nep-cbe New Economics Papers
on Cognitive and Behavioural Economics
Issue of 2019‒01‒14
five papers chosen by
Marco Novarese
Università degli Studi del Piemonte Orientale

  1. Dishonesty, Social Information, and Sorting By AKIN, ZAFER
  2. Ambiguity and excuse-driven behavior in charitable giving By Thomas Garcia; Sébastien Massoni; Marie Villeval
  3. Fight or Flight : Endogenous Timing in Conflicts By van Leeuwen, Boris; Offerman, T.J.S.; van de Ven, J.
  4. Tax or green nudge? An experimental analysis of pesticide policies in Germany By Buchholz, Matthias; Peth, Denise; Mußhoff, Oliver
  5. Context-Specific Affective and Cognitive Responses to Humanoid Robots By Jung, Yoonhyuk; Cho, Eunae

  1. By: AKIN, ZAFER
    Abstract: The dishonesty literature investigates how people behave when they are provided certain types of information. However, this approach predominantly ignores the fact that people -to some extent- can choose which information they want to be exposed to. By conducting a laboratory experiment, we study individuals’ decisions to choose which social information they would like to observe and the effect of this sorting on their engagement in unethical conduct. We find evidence that sorting exacerbates the prevalence of dishonesty, which is mainly driven by the ones who chose maximum information. Our results demonstrate that sorting is an important factor determining dishonest behavior and that previously observed levels of prevalence of dishonesty in the literature can be an underestimate of actual level of dishonest behavior in real-world situations.
    Keywords: Dishonesty; social norms; selection; laboratory experiments
    JEL: C91 D03
    Date: 2018–08–01
  2. By: Thomas Garcia (GATE Lyon Saint-Étienne - Groupe d'analyse et de théorie économique - ENS Lyon - École normale supérieure - Lyon - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - UCBL - Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 - Université de Lyon - UJM - Université Jean Monnet [Saint-Étienne] - Université de Lyon - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Sébastien Massoni (QuBE - School of Economics and Finance, Queensland University of Technology); Marie Villeval (GATE Lyon Saint-Étienne - Groupe d'analyse et de théorie économique - ENS Lyon - École normale supérieure - Lyon - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - UCBL - Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 - Université de Lyon - UJM - Université Jean Monnet [Saint-Étienne] - Université de Lyon - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: A donation may have ambiguous costs or ambiguous benefits. In a laboratory experiment, we show that individuals use this ambiguity strategically as a moral wiggle room to behave less generously without feeling guilty. Such excuse-driven behavior is more pronounced when the costs of a donation-rather than its benefits-are ambiguous. However, the importance of excuse-driven behavior is comparable under ambiguity and under risk. Individuals exploit any type of uncertainty as an excuse not to give, regardless of the nature of this uncertainty.
    Keywords: Ambiguity,excuse-driven behavior,charitable giving,social preferences
    Date: 2018
  3. By: van Leeuwen, Boris (Tilburg University, Center For Economic Research); Offerman, T.J.S. (Tilburg University, Center For Economic Research); van de Ven, J. (Tilburg University, Center For Economic Research)
    Abstract: We study a dynamic game in which players compete for a prize. In a waiting game with two-sided private information about strength levels, players choose between fighting, fleeing, or waiting. Players earn a “deterrence value” on top of the prize if their opponent escapes without a battle. We show that this value is a key determinant of the type of equilibrium. For intermediate values, sorting takes place with weaker and more loss averse players fleeing before others fight. Time then helps to reduce battles. In an experiment, we find support for the key theoretical predictions, and document suboptimal predatory fighting.
    Keywords: fight-or-flight; contest; sorting; loss aversion; theory; experiment
    JEL: D74 D82 C92
    Date: 2018
  4. By: Buchholz, Matthias; Peth, Denise; Mußhoff, Oliver
    Abstract: Pesticides are one of the most important inputs in modern agriculture. However, intensive use of pesticides is also related to adverse effects on the environment and human health. While implementation of pesticide taxes with the intent to reduce pesticide applications has been widely discussed, green nudges are considered as innovative policy tools to foster environmental friendly behaviour. To date, little is known about the effects of these policy tools at the farm level. With this in mind, we use a business management game to investigate how a pesticide tax and a green nudge affect crop, tillage and pesticide decisions for a "virtual" farm. Results from a sample of German agricultural students reveal that both policies are able to reduce the amount of pesticides applied. However, implementation of the pesticide tax also involves a substantial profit loss. Unlike in the green nudge treatment, participants under pesticide tax adjust their cropping and tillage strategies which could involve unintended ecological effects.
    Keywords: pesticide policies,pesticide tax,green nudge,policy impact analysis,business management game
    Date: 2018
  5. By: Jung, Yoonhyuk; Cho, Eunae
    Abstract: The uncanny valley model explains the relationship between the resemblance that robots have to humans and attitudes towards these humanoid robots. This model is an influential theory in human-robot interaction and helps us understand individuals' attitudes towards humanoids. Despite its extraordinary worth, prior research has examined the model in general or contextfree situations. Given that humanoids have begun to permeate social spheres and are used in actual business areas, it is important to investigate the uncanny valley in specific and actual situations. Additionally, there has been little work on the impact of affective responses presented in the uncanny valley to other appraisals of humanoids. To remedy these constraints, this study tries to explore context-specific affective and cognitive responses to humanoids in the framework of the uncanny valley. In particular, this study examines the effect of affective responses on trust, which is regarded as a critical cognitive factor influencing technology adoption, in two situations: hotel reception (low expertise) and tutoring (high expertise). By providing a richer understanding of human reactions to humanoids, this study expands on the uncanny valley theory and ultimately makes contributions to research on human-robot interactions.
    Keywords: human-robot interaction,uncanny valley,trust,context
    Date: 2018

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