nep-cfn New Economics Papers
on Corporate Finance
Issue of 2007‒01‒02
six papers chosen by
Zelia Serrasqueiro
Universidade da Beira Interior

  1. Entrepreneurial Learning, the IPO Decision, and the Post-IPO Drop in Firm Profitability By Lubos Pastor; Lucian Taylor; Pietro Veronesi
  2. Corporate Financial and Investment Policies when Future Financing is not Frictionless By Heitor Almeida; Murillo Campello; Michael S. Weisbach
  3. Modelling Term-Structure Dynamics for Risk Management: A Practitioner's Perspective By David Jamieson Bolder
  4. Firm-Specific Characteristics and the Timing of Foreign Direct Investment Projects By Horst Raff; Michael Ryan
  5. Direct Evidence of Dividend Tax Clienteles By Dahlquist, Magnus; Robertsson, Göran; Rydqvist, Kristian
  6. How did the 2003 dividend tax cut affect stock prices? By Eugene Amromin; Paul Harrison; Steven Sharpe

  1. By: Lubos Pastor; Lucian Taylor; Pietro Veronesi
    Abstract: We develop a model in which an entrepreneur learns about the average profitability of a private firm before deciding whether to take the firm public. In this decision, the entrepreneur trades off diversification benefits of going public against benefits of private control. The model predicts that firm profitability should decline after the IPO, on average, and that this decline should be larger for firms with more volatile profitability and firms with less uncertain average profitability. These predictions are supported empirically in a sample of 7,183 IPOs in the U.S. between 1975 and 2004.
    JEL: G1 G3
    Date: 2006–12
  2. By: Heitor Almeida; Murillo Campello; Michael S. Weisbach
    Abstract: Much of corporate finance is concerned with the impact of financing constraints on firms. However, the literature on financing constraints largely ignores the intertemporal implications of those constraints; in particular, how future financing constraints affect current investment decisions. We present a model in which future financing constraints lead firms to have a current preference for investments with shorter payback periods, investments with less risk, and investments that utilize more liquid/pledgeable assets. The model has a host of implications in different areas of corporate finance, including firms' capital budgeting rules, risk-taking behavior, capital structure choices, hedging strategies, and cash management policies. We show how a number of patterns reported in the empirical literature can be reconciled and interpreted in light of the intertemporal optimization problem firms solve when they face costly external financing. For example, contrary to Jensen and Meckling (1976), we show that firms may reduce rather than increase risk when leverage increases exogenously. Furthermore, firms in economies with less developed financial markets will not only take different quantities of investment, but will also take different kinds of investment (safer, short-term projects that are potentially less profitable). We also point out to several predictions that have not been empirically examined. For example, our model predicts that investment safety and liquidity are complementary: constrained firms are specially likely to distort the risk profile of their most liquid investments.
    JEL: G31 G32
    Date: 2006–12
  3. By: David Jamieson Bolder
    Abstract: Modelling term-structure dynamics is an important component in measuring and managing the exposure of portfolios to adverse movements in interest rates. Model selection from the enormous term-structure literature is far from obvious and, to make matters worse, a number of recent papers have called into question the ability of some of the more popular models to adequately describe interest rate dynamics. The author, in attempting to find a relatively simple term-structure model that does a reasonable job of describing interest rate dynamics for risk-management purposes, examines two sets of models. The first set involves variations of the Gaussian affine term-structure model by modestly building on the recent work of Dai and Singleton (2000) and Duffee (2002). The second set includes and extends Diebold and Li (2003). After working through the mathematical derivation and estimation of these models, the author compares and contrasts their performance on a number of in- and out-of-sample forecasting metrics, their ability to capture deviations from the expectations hypothesis, and their predictions in a simple portfolio-optimization setting. He finds that the extended Nelson-Siegel model and an associated generalization, what he terms the "exponential-spline model," provide the most appealing modelling alternatives when considering the various model criteria.
    Keywords: Interest rates; Econometric and statistical methods; Financial markets
    JEL: C0 C6 E4 G1
    Date: 2006
  4. By: Horst Raff; Michael Ryan
    Abstract: This paper uses a proportional hazard model to study foreign direct investment by Japanese manufacturers in Europe between 1970 and 1994. We divide each firm’s investment total into a sequence of individual investment decisions and analyze how firm-specific characteristics affect each decision. We find that total factor productivity is a significant determinant of a firm’s initial and subsequent investments. Parent-firm size does not have a significant influence on the initial decision to invest. Large firms simply have more investments than smaller firms. Other firm-specific characteristics, such as the R&D intensity, export share and keiretsu membership, also play a role in the investment process.
    Keywords: foreign direct investment, productivity, hazard model, Japan, keiretsu
    JEL: F23 L20
    Date: 2006
  5. By: Dahlquist, Magnus; Robertsson, Göran; Rydqvist, Kristian
    Abstract: We study a large data set of stock portfolios held by individuals and organizations in the Swedish stock market. The dividend yields on these portfolios are systematically related to investors' relative tax preferences for dividends versus capital gains. Tax-neutral investors earn 40 basis points higher dividend yield on their portfolios than investors which face higher effective taxation of dividends than capital gains. We conclude that there are dividend tax clienteles in the market. We also argue that the abundant portfolio holdings by closely-held corporations, despite triple taxation at a combined marginal tax rate as high as 77.5%, is a consequence of taxation.
    Keywords: capital gains tax; dividend tax clienteles; stock ownership; Tax incidence
    JEL: G11 G35
    Date: 2006–12
  6. By: Eugene Amromin; Paul Harrison; Steven Sharpe
    Abstract: We test the hypothesis that the 2003 dividend tax cut boosted U.S. stock prices and thus lowered the cost of equity. Using an event- study methodology, we attempt to identify an aggregate stock market effect by comparing the behavior of U.S. common stock prices to that of European stocks and real estate investment trusts. We also examine the relative cross-sectional response of prices on high-dividend versus low-dividend paying stocks. We do not find any imprint of the dividend tax cut news on the value of the aggregate U.S. stock market. On the other hand, high-dividend stocks outperformed low-dividend stocks by a few percentage points over the event windows, suggesting that the tax cut did induce asset reallocation within equity portfolios. Finally, the positive abnormal returns on non-dividend paying U.S. stocks in 2003 do not appear to be tied to tax-cut news.
    Date: 2006

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