomarenko , Alexey (BOFIT)
    Abstract: We apply an econometric approach developed specifically to address the ‘curse of dimensionality’ in Russian data and estimate a Bayesian vector autoregression model comprising 14 major domestic real, price and monetary macroeconomic indicators as well as external sector variables. We conduct several types of exercise to validate our model: impulse response analysis, recursive forecasting and counter factual simulation. Our results demonstrate that the employed methodology is highly appropriate for economic modelling in Russia. We also show that post-crisis real sector developments in Russia could be accurately forecast if conditioned on the oil price and EU GDP (but not if conditioned on the oil price alone).
    Keywords: Bayesian vector autoregression; forecasting; Russia
    JEL: C32 E32 E44 E47
    Date: 2014–12–03
  7. By: Daria P. Platonova (National Research University Higher School of Economics.); Dmitry S. Semyonov (National Research University Higher School of Economics.)
    Abstract: This article explores the issue of program diversification within Russian higher education institutions (HEIs) and its major determining forces. Comparing several historical types of specialized institutions, which were manly formed during the Soviet period, this study highlights two key issues. Firstly, we investigate how these specialized institutions have transformed, and secondly, we make an attempt to determine the cause of these transformations. We assume that the level of diversification and program drift is defined by two influential forces: state regulation and market forces. Empirical evidence on the changes of HEIs internal diversification includes quantitative analysis distributed throughout eight fields of education.
    Keywords: program diversification, specialization, higher education institutions, Russia, transformations of organizations
    JEL: I2 L31
    Date: 2014
  8. By: Velikodnaya, Polina
    Abstract: This article discusses the problem of asset securitization in Russia, its distinctive features, perspectives and ways of its development
    Keywords: securitization, the bank's assets, financial resources, legal basis Russia
    JEL: G18 H39 O50
    Date: 2014–12–22
  9. By: Irina Mersianova (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Natalya Ivanova (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Irina Korneeva (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: As part of Russia’s transformation process of the last decade, the preconditions for the emergence of philanthropic institutions were created. However, there is a limited amount of research devoted to the philanthropic activity of Russians. This deficit stems from a lack of empirical data on the subject. This article seeks to partly rectify this deficit of empirical information on the topic. We examine the level of Russian citizens’ involvement in making cash donations and reveal the socio-demographic factors that influence it. Empirical data were collected within the framework of the monitoring of Russian civil society that has been conducted since 2006. We found that giving is a rather well-developed civic practice in Russia, even based on the number of Russians who make donations. To activate charity, a favorable institutional environment needs to be created in Russia.
    Keywords: philanthropy, charity, donations, volunteering, civil society, benefactors, donors, logistic regression
    JEL: L3 L31
    Date: 2014
  10. By: Yakovleva, Natalia
    Abstract: The article describes the situation in the industry of the «green» technologies in the world, the perspectives of the development of the «green» investments in Russia, the main problems of implementation and use environmentally friendly technologies, and provides solutions to these problems.
    Keywords: «green» technologies, investment, «green» investments, environmental investments, alternative energy, renewable energy, innovations.
    JEL: Q57
    Date: 2014–12–23
  11. By: Gordey A. Yasterbov (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Alexey R. Bessudnov (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Marina A. Pinskaya (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Sergey G. Kosaretsky (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: This study focuses on how social contexts promote disparities in academic performance between Russian high schools. In particular, we investigate how a school’s average Unified State Examination (USE) scores in Russian and mathematics relate to the social composition of its student body, its material and human resources, and local deprivation. We develop a two-level hierarchical regression model to analyze data from school profiles collected in two Russian regions (Yaroslavskaya Oblast’ and Moskovskaya Oblast’) during the 2011-12 academic year. Both social characteristics of the student body and the school’s material and human resources were associated with academic performance. However, after controlling for the characteristics of pupils and schools, our study did not discover any significant independent effects of the local context. In conclusion, we discuss the implications of these findings with regard to developing contextualized measures of academic performance in Russia, the limitations of current research and suggest several possibilities for its empirical development
    Keywords: school context, school resources, local deprivation, academic performance, educational inequality
    JEL: I21 I24
    Date: 2014
  12. By: Anna Balsevich (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Elena Podkolzina (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: Corruption is widely spread across the world and is believed to affect economic growth negatively. It is most persistent in the developing countries. Russian economy is not an exception. Significant losses are also reported in public procurement in Russia due to corruption. Unfortunately, to measure corruption is very challenging. In this paper, using the data on procurement in one of the Russian regions as an example, we suggest and discuss different indicators of corruption that might have taken place during the procurement process. We also provide some preliminary estimates of how corruption influences the results of public procurement in this region.
    Keywords: public procurement; corruption;
    JEL: H57 D73
    Date: 2014
  13. By: Kira Ilina (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: The article presents an analysis of the practice of degree awarding in Russia in the 1830s. The author considered legal and regulatory acts, memoirs and archival documents and studied the ways to climb an academic or a bureaucratic ladder open to graduates. The article describes some typical and atypical cases of degree awards. The study of these revealed a turbulent character of the state regulation of this sphere, as well as the existence of alternative ways to acquire an academic degree that made it possible for a Minister of Education to interfere into the procedures of academic attestation
    Keywords: academic attestation, Russian Empire, 1830s, legislature, Universities, Ministry of Education
    JEL: Z
    Date: 2014
  14. By: Veronika I. Kabalina (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Kira V. Reshetnikova (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Marina D. Predvoditeleva (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: This paper presents the results of research into the values and norms which are adhered to a Russian tour operator, the employees’ personal business values, and the level of their adherence to company regulations. The empirical data of this research includes the company’s internal documents, four in-depth interviews with senior management employees, and a survey of 98 employees. The value and norm profiles of the organization and its employees were identified, as well as the areas in which they converged and diverged. This research shed some light on those values and norms which are characteristic of a tourism organization, and attempted to fill the gap in the extant knowledge on this topic in the academic literature.
    Keywords: tourism industry, personal values of employees, organizational values, organizational norms, value congruence, Russia.
    JEL: L83 Z13
    Date: 2014
  15. By: Anton P. Kazun (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Andrei A. Yakovlev (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: We analyse the professional community of attorneys in Russia in order to understand their potential for collective action in an imperfect institutional environment. In 2013 we conducted a survey of 372 attorneys in 9 regions of Russia. Two main hypotheses are tested: 1) lawyers with strong ethical values have higher demand for collective actions; 2) the negative experience of clients rights violation by law enforcement officers can motivate attorneys to support the foundation of a strong professional association. Also we suggest that attorneys’ professional community with bona fide members at the core could be an instrument for an estimation of the quality of law enforcement in Russia.
    Keywords: collective actions, professional community of attorneys, legal ethics, lawyer associations, quality of law enforcement system, violations of the rights of defendants.
    JEL: K49 D71 L84
    Date: 2014
  16. By: Gimpelson, Vladimir (CLMS, Higher School of Economics, Moscow); Kapeliushnikov, Rostislav (CLMS, Higher School of Economics, Moscow)
    Abstract: This paper discusses the structural change in the Russian employment and explores whether the evolution of employment over 2000-2012 followed the scenario of progressive upgrading in job quality or brought about the polarization of jobs in terms of their quality. Jobs are defined here as occupation-industry cells and their quality is measured through relative earnings and education levels. Using detailed micro-data from a few complementary large scale surveys, we rank all jobs according to the earnings and educational criteria and divide these distributions into 5 quintiles. At the next stage, we explore dynamic changes in job quality and socio-demographic characteristics of workers in different quintiles. The paper rejects the polarization scenario and confirms the upgrading hypothesis.
    Keywords: job polarization, job upgrading, job quality, employment restructuring, Russia
    JEL: J31 J62
    Date: 2014–12
  17. By: Bolsheva, Anna
    Keywords: wage differential, wage determination, minimum wage, trend, Russian Federation, disparité des salaires, fixation du salaire, salaire minimum, tendance, Russie, fédération, diferencia del salario, determinación del salario, salario mínimo, tendencia, Rusia, Federación
    Date: 2014
  18. By: Anna Y. Kulkova (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: The paper argues that religiosity is one of the potential determinants of political participation in Russia. A complex model of religiosity is applied, which treats individual religiosity as both belonging to religious tradition and religious behavior, while political participation includes voting, attending demonstrations, signing petitions and participating in electoral campaigns. The aim of this research is to identify whether there is a difference in political participation between religious and non-religious Russians, and between followers of different religious traditions and atheists. Secondly, it is important to explore which of the measurements of religiosity, religious tradition or religious behavior have the most powerful effect on Russians’ political participation. The data for the statistical analysis is from the European Social Survey (6th round), which includes representatives of major religious traditions in Russia.
    Keywords: political participation, religion and politics, religiosity, political behavior, political activism.
    JEL: Z
    Date: 2014
  19. By: Petr Parshakov (National Research University Higher School)
    Abstract: Our work is focused on Russian mutual funds managers' skills versus luck testing. Using the bootstrap procedure of Kosowski et al. (2007) we test Jensen's alpha signicance for each fund. We found that only 5% of equity mutual funds do have skills. These results for the emerging Russian market are similar to previous studies of developed markets. Interestingly, skilled funds are not characterized with the extremely high alpha. This leads to an unexpected conclusion: an investor should avoid funds with a very high alpha
    Keywords: asset management, Russian stock market, skill, mutual fund
    JEL: G23 C12
    Date: 2014
  20. By: BLINOV, Sergey
    Abstract: This paper investigates the possibility of conducting an unconventional monetary policy of Quantitative easing (QE) at high interest rates using the example and experience of Russia. The Central Bank of the Russian Federation has raised the key interest rate on six occasions during the 12 months of 2014 from 5.5% to 17%. The Central Bank has been coming in for criticism for such an increase. However, this criticism is unfair, as sometimes interest rate reduction or failure to raise interest rate result in adverse consequences. Luckily, interest rate is not the only and often far from being the most efficient tool of successful monetary policy. During the hardest phase of the most recent crisis, the central banks worldwide, for example, U.S. Federal Reserve System, resorted to another tool, i.e. Quantitative easing (QE), rather interest rates (which, by that time, had been virtually dropped down to zero). Some experts recognize those to be an important innovation devised by Ben Bernanke, Head of the U.S. Fed during 2006 - 2014. The Central Bank of Russia now has an opportunity of employing a still more innovative policy, i.e. to have “quantitative easing” at high interest rates rather than at zero rates. The experience of the «Golden Decade» (the decade of robust economic growth in Russia between September 1998 and September 2008) proves the efficiency of such monetary policy. The criterion for «sufficiency» of quantitative easing must be the growth rate of the real money supply. In June 2014, the real money supply decreased. That has happened for the first time since December 2009. It shows that there is a need for urgent action on the part of the Central Bank. To bring about steady economic growth, it is required that such quantitative easing be put in place as would make real money supply grow at a pace no slower than the target growth rate for GDP. According to preliminary estimate, the volume of necessary easing would be in the range between RUR 0.6 and 1.9 trillion. Such a program may make itself felt as soon as 3-4 months after its launch.
    Keywords: Monetary Policy, Central Banking, Interest Rates, Quantitative Easing (QE), Economic Growth, Money Supply
    JEL: E31 E32 E40 E43 E50 E51 E52 E58 E65 G01 N10 O11
    Date: 2014–12–19
  21. By: Alexey A. Kindras (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Dirk Meissner (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Konstantin O. Vishnevskiy (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Mario Cervantes (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: Whereas national and corporate Foresight are established instruments for anticipatory STI policy and innovation strategy respectively, regional Foresight is a rather new phenomena in this arena. Placed in between national and corporate Foresight regional Foresight can be considered to fulfill a briding role between the two by taking advantage of corporate Foresight done at corporations which are based in the regions and by orienting on the broader national Foresight and the related challenges covered by these studies. In addition regional Foresight also involves stakeholders who might be engaged in national as well as corporate but presumably these stakeholders play a more important and prominent role in the regional Foresight. Also it is understood that regional networks are important for the successful implementation of the results. Also at the regional dimension it shows that stronger personal linkages exist than in national or corporate Foresight. The article introduces and discusses two regional Foresight case studies in Russian regions, namely Bashkortostan and Samara. Regional Foresight in both case studies was designed to mirror the quadruple helix instead of focusing on the triple helix only as it is done in many other regional Foresight cases, e.g. the focus was extended beyond the science, government and industry stakeholders by including civil society as well. However the limitation of the case studies is the modest participation and representation of the innovative industries sectors which is also due to the common weakness of Russian industry overall. Still it is found that both cases created reasonable momentum for developing the regions in the STI dimension but also even broader in the economic and social welfare dimension.
    Keywords: regional foresight; roadmapping; scenarios; BRICS
    JEL: O11 O18 O32
    Date: 2014
  22. By: Igor Fedyukin (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: In this paper we use the records of the Heraldry and the Noble Land Cadet Corps to explore the career and educational choices made by Russian nobles in the 1730s and 1740s. We make use of the fact that after the 1736-7 reform of noble service, young members of the elite were allowed to express their preferences regarding enrolment in specific schools or branches of service, and the government promised to respect these choices. Our goal is to investigate how much choice had nobles in reality, what choices they made, and how these choices can be explained. Our analysis demonstrates that post-Petrine nobles had very clear preferences, and that there are deep cleavages within the elite in terms of the attitude of its members towards schooling. While wealthier nobles tended to opt for state schools, especially the Noble Cadet Corps, the poorest nobility overwhelmingly ignored the educational requirement and service registration rules imposed by the state, and did not apply for state schools, preferring instead to enlist directly into regiments as privates. Despite numerous attempts, the government failed to force the poorest nobility to follow the 1736-7 rules for entering schools and the state service, and was forced to regularly issue blank pardons to these offenders. Finally, the paper considers the role of social connections in shaping choices of education and service made by the nobility. The paper presents the Westernization of the Russian elite as a dynamic social process driven by the choices made by the nobles themselves.
    Keywords: Nobility, education, state service, Peter I, Westernization, choices, Heraldry, Cadet Corps, schools, social networks
    JEL: Z
    Date: 2014
  23. By: Enrico Marelli; Elena S. Vakulenko (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: Youth unemployment is a serious problem in many European countries. In the first part of the paper, we consider the aggregate trends in some EU countries and in Russia; we especially investigate the recent period after the global crisis and the Great Recession. We then consider the different types of determinants, including macroeconomic conditions, structural determinants, labour market institutions and regulations. However, the focus of our analysis is on the role played by individual and family determinants such as age, gender, education level, marital status, health, household income, housing conditions. The econometric part of the paper makes use of Eurostat micro-level data EU-SILC for Italy and RLMS-HSE data set for Russia. We use a Heckman probit model to estimate the unemployment risk of young people during the period 2004-2011. Our main research question is to explain the probability of being unemployed for young people in terms of their personal characteristics and compare these outcomes with results for the same model for adults. We take also into account some macro variables, such as living in urban areas or the regional unemployment rate. The results are of interest, since the two countries have quite different labour market institutions, besides having different levels of youth unemployment. However, most of the explanatory variables act in the same direction in both countries and it is interesting to compare the relative size of such effects, which we measure through the average partial effects.
    Keywords: youth unemployment, individual determinants of unemployment, regional unemployment, Heckman probit.
    JEL: J64
    Date: 2014
  24. By: Nenovsky, Nikolay
    Abstract: Симеон Сергеевич Демостенов е дългогодишен професор по политическа икономия в Софийския университет в периода между двете световни войни и може би най– задълбоченият български икономист от руски произход. Роден е на 8 ноември 1886 г., според доскоро възприемана информация – в гр. Казан, но новооткрити документи посочват како негово родно място Москва (Вж. Прило- жение, писмо 2). След като пристига в България през 1920 г., Симеон Демостенов се отдава изключително на чистата икономическа теория, най-вече на теорията и историята на парите. Рядко се включва в дискусиите върху проблеми от текущия стопански живот, както и в дейността на двете български икономически друже- ства (Българско икономическо дружество и Дружество на икономистите академи- ци). Съсредоточаването на Демостенов върху чистата теория може да се обясни с факта, че там са неговите сравнителни предимства – той е чужденец и недос- татъчно познава българската стопанска действителност. Известен е като привър- женик на субективната школа в политическата икономия в нейния австрийски вариант. (Преди Октомврийската революция, още като руски гражданин, Симеон Демостенов специализира при Карл Менгер). Признат е като изключителен по- знавач на литературата за теориите за парите.
    Keywords: economic thought, Austrian economics, Bulgaria, Russia
    JEL: B31 E42
    Date: 2013–08–10
  25. By: Ekaterina Rakhilina (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Anastasia Vyrenkova (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: The problem of incomplete language acquisition and heritage languages is approached from several perspectives: who are heritage speakers, how are they different from native speakers and L2 learners, is heritage language a particular system? This paper aims at answering these and other questions focusing on constructional deviations in the output of heritage speakers and linguistic strategies that these speakers perform in their production. The research is corpus-based and offers a thorough comparative analysis of English and Russian constructions.
    Keywords: incomplete acquisition, heritage languages, corpus-based study, constructional deviations.
    JEL: E32
    Date: 2014
  26. By: Sergey V. Chuvashov (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: This research defines the relatively new concept of socio-psychological capital and examines the interrelation between socio-psychological capital and emigration intentions of Russian youth. Socio-psychological capital is seen as a resource of psychological relations, available to individuals belonging to a group. Socio-psychological capital includes trust, national identity, ethnic tolerance. The research also deals with the theory of planned behaviour, applied to emigration intentions. The empirical database is presented by the sample of Russian students (N=203). The results of structure equation modelling show that the model of planned emigration behaviour differs from the original theoretical model. We also found a negative relationship between national identity, institutional trust and emigration intentions. The results advance the understanding of the psychological nature of emigration intentions and highlight the potential of the socio-psychological capital concept
    Keywords: emigration intentions, socio-psychological capital, value orientations, trust, national identity
    JEL: O15
    Date: 2014
  27. By: Elena A. Kochetkova (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: The 1940s – mid-1960s exemplified a rapid development of chemical and cellulose industry internationally. In this period, a number of attempts to introduce new technologies was taken by industrial scientists and engineers, some of which happen simultaneously in different countries. In the late 1930s, Swedish engineer Johan Richter proposed his project to industrialists, and after roughly ten years it succeeded in implementing his specifically designed Kamyr digester at an industrial scale. A couple of years earlier, Soviet engineer Leonid Zherebov offered his own project different from the Swedish one in some technical parameters, but aimed to the same purpose – increasing the production of pulp. This initiative, however, was not introduced as it was planned, and instead after more than 20 years, the Soviet industry mostly produced pulp by continuous method using Kamyr digesters purchased from abroad. Following the question by historian Loren Graham of why Russian innovations often remained lonely ideas, this article seeks to investigate the nature of Soviet innovation by examining Soviet modernization though a case study of continuous pulp cooking. It will focus primarily not only on technological specifics of the innovation, but on social, political conditions. In so doing, this paper will examine activities of engineers and interactions of institutions within the Soviet pulp and paper industry.
    Keywords: innovation, Soviet, technology, pulp and paper industry, technological development
    JEL: N64
    Date: 2014
  28. By: John V.C. Nye (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Maxim V. Bryukhanov (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Sergiy S. Polyachenko (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: Using a large sample drawn from families in the Moscow and Moscow region which are part of the Russian RMLS longitudinal survey we observe clear links between measured 2D:4D digit ratios and a variety of life outcome measures, even with the inclusion of multiple controls. Contributing to existing empirical ndings, we found statistically signicant empirical associations of 2D:4D with higher educational attainment, occupational outcomes, knowledge of foreign language, smoking, engaging in sport activities and with some aspects of respondent's self-esteem. In general, the character of detected empirical associations are dierent for women and men, as it was documented in our previous studies.
    Keywords: Prenatal testosterone, 2D:4D, level of education, occupations, lifetime outcomes
    JEL: D03 I12 J24
    Date: 2014
  29. By: Yulia Tyumeneva (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Julia Kuzmina (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Elena Kardanova (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: Previous work has already established the reliability and validity of the Grit scale, based on the classical test theory (Duckworth, Peterson, Matthews, & Kelly, 2007). This study tests the psychometric properties and the dimensionality of the scale by employing an IRT analysis of data collected from a Russian sample of 3383 15 year-old students (Study 1). The results showed that the Grit Scale is two-dimensional, but unlike the early results, both the Consistency of Interests and Perseverance of Effort subscales are quite separate measures for different traits. The construct validation (Study 2) included a retest of the obtained internal structure of the scale via CFA, and a determination of whether two subscales show reasonable patterns of correlations with external measures. Collectively, the data supports the reliability and the validity of both subscales as separate measures
    Keywords: grit scale, dimensionality, IRT, CFA, construct validity
    JEL: Z
    Date: 2014
  30. By: Alexander Libman (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Tatiana G. Dolgopyatova (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Andrey A. Yakovlev (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the role of boards in founder-managed firms with concentrated ownership in emerging markets. The existing literature suggests that this type of company, even if they decide to recruit high-profile individuals as directors, rarely empowers the boards in the corporate governance structure. The paper conducts a case study of AFK Sistema—a large Russian investment company which is controlled and managed by the founder. We observe that, contrary to expectations, in this company the founder empowered the board of directors at the same time focusing on recruiting independent (mainly foreign) directors to the board, in spite of the costs associated with this governance structure in the Russian context. Based on this case, we develop a theory of entrepreneurial boards where directors are expected to take the initiative in relations with both internal and external actors and where the empowerment of boards is necessary to provide them with proper motivation.
    Keywords: board of directors, corporate governance, founder-managed firms, entrepreneurial function, emerging markets
    JEL: D23 G34 M14
    Date: 2014
  31. By: John V.C. Nye (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Maria M. Yudkevich (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Ekaterina A. Orel (National Research University Higher School of Economics); Ekaterina V. Kochergina (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: There is now a large literature on the correlates of prenatal androgen exposure and various individual measures of performance in sports, business, or schooling. However, there is still relatively limited evidence of the impact of prenatal androgens on life achievement. Using data from the Russian longitudinal survey and measured digit ratios, we found that age-corrected market wages are nonlinearly correlated with low measured 2D:4D ratios signifying higher prenatal testosterone. Unlike earlier work on noncognitive correlates of labor market wages, our findings indicate a clear-cut optimum 2D:4D ratio for women’s wages with higher and lower 2D:4D being associated with lowered wages. However, the size of these effects is small, especially compared to the influence of education on income.
    Keywords: Adult wages, Prenatal Testosterone, Female earnings
    JEL: J24 J31
    Date: 2014
  32. By: Kardanova Elena (National Research University Higher School of Economics.); Ivanova Alina (National Research University Higher School of Economics.); Merrell Christine (Durham University (Durham, UK). Centre for Evaluation & Monitoring (CEM)); Hawker David (Durham University (Durham, UK). Centre for Evaluation & Monitoring (CEM)); Tymms Peter (Durham University (Durham, UK). Centre for Evaluation & Monitoring (CEM))
    Abstract: Despite the growing influence of international surveys of student achievements such as PISA, TIMSS, and PIRLS on policy, there is currently no international baseline study of children’s development on starting school. As a result, nobody knows for sure the extent to which the differences in performance between countries which are observed in these later assessments are already present when children start school, and the impact of educational policy and school effectiveness. This working paper describes the development of such an international study (iPIPS) which aims to help answer some key questions relating to early years and schooling. iPIPS takes as its basis, the Performance Indicators in Primary Schools (PIPS) On-entry baseline and follow-up assessments which were developed by the Centre for Evaluation and Monitoring (CEM) at Durham University (UK). PIPS has been used for twenty years in schools in a range of countries, providing a wealth of data for research purposes. iPIPS aims to collect assessment data from representative samples of children internationally. The paper will also report on the work undertaken in 2013-2014 to adapt and pilot the iPIPS instruments for use in Russia
    Keywords: iPIPS, International comparative study, Rasch model, test adaptation
    JEL: I2
    Date: 2014
  33. By: Diana M. Yanbarisova (National Research University Higher School of Economics.)
    Abstract: This paper analyses the influence of different combinations of work and study on academic achievement among university students of Yaroslavl region in Russia. The data was collected during the first wave of longitudinal research on the educational and occupational trajectories of graduates of schools and universities conducted by the Institute of Education, Higher School of Economics, Moscow in 2009. The sample consists of 1474 4th and 5th year university students. Five work-study types are defined on the basis of two variables: work schedule and work relatedness to specialty: full-time work outside the specialty field, part-time work outside the specialty field; full-time work in the specialty field, part-time work in the specialty field; and not working during university studies. The results show that working outside the specialty field (full-time or part-time) has a negative impact on academic achievement, whereas the other work-study types do not have any significant effect. The results partly support our hypothesis that different work-study combinations influence academic achievement in different ways and that job relatedness to the academic specialty is a significant characteristic in defining the influence. The paper contributes to the research field of studying attributes of student employment which are responsible for different effects on academic achievement
    Keywords: academic achievement; job relatedness to specialty; student employment; work schedule; work-study types
    JEL: I21 J24
    Date: 2014
  34. By: Ilya A. Prakhov (National Research University Higher School of Economics.)
    Abstract: This paper examines the patterns of pre-entry coaching and corresponding investment in private tutoring before and after the introduction of the Unified State Exam (the USE). We estimate the effectiveness of private tutoring in 2012 – a few years after the USE became a prerequisite for admission to university. Data from the Monitoring of Education Markets and Organizations show that the main types of pre-entry coaching are still in demand despite the unification of admission requirements. The popularity of paid courses at a particular university has declined, and the prevalence of classes with tutors who are not related to university has risen. A few years after the introduction of the USE, the level of investment in pre-entry coaching in real terms barely changed; however, the returns from such an investment (expressed in the USE scores) are positive but moderate
    Keywords: dynamics of investment in pre-entry coaching, effectiveness of pre-entry coaching, the USE, educational strategies of students
    JEL: C31 I21 I24 I28
    Date: 2014
  35. By: Wacker, Konstantin M.; Lodge, David; Nicoletti, Giulio
    Abstract: In this paper, we develop financial conditions indices (FCIs) for 3 industrialized (US, Japan, UK) and 5 emerging (China, Brazil, Russia, India, Turkey) economies. The FCIs are formed as the principal component of a range of financial series for each country and are constructed to account for fluctuations in the business cycle. We show that these FCIs can help predict growth developments and thereby provide a potential leading indicator for the external environment of the Euro area. While we draw upon established methodological considerations in the literature, our main contribution lies in providing FCIs which are available for a broad set of countries, including many emerging economies, and whose movements can intuitively be interpreted. This latter fact allows us to track developments in the 8 investigated financial markets over the last decade. JEL Classification: C43, E37, E44, G1
    Keywords: FCI, financial conditions index, forecasting, principal component analysis
    Date: 2014–11
  36. By: Valeria V. Lakshina (National Research University Higher School)
    Abstract: The paper proposes the thorough investigation of the in-sample and out-of-sample performance of four GARCH and two stochastic volatility models, which were estimated based on Russian financial data. The data includes Aeroflot and Gazprom’s stock prices, and the rouble against the US dollar exchange rates. In our analysis, we use the probability integral transform for the in-sample comparison, and a Mincer-Zarnowitz regression, along with classical forecast performance measures, for the out-of-sample comparison. Studying both the explanatory and the forecasting power of the models analyzed, we came to the conclusion that stochastic volatility models perform equally or in some cases better than GARCH models.
    Keywords: GARCH, stochastic volatility, markov switching multifractal, forecast performance.
    JEL: C01 C58 C51 G17
    Date: 2014
  37. By: Elena E. Zemskova (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: This paper focuses on the history of the Translators Section in the Soviet Writers Union in the 1930s and demonstrates how, and under what circumstances, literary translation was constructed in the soviet culture of 1930s as a profession and as a separate type of writing activity. The author uses the conceptual framework invented by Sheila Fitzpatrick for the soviet social system to the soviet literary history, and concludes, that translators were ascribed to the writers stratum by the bureaucratic machine of the Soviet Writers Union
    Keywords: translation studies, literary translation, Soviet Literature, Soviet Writers Union
    JEL: Z
    Date: 2014
  38. By: Buriak, Anna
    Abstract: The research is devoted to the development of scientific and methodological basis and practical recommendations for banking performance evaluation and management. Summary of the chronology of the banking in Ukraine allowed distinguishing three phases of its development, necessity of bank performance management is proved. The author specifically mentioned four conceptual approaches to the content of banking - "functional", "portfolio", "production" and "institutional". Scientific and methodological approaches for banking performance’s assessment are systematized.
    Keywords: banking, performance, evaluation, methods, stakeholders
    JEL: G21 G3 G30
    Date: 2014
  39. By: International Monetary Fund. European Dept.
    Abstract: KEY ISSUES Governance in the banking system remains poor and the condition of some large banks is fragile. The budget faces a tight financing situation, and—without corrective measures—the deficit is projected to widen significantly in 2015. Russia’s new restrictions on imports from Moldova are exacerbating the ongoing slowdown in activity, easing inflationary pressures, and weakening export performance. Discussions mainly focused on policies to address the significant risks in the banking sector, return to a path of fiscal consolidation, and boost potential growth and preserve external stability. Financial sector. The recommendations of the recent FSAP should be implemented, in particular regarding the enforcement of regulatory requirements. A plan to deal with weak banks needs to be developed. Fiscal policy. Returning to a path of fiscal consolidation, with a view to lower reliance on exceptionally high donor support over the medium term is important. This objective can be achieved by containing the budget deficit below 3 percent of GDP in 2015, gradually reducing it 1½ percent by 2018. Monetary policy. The supportive monetary policy stance should be maintained but the NBM should stand firm against pressures to facilitate its financing of the budget. Exchange rate movements driven by fundamentals should not be resisted. Structural reforms. Structural reforms are needed to boost potential output growth and reduce vulnerabilities. Strengthening external stability requires efforts to diversify export products and markets, and sources of financing.
    Keywords: Post-program monitoring;Fiscal policy;Fiscal consolidation;Fiscal reforms;Banking sector;Monetary policy;Bank supervision;Economic indicators;Staff Reports;Press releases;Moldova;
    Date: 2014–12–17
  40. By: Velikodnaya, Polina
    Abstract: This article discusses the main types of financing in the Omsk real estate, their comparison, identifying positive and negative aspects of financing, and also the role of real estate agencies.
    Keywords: real estate in Omsk, investments, luxury housing
    JEL: K29 M5 R3
    Date: 2014–12–22
  41. By: Alexandra A. Kozhukhar (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: This study analyzes the phenomenon of pronominal multi-fuctionality in the Mehweb language, which is a Dargwa group from the Nakh-Dagestanian language family. The pronominal stem has three functions; reflexive, logophoric and intensifier, which are described in detail below.
    Keywords: Daghestan, East Caucasian, Mehweb, multifunctionality, reflexive, logophor, intensifier
    JEL: Z19
    Date: 2014
  42. By: Yury A. Lander (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: In Dargwa languages, which constitute a branch of the Northeast Caucasian language family, certain nominal attributes may be either marked with a dedicated attributive suffix or appear without it. While it is sometimes said that the short form of the modifier serves as a base for deriving the full form, I propose an alternative direction of derivation and present evidence for the idea that unmarked attributes are incorporated into the nominal head.
    Keywords: Dargwa, Northeast Caucasian, attributive constructions, adjectives, relative clauses, incorporation, morphology-syntax interface
    JEL: Z
    Date: 2014
  43. By: Voloshyn, Ihor; Lubich, Oleksandr
    Abstract: The article demonstrates that the 2008-2009th financial crisis in Ukraine has had a significant and complex impact on its budget. It is shown that the banking crisis has led to a reduction in taxes revenue in the budget, diversion of public funds for the capitalization of state banks and the nationalization of systemic private banks. The main reasons for the negative impact were poor level of risk management and inefficient level of its implementation in the overall system of financial management. As a result, the risks of the banking system of Ukraine were significantly underestimated. To safeguard the state budget from unexpected increasing the expenses on the capitalization of state banks and the nationalization of private ones from reducing the taxes revenue were proposed to develop strategies of improving controllability of banks, to conduct simulation of the banking system of Ukraine on system-dynamic model base and to strengthen supervision of banks by introducing reporting about projected cash flows and cash flows at risk, to develop a corresponding methodology for assessing the risk of net cash bank loss before changes in operating assets and liabilities and for stress-testing of net cash profit and loss of the bank.
    Keywords: crisis, risk management, banking system, financial management, management reporting, controllability, observability, banking supervision, budget
    JEL: G21
    Date: 2014–12–28
  44. By: Giovanni Andrea Cornia (Dipartimento di Scienze per l'Economia e l'Impresa)
    Abstract: Uzbekistan became independent in September 1991 following the breakup of the Soviet Union. The country followed an heterodox approach to macroeconomic stabilization and the transition to the market economy which reduced the depth of the transitional recession experienced by most former socialist countries of Eastern Europe and Former Soviet Union. The development strategy it followed between 1995 and 2005 relied mainly on a state-coordinated exploitation of its land, water and mineral resources. Despite sustained growth and some structural transformation, such approach generated a limited number of formal sector jobs due to its high capital-, resource-, and energy- intensity. While poverty declined, the poverty alleviation elasticity of growth remained modest. Two years ago, the country launched the ambitious ‘Uzbekistan Vision 2030’ which aims at reaching by that year the status of upper-middle-income country. In this regard, this paper assesses in detail the achievements and limitations of the policy model adopted till 2012 and proposes two alternative development strategies to reach the targets set by the country’s authorities for 2030.
    Date: 2014

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NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.