nep-cdm New Economics Papers
on Collective Decision-Making
Issue of 2018‒04‒02
twelve papers chosen by
Stan C. Weeber, McNeese State University

  1. Upward Income Mobility and Legislator Support for Education Policies By Bellani, Luna; Fabella, Vigile Marie
  2. Guns, Environment and Abortion: How Single-Minded Voters Shape Politicians Decisions By Laurent Bouton; Paola Conconi; Francisco Pino; Maurizio Zanardi
  3. Was Obama Elected by the Internet? Broadband Diffusion and Voters' Behavior in US Presidential Elections By Valentino Larcinese; Luke Miner
  4. Political Campaigns and Church Contributions By Daniel M. Hungerman; Kevin Rinz; Tim Weninger; Chungeun Yoon
  5. Participatory monitoring and evaluation approaches that influence decision-making: lessons from a maternal and newborn study in Eastern Uganda By Kananura, Rornald Muhumuza; Ekirapa-Kiracho, Elizabeth; Paina, Ligia; Bumba, Ahmed; Mulekwa, Godfrey; Nakiganda-Busiku, Dinah; Oo, Htet Nay Lin; Kiwanuka, Suzanne Namusoke; George, Asha; Peters, David H.
  6. Digital Infrastructure: Overcoming the digital divide in China and the European Union By Ben, Shenglin; Bosc, Romain; Jiao, Jinpu; Li, Wenwei; Simonelli, Felice; Zhang, Ruidong
  7. A Theory of Small Campaign Contributions By Bouton, Laurent; Castanheira, Micael; Drazen, Allan
  8. US Sanctions: No conflict, no Nordstream threat – An opportunity for greater EU-US cooperation By Riley, Alan
  9. Relative Performance Feedback to Teams By William Gilje Gjedrem; Ola Kvaløy
  10. Introducing Carbon Taxes at Member State Level. Issues and Barriers By Stefan E. Weishaar
  11. Transparency and cooperation in repeated dilemma games : A meta study By Fiala, Lenka; Suetens, Sigrid
  12. Race, Representation and Local Governments in the US South: the effect of the Voting Rights Act By Bernini, Andrea; Facchini, Giovanni; Testa, Cecilia

  1. By: Bellani, Luna (University of Konstanz); Fabella, Vigile Marie (University of Konstanz)
    Abstract: This paper investigates how upward mobility affects legislator voting behavior towards education policies. We develop an electoral competition model where voters are altruistic parents and politicians are office seeking. In this setting the future economic status of the children is affected both by current public education spending and by the level of upward mobility. Using a newly compiled dataset of roll call voting on California education legislation matched with electoral district-level upward mobility we find that the likelihood of a legislator voting "no" on redistributive education bills decreases by 10 percentage points when upward mobility in his electoral district decreases by a standard deviation.
    Keywords: upward income mobility, education policies, legislator voting behavior, roll call votes, California
    JEL: I24 D72 H4
    Date: 2018–02
  2. By: Laurent Bouton; Paola Conconi; Francisco Pino; Maurizio Zanardi
    Abstract: We study how electoral incentives affect policy choices on secondary issues, which only minorities of voters care intensely about. We develop a model in which office and policy motivated politicians choose to support or oppose regulations on these issues. We derive conditions under which politicians flip-flop, voting according to their policy preferences at the beginning of their terms, but in line with the preferences of single-issue minorities as they approach re-election. To assess the evidence, we study U.S. senators' votes on gun control, environment, and reproductive rights. In line with our model's predictions, election proximity has a pro-gun effect on Democratic senators and a pro-environment effect on Republican senators. These effects only arise for non-retiring senators, who represent states where the single-issue minority is of intermediate size. Also in line with our theory, election proximity has no impact on senators' decisions on reproductive rights, because of the presence of single-issue minorities on both sides.
    Keywords: electoral incentives, environment, gun control, reproductive rights
    JEL: D72 I18 Q00
    Date: 2018–03
  3. By: Valentino Larcinese; Luke Miner
    Abstract: What are the political consequences of the diffusion of broadband internet? We address this question by studying the 2008 US presidential election, the first political campaign where the internet played a key role. Drawing on data from the FEC and the FCC, we provide robust evidence that internet penetration in US counties is associated with an increase in turnout, an increase in campaign contributions to the Democrats and an increase in the share of Democratic vote. We then propose an IV strategy to deal with potential endogeneity concerns: we exploit geographic discontinuities along state borders with different right-of-way laws, which constitute the main determinant of the cost of building new infrastructure. IV estimates confirm a positive impact of broadband diffusion on turnout, while the pro-Democratic Party effect of the internet appears to be less robust.
    Keywords: internet diffusion, political economy of the media, United States elections, turnout, campaign contributions
    JEL: D72 L86
    Date: 2018
  4. By: Daniel M. Hungerman; Kevin Rinz; Tim Weninger; Chungeun Yoon
    Abstract: We combine a new dataset of weekly Catholic church donations with a new dataset of presidential-election campaign stops to explore the impact of stops on donations. We find that stops increase donations, with a campaign stop generating 2 percent more donations in the following week. Our results suggest that this effect is of short duration. Further, it does not appear to vary based on the political language used by the parish in its own church bulletins. However, the effect does appear to vary based on the religiosity of the candidates themselves, with Catholic candidates generating the largest increases.
    JEL: D72 H41 Z12
    Date: 2018–03
  5. By: Kananura, Rornald Muhumuza; Ekirapa-Kiracho, Elizabeth; Paina, Ligia; Bumba, Ahmed; Mulekwa, Godfrey; Nakiganda-Busiku, Dinah; Oo, Htet Nay Lin; Kiwanuka, Suzanne Namusoke; George, Asha; Peters, David H.
    Abstract: Background: The use of participatory monitoring and evaluation (M&E) approaches is important for guiding local decision-making, promoting the implementation of effective interventions and addressing emerging issues in the course of implementation. In this article, we explore how participatory M&E approaches helped to identify key design and implementation issues and how they influenced stakeholders’ decision-making in eastern Uganda. Method: The data for this paper is drawn from a retrospective reflection of various M&E approaches used in a maternal and newborn health project that was implemented in three districts in eastern Uganda. The methods included qualitative and quantitative M&E techniques such as key informant interviews, formal surveys and supportive supervision, as well as participatory approaches, notably participatory impact pathway analysis. Results: At the design stage, the M&E approaches were useful for identifying key local problems and feasible local solutions and informing the activities that were subsequently implemented. During the implementation phase, the M&E approaches provided evidence that informed decision-making and helped identify emerging issues, such as weak implementation by some village health teams, health facility constraints such as poor use of standard guidelines, lack of placenta disposal pits, inadequate fuel for the ambulance at some facilities, and poor care for low birth weight infants. Sharing this information with key stakeholders prompted them to take appropriate actions. For example, the sub-county leadership constructed placenta disposal pits, the district health officer provided fuel for ambulances, and health workers received refresher training and mentorship on how to care for newborns. Conclusion: Diverse sources of information and perspectives can help researchers and decision-makers understand and adapt evidence to contexts for more effective interventions. Supporting districts to have crosscutting, routine information generating and sharing platforms that bring together stakeholders from different sectors is therefore crucial for the successful implementation of complex development interventions.
    Keywords: Participatory monitoring and evaluation; Implementation research; maternal and newborn health; Decision-making; Stakeholders
    JEL: J1
    Date: 2017–12–28
  6. By: Ben, Shenglin; Bosc, Romain; Jiao, Jinpu; Li, Wenwei; Simonelli, Felice; Zhang, Ruidong
    Abstract: This study is the result of collaboration among a group of researchers from CEPS and Zhejiang University (ZJU), who decided to team up and analyse the experience of China and the EU in bridging the digital divide. While acknowledging that both China and Europe have undertaken major efforts to reduce socio-economic and geographical disparities by providing network access to ever more citizens, the authors found that investing in physical access alone is not sufficient to enhance inclusion in the information society. They argue that public authorities should also adopt corollary policies to spur social and economic cohesion through innovations that enable disadvantaged regions to catch up with more developed urban areas. In this context, the report calls upon governments to promote digital innovation and entrepreneurship, foster coordinated efforts and adapt their educational systems to the changing labour market.
    Date: 2017–11
  7. By: Bouton, Laurent; Castanheira, Micael; Drazen, Allan
    Abstract: We present a model of electorally-motivated, small campaign contributions. The analysis uncovers interesting interactions among small donors and has novel implications for the effect of income inequality on total contributions and election outcomes. Moreover, it helps explain a number of empirical observations that seem anomalous when contributions are driven by the consumption or the influence motives. We also study the impact of different forms of campaign finance laws on contribution behavior, probabilities of electoral outcomes, and welfare. Our results are consistent with more behaviorally motivated donors when contributions are driven by the parties' strategic solicitation of funds. We also indicate how the model and its results may have important implications for empirical work on campaign contributions.
    Keywords: Campaign Contributions; Campaign Finance Laws; Electoral Motive; Income inequality
    JEL: D72
    Date: 2018–03
  8. By: Riley, Alan
    Abstract: The new US sanctions law – Countering America’s Adversaries through Sanctions Act 2017 – is not a legal monster threatening European interests. In the view of Alan Riley, it stems from specific and legitimate concerns on Capitol Hill about the threat to the integrity of US democratic institutions flowing from cyber-attacks by the Russian Federation and the behaviour of the current President. The law’s most substantial legislative footprint merely codifies into law the Obama-era executive orders already agreed with the European Union. On a more positive note, the sanctions law provides opportunities for the US and the EU to cooperate to protect the West’s democratic institutions against future cyber-warfare attacks and to enhance European supply security.
    Date: 2017–08
  9. By: William Gilje Gjedrem; Ola Kvaløy
    Abstract: Between and within firms, work teams compete against each other and receive feedback on how well their team is performing relative to their benchmarks. In this paper we investigate experimentally how teams respond to relative performance feedback (RPF) at team level. We find that when subjects work under team incentives, then RPF on team performance increases the teams’ average performance by almost 10 percent. The treatment effect is driven by higher top performance, as this is almost 20% higher when the teams receive RPF compared to when the teams only receive absolute performance feedback (APF). The experiment suggests that top performers are particularly motivated by the combination of team incentives and team RPF. In fact, team incentives motivate significantly higher top performance than individual incentives when the team is exposed to RPF. We also find notable gender differences. Females respond negatively to individual RPF, but even more positively than males to team RPF.
    Keywords: teams, performance feedback, performance pay, experiment
    JEL: C91 M50 M52
    Date: 2018
  10. By: Stefan E. Weishaar
    Abstract: This paper examines the implementation issues and barriers for introducing a carbon tax at EU member state level. Important success determinants are related to the political economy of introducing taxes (negotiations with stakeholders, concessions, changes in proposed legislation, compromises, etc.) which translate i.a. into competitiveness issues, and fairness/equity/distribution issues. For these the design of the carbon tax exemptions, and safeguards to prevent progressivity and the use of the tax proceeds are important. The analysis will focus on the "frontrunner" countries in the EU which have been very successful in terms of the introduction of carbon taxes (Sweden, Denmark and Finland). The countries employed different implementation strategies but underscore the importance of successful issue, timing, linking and to foster political support by safeguarding competitiveness and by addressing income distributions.
    Keywords: Carbon taxes, Climate change
    Date: 2018–02–23
  11. By: Fiala, Lenka (Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management); Suetens, Sigrid (Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management)
    Abstract: We use data from experiments on finitely repeated dilemma games with fixed matching to investigate the effect of different types of information on cooperation. The data come from 71 studies using the voluntary contributions paradigm, covering 122 data points, and from 18 studies on decision-making in oligopoly, covering another 50 data points. We find similar effects in the two sets of experimental games. We find that transparency about what everyone in a group earns reduces contributions to the public good, as well as the degree of collusion in oligopoly markets. In contrast, transparency about choices tends to lead to an increase in contributions and collusion, although the size of this effect varies somewhat between the two settings. Our results are potentially useful for policy making, because they provide guidance on the type of information to target in order to stimulate or limit cooperation.
    Date: 2017
  12. By: Bernini, Andrea; Facchini, Giovanni; Testa, Cecilia
    Abstract: The Voting Rights Act of 1965 opened elective offices to blacks in the US South, but systematic evidence on its immediate effects remains scant. Using a novel data-set on black elected officials between 1964-1980, we assess the causal impact of the VRA on the racial make-up of local governments. Since the VRA mandated federal scrutiny (coverage) over a group of Southern counties, we deploy a differences-in-differences estimation strategy using non-covered counties as a comparison group. Our results show that coverage doubled the extent to which black enfranchisement led to gains in black office-holding, particularly among bodies controlling local public finances.
    Keywords: Black Representation; Local Elections; Public Good Provision; Voting Rights Act
    JEL: D72 J15 N92
    Date: 2018–03

This nep-cdm issue is ©2018 by Stan C. Weeber. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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