nep-cis New Economics Papers
on Confederation of Independent States
Issue of 2014‒10‒17
twelve papers chosen by

  1. The Migration Policy and Migration Processes in Russia in 2013 By Lilia Karachurina
  2. Taxation Of R&D: Review Of Practices By Galina A. Kitova
  3. Challenges of Russian economic growth: reconstruction or acceleration? By Vladimir Mau
  4. Правосубъектность муниципальных образований Российской Федерации в частных отношениях By Dinara Minnigulova; Minnigulova Dinara
  5. Торгово-экономические связи Азербайджана и Средней Азии: современное состояние и перспективы By Toghrul Valiyev
  6. "Made in China" - How Does it Affect Measures of Competitiveness? By Konstantins Benkovskis; Julia Woerz
  7. Характер потерь при хранении сортов винограда селекции Гянджинской Опытной Станции By Rauf Asadullayev; Т.М.Панахов; Р.А.Асадуллаев; В.С.Салимов; Х.Т.Абасова
  8. Dynamic Investment Portfolio Optimization under Constraints in the Financial Market with Regime Switching using Model Predictive Control By Vladimir Dombrovskii; Tatyana Obyedko
  9. Evaluation of CO2 Emission Trading in Ukraine: the CGE approach By Olga Diukanova
  10. The North Caucasus in 2013: the conflicts are escalating By Irina Starodubrovskaya
  11. Innovation performance as a factor of socio-economic development in Kazakhstan By Aizhan Samambayeva; Manuel Fernández Grela
  12. The role of social-economic development of industrial clusters By Qazanfar Suleymanov; Suleymanov Qazanfar; Bakhishov Azar; Akhmadova Akima; Agayeva Khanim

  1. By: Lilia Karachurina (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy)
    Abstract: In 2013, both sudden growth in public interest in migration issues and explosive increase in the number of statutory acts initiated in that field were observed. A new surge of interest in migration was triggered by the Biryulovo developments in October and the election campaign of the Mayor of Moscow which took place a little earlier. This paper deals with a wide range of migration issues. ?
    Keywords: Russian economy; migration; labor migration; domestic migration
    JEL: J11 J61 J62 F22
    Date: 2014
  2. By: Galina A. Kitova (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: In recent years R&D tax incentives have been characterized by increasing scale and spread on innovation activity. Approaches to integrated R&D tax incentives into "recipes" for long-term growth and competitiveness were developed and tested in many countries. For exam-ple, only 12 OECD members employed R&D tax incentives in 1995, but 27 members do so in 2013 (as well as Brazil, China, India, Russia and other countries). And their share of total government expenditure on R&D (direct and tax) by OECD member countries reached at least a third. These trends have accompanied the development and testing of approaches to estimate the costs of tax support for R&D (including tax expenditures) and its effects and to ensure that they are internationally compatible. As for Russia, there are no officially accepted estimates of the scale and effectiveness of R&D and innovation tax support yet, though efforts to calculate them have been under way since 2010. This paper includes the current state of empirical research of tax support for R&D and in-novation in the Russian Federation, as well as a survey of the demand for its tools from research institutes, universities performing R&D, and manufacturing enterprises, which was conducted in 2012-2013. The results obtained demonstrate the power of empirical analysis and optimization of R&D and innovation tax incentives in the Russian Federation, against the background of the field's best practices and current trends.
    Keywords: R&D, innovation, tax incentives, tax expenditures, demand for R&D and in-novation tax incentives.
    JEL: H21 H22 H25
    Date: 2014
  3. By: Vladimir Mau (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy)
    Abstract: In 2013 the Russian economy entered a new phase of socio-economic development. The period of tempestuous development, during which the primary trends and objectives had been those of recovery and which had lasted almost twelve years (1999–2012), had come to an end. The crisis of 2009 did not end in a replacement of this growth model; on the contrary it perpetuated its existence, given the need for a return to pre-crisis levels of output. The need for a new model became one of practical necessity, since rates of economic growth fell to a level that was unprecedented, a deceleration that could not be attributed exclusively, or even predominantly, to external factors. Corresponding conclusion was politically executed in the President’s Address of 12 December 2013. The internal factors at work within the Russian economy have to be examined in the context of the continuing global economic crisis. This crisis provides not only the economic but also the socio-economic background to Russian economic development and in particular circumstances it can be a significant factor in the adoption of internal political decisions.?
    Keywords: Russian economy; economic growth;
    JEL: O52 P27
    Date: 2014
  4. By: Dinara Minnigulova; Minnigulova Dinara
    Abstract: To determine legal limits of municipality's power in private relationsanalysis of legislationOn one hand Municipalities are entities of public law and take part in various types of relations, on the other hand municipalities act as a quasi-legal entity and enter into private legal relations , where they lost the essential public character, which leads to conflict of their legal regulation and creates problems for legal practice. This situation affects the jurisprudence, which causes a change in the current legislation in the direction of defining the limits of municipalities's public power in private legal relations area .
    Keywords: Russian Federation, Other issues, Other issues
    Date: 2014–10–01
  5. By: Toghrul Valiyev
    Abstract: Основной целью данной работы является изучение современного состояния и перспектив взаимоотношений Азербайджана со среднеазиатским регионом. В данном случае под регионом Средняя Азия подразумеваются четыре государства – Туркменистан, Узбекистан, Кыргызыстан и Таджикистан. Говоря о взаимоотношениях Азербайджана с государствами региона в отдельности, стоит отметить, что они неравномерны. В большинстве случаев находятся на различном уровне и на протяжении всей истории менялись. Иногда находясь на высоком уровне, или же на низком уровне. Сейчас рынки стран Средней Азии являются одними из наиболее неосвоенных другими государствами. Поэтому они представляют большой интерес, как для азербайджанской промышленности, так и сельского хозяйства. В то же время это также хорошее место для азербайджанских инвесторов. В целом, взаимоотношения в настоящее время не находятся на надлежащем уровне, поэтому в работе было изучено современное состояние и будущие перспективы, а также направления, по которым возможно развитие взаимоотношений.В данной работе мы пользовались статистическими данными по торговле, определяемыми Государственным таможенным комитетом Азербайджана и Государственным комитетом по статистике Азербайджана. Нередко в статистике государств возникали разночтения ввиду различных методологий, поэтому мы в данной работе опирались на азербайджанскую статистику.Отношения с каждым из государств находятся на различных уровнях. Так, взаимоотношения с Туркменистаном складывались неравномерно. В 90-х годах между государствами возникали конфликты, связанные как с месторождениями, расположенными в Каспийском море, так и с делением дна Каспия, поставками газа Туркменистаном Азербайджану. Продвижение в отношениях стало наблюдаться после возращения Азербайджаном долга Туркменистану за поставки природного газа, в 2008 году. В том же году состоялось первое заседание азербайджано-туркменистанской межправкомиссии, проведена совместная выставка и много различных мероприятий. В настоящее время между двумя государствами интенсивно растет товарооборот. Если в 2010 году товарооборот составил чуть более 15 млн. долларов, то в 2013 году он составил около 90 миллионов долларов. Так экспорт из Туркменистана составил 48 млн. долларов (против 3,5 млн. в 2010 году), а из Азербайджана 39 млн. долларов (против 12 млн. в 2010 году). Таким образом, между двумя государствами существует значительные перспективы роста товарооборота. Азербайджан и Узбекистан имеют довольно давние отношения. Это связано как с тем, что в историческом развитии Узбекистана принимали участие азербайджанцы, так и с другими историческими особенностями. В настоящее время, несмотря на довольно отрицательный фон мировых рынков, для товарооборота характерны положительные тенденции. Важное значение для расширения торгово-экономических связей играет межправкомиссия. Одновременно если в момент мирового экономического кризиса товарооборот между государствами рос, то сейчас наблюдается падение. Так в 2013 году он составил чуть более 21,2 млн. долларов, то в 2012 19 млн. долларов, в 2011 году 72 млн. долларов. Еще ранее он составлял от 26 млн. долларов до 50 млн. долларов. Взаимоотношения Азербайджана и Таджикистана отличаются тем, что они не сформированы тем или иным отношением с нефтью. Основной продукцией, импортируемой Таджикистаном из Азербайджана является глинозем. Ежегодно Гянджинский комбинат поставляет более 300 тысяч тонн глинозема. Таджикистан также получает продукцию сельского хозяйства. В то же время, несмотря на то, что последние годы товарооборот рос, в 2013 году было зафиксировано резкое падение. Говоря о взаимоотношениях Азербайджана и Кыргызыстана, стоит отметить, что они находятся на довольно слабом уровне. Товарооборот между государствами небольшой. Но как отмечали обе стороны, есть значительные перспективы. В настоящее время, в целом, во взаимоотношениях между государствами, существует довольно большой потенциал. Тут стоит учесть, как азербайджанские инвестиции в экономики этих государств, так и много различных сфер, в которых страны еще не возобновили сотрудничество. Азербайджан также может играть важную роль в связи многих государств региона с ЕС и мировым рынком, в целом. Так в настоящее время идут интенсивные обсуждения участия Туркменистана в европейских газовых проектах и ни для кого не секрет, что Азербайджан принимает в них важное участие. В то же время, в скором времени с постройкой железной дороги Туркменистан-Иран, которая объединит всю железнодорожную сеть Центральной Азии с Ираном, произойдет и ее объединение с Азербайджаном. Так как одновременно Иран связывает свою железную дорогу с Азербайджаном и через Азербайджан с Россией. Это может дать сильный импульс развитию. Реализуется в настоящий момент и проект «Шелкового пути». Таким образом, с реализацией крупных инфраструктурных проектов, развитие региона может пойти по совершенно другому пути, что даст импульс также взаимоотношениям с Азербайджаном.
    Keywords: Азербайджан, Туркменистан, Узбекистан, Кыргызыстан, Таджикистан, Socio-economic development, Infrastructure
    Date: 2014–10–01
  6. By: Konstantins Benkovskis; Julia Woerz
    Abstract: We propose a comprehensive analysis of a country's price and non-price competitiveness that accounts for changes in the value added content of trade by combining two datasets – highly disaggregated trade data from UN Comtrade and internationally integrated supply and use tables from the WIOD. When we focus attention on the traditional measure of gross exports of goods, the analysis shows that advanced economies lost non-price competitiveness relative to emerging economies over the period from 1995 to 2011. This picture changes when the fragmentation of production is considered. We find that the relative quality of production from the US, Canada, Germany and the UK, when tracing value added in exports, remained unchanged or even increased over this period. Likewise, the seemingly unchanged or improving relative quality of Brazil, Russia and India's export goods largely arose from outsourcing rather than from improvements in the quality of domestic production. However, gains in Chinese non-price competitiveness remain impressive even after accounting for global value chain integration.
    Keywords: value added content of trade, fragmentation, non-price competitiveness, China, BRIC, G7
    JEL: C43 F12 F15 L15 O47
    Date: 2014–09–22
  7. By: Rauf Asadullayev; Т.М.Панахов; Р.А.Асадуллаев; В.С.Салимов; Х.Т.Абасова
    Abstract: Испытание лежкоспособности и определение характера потерь гибридных сортов винограда Хранение осуществлялось при температуре 0...-1°С и относительной влажности воздуха 90-95%. Для подавления развития эпифитной микрофлоры производилась фумигация SO2. Результаты оценивались визуально и при помощи электронных весов.Определена степень пригодности изучаемых сортов к длительному хранению, изучен характер имевших место потерь и передача элементов лежкости от родительских форм.
    Keywords: Азербайджан, Agriculture, Agriculture
    Date: 2014–10–01
  8. By: Vladimir Dombrovskii; Tatyana Obyedko
    Abstract: In this work, we consider the optimal portfolio selection problem under hard constraints on trading volume amounts when the dynamics of the risky asset returns are governed by a discrete-time approximation of the Markov-modulated geometric Brownian motion. The states of Markov chain are interpreted as the states of an economy. The problem is stated as a dynamic tracking problem of a reference portfolio with desired return. We propose to use the model predictive control (MPC) methodology in order to obtain feedback trading strategies. Our approach is tested on a set of a real data from the radically different financial markets: the Russian Stock Exchange MICEX, the New York Stock Exchange and the Foreign Exchange Market (FOREX).
    Date: 2014–10
  9. By: Olga Diukanova
  10. By: Irina Starodubrovskaya (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy)
    Abstract: The most obvious feature of the situation in the North Caucasus during last year was the disturbance of the fragile balance which had apparently begun to form in the preceding period, the escalation of existing conflicts and the emergence of new ones, including those related to resources. What was the cause of this escalation? What are its possible consequences? How does all this affect the economic situation in the region? These are the key questions which the authors aim to answer in this paper.
    Keywords: North Caucasus, Dagestan Republic
    JEL: R10 R11 R12 R13 R14
    Date: 2014
  11. By: Aizhan Samambayeva; Manuel Fernández Grela
    Abstract: Relationship between innovation performance and economic development is well-recognised all over the world (Mairesse, Lotti, & Mairesse, 2009, Grossman & Helpman, 1990, Hall, 2001). There are numerous of studies confirming that innovation development leads to economic growth, better productivity and increase in sustainable competitiveness. The assessment contributes to theoretical analysis on innovation and significantly broadens knowledge of innovation performance in developing countries. But the most considerable contribution is made to innovation system of Kazakhstan, which is very poor researched and published. Results of the study provide strengths and weaknesses of innovation performance in Kazakhstan and its position in the global landscape, which can be useful information for future policy making to improve social and economic development of the region. Besides The European Innovation Scoreboard, the most prominent innovation measurement indices are: 1. OECD Science, Technology, and Industry Scoreboard 2013 2. The World Bank’s Knowledge Assessment Methodology (KAM) 2012 3. The World Economic Forum’s Global Competitiveness Report 2013-2014 Taking into account data availability and level of innovation development, European Innovation Scoreboard is most appropriate tool to measure innovation performance in Kazakhstan. For example, The World Economic Forum’s Global Competitiveness Report is difficult to implement due to comprehensive nature of data required that is not publicly available. Moreover, some innovation indicators used in scoreboard are elaborated particularly for developed and sophisticated innovation system. Therefore they include variables that have interpretation value only in case of developed countries. European Innovation Scoreboard is not optimal choice to measure innovation performance in Kazakhstan. However, perfect fitting to Kazakhstan’s economy innovation measurement is unlikely will be comparable for other countries as well. Our goal was to find innovation measurement (scoreboard) that can satisfy our targets to elaborate innovation indicators that can be easily interpreted, providing exhaustive analysis of innovation situation in Kazakhstan; and to be able benchmark the country with similar economies (catching-up countries). According to Archibugi, Denni, & Filippetti (2009), European Innovation Scoreboard shoud be considered as measure of innovation performance rather than others. Because it takes into account new forms of innovation. Others mostly represent current endowment of country to develop its competitiveness and growth through technological innovations. The methodology includes 29 indicators, grouped over 7 different innovation dimensions and 3 major groups of dimensions. The group of “Enablers” captures the main drivers of innovation that are external to the firm and it is divided into two dimensions: “Human resources” and “Finance and support”, capturing in total 9 indicators. Some indicators are subject to national context. Therefore, more detailed information about issues regarding the calculation of the indicators is presented in the whole version of the paper. The results of study revealed relative competitiveness of the region in supply of human capital. However, the rapid pace of economic development requires highly skilled workforce, especially technical and engineering specialist, in order to support innovation performance in the country. Besides the importance of participation in long-life learning for on-going technical development and innovation, this number is extremely low in Kazakhstan. The main factors hampering innovation performance are insufficient R&D investments (public and private), poor infrastructure, weal linkages between main stakeholders of innovation process. This everything is a result of inefficient public policy on innovation and historical and cultural circumstances. The study has found that generally the innovation performance of the region is similar to that of the country. The indicator of the country and region are slightly different. Unsurprisingly, the indicators have shown that the region is placed at the bottom of catching-up countries. The current research was limited to evaluate factors related to qualitative characteristics of the indicator. Moreover, measuring regional innovation performance showed that more progress is needed on the availability and quality of innovation data at regional level. In general, research showed that innovation level of the country is very low even in comparison with catching-up countries. It can be explained by economic model where output is mainly driven by increased used of labour and capital. As a result a low demand for knowledge and weak linkages between key actors. “Knowledge producing and processing sectors and actors so far remain largely isolated from one another, and their activities are structurally mismatched. This may be explained by the lack of incentives in the business sector to innovate, as innovation is often not seen as necessary to maintain or develop competitive advantages. In addition, the commercial orientation of public R&D capacities (knowledge supply) remains limited. This vicious cycle seems to have locked the national innovation system into a suboptimal, low knowledge intensity equilibrium (Innovation performance review of Kazakhstan, 2012)” See above See above
    Keywords: Kazakhstan, Socio-economic development, Socio-economic development
    Date: 2014–10–01
  12. By: Qazanfar Suleymanov; Suleymanov Qazanfar; Bakhishov Azar; Akhmadova Akima; Agayeva Khanim
    Abstract: In this article, both the global and local economic development has been studied on the basis of international experience in the use of industrial clusters . The study is based on the use of natural features and built-in facilities for industrial cluster efficiency of the economy , there are both positives and negatives to both . The efficiency of the industrial clusters in certain areas of their activities during the creation process manifests itself.To this end, the article, the negative effects of industrial clusters isifadənin - enhance the value of the labor, the rise in the price of land and real estate, environmental impacts , etc. izomorizm technology has been well studied . As a result, increases the role of the regional economic integration process and the country into one of the world's leading economic developed.
    Keywords: Azerbaijan, Socio-economic development, Socio-economic development
    Date: 2014–10–01

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