nep-cbe New Economics Papers
on Cognitive and Behavioural Economics
Issue of 2019‒11‒04
six papers chosen by
Marco Novarese
Università degli Studi del Piemonte Orientale

  1. Investment Choice Architecture in Trust Games: When “All-in” Is Not Enough By Joaquín Gómez-Miñambres; Eric Schniter; Timothy W. Shields
  2. Dual decision processes: retrieving preferences when some choices are automatic By Francesco Cerigioni
  3. Moral licensing and rebound effects in the residential lighting area: An experimental study By Eberling, Elisabeth; Dütschke, Elisabeth; Eckartz, Katharina Marie; Schuler, Johannes
  4. Behaviors of Professional Athletes in Terms of the Big Five Model Due to the Type of Contact of the Sport Discipline By Pawel Piepiora
  5. Parenting values moderate the intergenerational transmission of time preferences By Anne Ardila Brenøe; Thomas Epper
  6. Complexity and Distributive Fairness Interact in Affecting Compliance Behavior By Charles Bellemare; Marvin Deversi; Florian Englmaier

  1. By: Joaquín Gómez-Miñambres (Lafayette College, Department of Economics; Economic Science Institute, Chapman University); Eric Schniter (Economic Science Institute, Chapman University; Argyros School of Business and Economics, Chapman University); Timothy W. Shields (Economic Science Institute, Chapman University; Argyros School of Business and Economics, Chapman University)
    Abstract: While many economic interactions feature “All-or-Nothing” options nudging investors towards going “all-in”, such designs may unintentionally affect reciprocity. We manipulate the investor’s action space in two versions of the “trust game”. In one version investors can invest either “all” their endowment or “nothing”. In the other version, they can invest any amount of the endowment. Consistent with our intentions-based model, we show that "all-or-nothing” designs coax more investment but limit investors’ demonstrability of intended trust. As a result, “all-in” investors are less generously reciprocated than when they can invest any amount, where full investments are a clearer signal of trustworthiness.
    JEL: C72 C90 C91 D63 D64 L51
    Date: 2019
  2. By: Francesco Cerigioni
    Abstract: Evidence from the cognitive sciences suggests that some choices are conscious and reflect individual volition while others tend to be automatic, being driven by analogies with past experiences. Under these circumstances, standard economic modeling might not always be applicable because not all choices are the result of individual tastes. We propose a behavioral model that can be used in standard economic analysis that formalizes the way in which conscious and automatic choices arise by presenting a decision maker comprised of two selves. One self compares past decision problems with the one the decision maker faces and, when the problems are similar enough, it replicates past behavior (Automatic choices). Otherwise, a second self is activated and preferences are maximized (Conscious choices). We then present a novel method capable of identifying a set of conscious choices from observed behavior and discuss its usefulness as a framework for studying asymmetric pricing and empirical puzzles in different settings.
    Keywords: Dual processes, similarity, revealed preferences, fluency, automatic choice
    JEL: D01 D03 D60
    Date: 2019–10
  3. By: Eberling, Elisabeth; Dütschke, Elisabeth; Eckartz, Katharina Marie; Schuler, Johannes
    Abstract: Rebound effects reduce the energy demand reduction from energy efficiency in-creases. Understanding the underlying mechanisms is therefore crucial. A poten-tial driver is moral licensing, a cognitive process by which individuals justify im-moral behaviour (e.g., using more and brighter lights) by having previously en-gaged in moral behaviour (e.g., switching to a more efficient lighting). Since em-pirical research on this topic is rare, we conducted an experimental study: Partic-ipants (n=491) chose between three LEDs, which were all more energy-efficient than their current one. For investigating moral licensing, the perceived environ-mental behaviour of the participants was manipulated by a previous assessment of their own past environmental behaviour: Treatment easy (1) provided the im-pression of highly environmental behaviours, treatment difficult (2) the impression of a less environmentally friendly behaviour. A control group (3) focused on lei-sure time behaviours. Overall, we are able to demonstrate rebound effects in LED choice and find effects of the manipulation on the moral self-perception. However, we do not find significant patterns regarding treatment condition and LED choice. On the contrary, in both treatments, easy (1) and difficult (2), individuals tended to show more environmental friendly choices. These results suggest that bringing environmental behaviours to people's mind could contribute to weakening re-bound effects in general.
    Date: 2019
  4. By: Pawel Piepiora (University School of Physical Education in Wroclaw, Poland)
    Abstract: Sports disciplines can be divided due to the type of contact allowed with the opponent. We distinguish disciplines with direct and indirect contact as well as non-contact disciplines. The intention of this study was to check if the behavior of professional athletes is determined by the type of contact of sports disciplines. 180 competitive athletes from six sport disciplines, i.e. luge, tennis, wrestling, team mountaineering, volleyball and rugby, were purposefully selected for the study. The research method used was the NEO-FFI Personality Inventory. It was shown that specific samples - lugers, team mountaineers and rugbists are characterized by low neuroticism in relation to tennis players, wrestlers and volleyball players. Athletes of non-contact disciplines stand out by low neuroticism in relation athletes of indirect and direct contact disciplines. Team athletes are distinguished by low neuroticism in relation to individual athletes. On this basis, the following conclusions were made. The behavior of athletes depends on the type of contact of the sport discipline. Behavioral profiles are specific to the requirements of a given sport discipline and are consistent with the average profile of behavior of all athletes, characterized by high conscientiousness and extraversion, average openness to experience and agreeableness. The indicator differentiating the behavior of athletes due to the type of contact of the sport discipline is neuroticism.
    Keywords: behaviours, sport psychology, personality, NEO-FFI, type of contact
    Date: 2019–08
  5. By: Anne Ardila Brenøe; Thomas Epper
    Abstract: We study the intergenerational transmission of time preferences in a setting without reverse causality concerns. We find substantial transmission of patience from parents to children, which is insensitive to the inclusion of comprehensive sets of administratively reported controls and persists as children age. We further explore heterogeneity in the transmission with respect to two theoretically important but distinct dimensions of socialization through which parents can influence children’s traits: parenting values and parental involvement. Our results show that, in contrast to authoritative parents, authoritarian and permissive parents transmit patience to their offspring. Meanwhile, parental involvement is not an important moderator. These patterns replicate in an independent sample with richer measures of parental involvement.
    Keywords: Intergenerational transmission, time preferences, patience, parenting style, parenting values, parental involvement
    JEL: J12 J24 J62
    Date: 2019–10
  6. By: Charles Bellemare; Marvin Deversi; Florian Englmaier
    Abstract: Filing income tax returns or insurance claims often requires that individuals comply with complex rules to meet their obligations. We present evidence from a laboratory tax experiment suggesting that the effects of complexity on compliance are intrinsically linked to distributive fairness. We find that compliance remains largely unaffected by complexity when income taxes are distributed to a morally justified charity. Conversely, complexity significantly amplifies non-compliance when income taxes appear wasted as they are distributed to a morally dubious charity. Our data further suggest that this non-compliance pattern is facilitated through the ambiguity that evolves from mostly unstrategic filing mistakes.
    Keywords: complexity, compliance, distributive fairness, experiment
    JEL: C91 D01 D91 H26
    Date: 2019

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