nep-cfn New Economics Papers
on Corporate Finance
Issue of 2009‒04‒18
six papers chosen by
Zelia Serrasqueiro
University of the Beira Interior

  1. On the Determinants of the Implied Default Barrier By Georges Dionne; Sadok Laajimi
  2. LNG Project Valuation with Financial Leasing Contracts By Emhjellen, Magne; Løvås, Kjell; Osmundsen, Petter
  3. Disclosure and the Cost of Capital: Evidence from Firms’ Responses to the Enron Shock By Christian Leuz; Catherine Schrand
  4. The Alchemy of CDO Credit Ratings By Efraim Benmelech; Jennifer Dlugosz
  5. Information Asymmetry, Information Precision, and the Cost of Capital By Richard A. Lambert; Christian Leuz; Robert E. Verrecchia
  6. Does Corporate Governance Matter in Competitive Industries? By Xavier Giroud; Holger M. Mueller

  1. By: Georges Dionne; Sadok Laajimi
    Abstract: We use the maximum likelihood (ML) estimation approach to estimate the default barriers from market values of equities for a sample of 762 public industrial Canadian firms. The ML approach allows us to estimate the asset instantaneous drift, volatility and barrier level simultaneously, when the firm's equity is priced as a Down-and-Out European call (DOC) option. We find that the estimated barrier is positive and significant in our sample. Moreover, we compare the default prediction accuracy of the DOC framework with the KMV-Merton approach. Using probit estimation, we find that the default probability from the two structural models provides similar in-sample fits, but the barrier option framework achieves better out-of-sample forecasts. Regression analysis shows that leverage is not the only determinant of the default barrier. The implied default threshold is also positively related to financing costs, and negatively to liquidity, asset volatility and firm size. We also find that liquidation costs, renegotiation frictions and equity holders' bargaining power increase the implied default barrier level.
    Keywords: Barrier option, default barrier, bankruptcy prediction, maximum likelihood estimation, strategic default
    JEL: G32 G33
    Date: 2009
  2. By: Emhjellen, Magne; Løvås, Kjell; Osmundsen, Petter (University of Stavanger)
    Abstract: ,
    Keywords: Project valuation; Capital budgeting; Financial Leasing; Financial cost
    JEL: G31 G32
    Date: 2009–04–09
  3. By: Christian Leuz; Catherine Schrand
    Abstract: This paper examines the link between disclosure and the cost of capital. We exploit an exogenous cost of capital shock created by the Enron scandal in Fall 2001 and analyze firms’ disclosure responses to this shock. These tests are opposite to the typical research design that analyzes cost of capital responses to disclosure changes. In reversing the tests and using an exogenous shock, we mitigate concerns about omitted variables in traditional cross-sectional disclosure studies. We estimate shocks to firms’ betas around the Enron events and the ensuing transparency crisis. Our analysis shows that these beta shocks are associated with increased disclosure. Firms expand the number of pages of their annual 10-K filings, notably the sections containing the financial statements and footnotes. The increase in disclosure is particularly pronounced for firms that have positive cost of capital shocks and larger financing needs. We also find that firms respond with additional interim disclosures (e.g., 8-K filings) and that these disclosures are complementary to the 10-K disclosures. Finally, we show that firms’ disclosure responses reduce firms’ costs of capital and hence the impact of the transparency crisis.
    JEL: G12 G14 G30 M41 M42
    Date: 2009–04
  4. By: Efraim Benmelech; Jennifer Dlugosz
    Abstract: Collateralized Loan Obligations (CLOs) were one of the largest and fastest growing segments of the structured finance market, fueling the 2003-2007 boom in syndicated loans and leveraged buyouts. The credit crisis brought CLO issuance to a halt, and as a result the leveraged loan market dried up. Similar to other structured finance products, investors in CLOs rely heavily on credit rating provided by the rating agencies, yet little is known about CLO rating practices. This paper attempts to fill that gap. Using novel hand-collected data on 3,912 tranches of Collateralized Loan Obligations (CLO) we document the rating practices of CLOs and analyze their existing structures.
    JEL: G24 G28
    Date: 2009–04
  5. By: Richard A. Lambert; Christian Leuz; Robert E. Verrecchia
    Abstract: The consequences of information differences across investors in capital markets are still much debated. This paper examines the relation between information differences across investors and the cost of capital, and makes three points. First, in models of perfect competition, information differences across investors affect a firm’s cost of capital through investors’ average information precision, and not information asymmetry per se. Second, the average precision effect of information that is heterogeneously distributed across investors is unlikely to diversify away when there exist many firms whose cash flows covary. Thus, better disclosure can reduce a firm’s cost of capital. Third, the precision effect does not give rise to a separate information-risk factor. These points are important to empirical research in accounting and finance, as well as to regulators who debate future disclosure requirements and the consequences of prior requirements such as Regulation Fair Disclosure.
    JEL: G12 G14 G31 M41
    Date: 2009–04
  6. By: Xavier Giroud; Holger M. Mueller
    Abstract: By reducing the threat of a hostile takeover, business combination (BC) laws weaken corporate governance and increase the opportunity for managerial slack. Consistent with the notion that competition mitigates managerial slack, we find that while firms in non-competitive industries experience a significant drop in operating performance after the laws' passage, firms in competitive industries experience no significant effect. When we examine which agency problem competition mitigates, we find evidence in support of a "quiet-life" hypothesis. Input costs, wages, and overhead costs all increase after the laws' passage, and only so in non-competitive industries. Similarly, when we conduct event studies around the dates of the first newspaper reports about the BC laws, we find that while firms in non-competitive industries experience a significant stock price decline, firms in competitive industries experience a small and insignificant stock price impact.
    JEL: G3
    Date: 2009–04

This nep-cfn issue is ©2009 by Zelia Serrasqueiro. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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