nep-cbe New Economics Papers
on Cognitive and Behavioural Economics
Issue of 2015‒05‒16
seven papers chosen by
Marco Novarese
Università degli Studi del Piemonte Orientale “Amedeo Avogadro”

  2. Grading Hampers Cooperative Information Sharing in Group Problem Solving By Anne-Sophie Hayek; Claudia Toma; Dominique Oberlé; Fabrizio Butera
  3. Are Notions of Fairness Path‐Dependent? Experimental Evidence from an Efficiency‐Wage Environment By Stan Hu; Stuart Mestelman Author_Name: William Scarth
  4. How does the preference for increasing payments depend on the size and source of the payments? By Duffy, Sean; Smith, John; Woods, Kristin
  5. That Sinking Feeling: The Changing Price of Disaster Risk Following an Earthquake By Timar, Levente; Grimes, Arthur; Fabling, Richard
  6. Who can predict their own Demise? Accuracy of Longevity Expectations by Education and Cognition By Teresa Bago d'Uva; Esen Erdogan Ciftci; Owen O'Donnell; Eddy van Doorslaer
  7. Cognitive Mapping as a Methodology to Study Individual and Collective Cognition By Rannah Hetherington

  1. By: Neslihan Lok (Akdeniz University, Nursing Faculty, Psychiatric Nursing Department); Sefa Lok (Selcuk University, School of Physical Education and Sports, Coaching Education Department)
    Abstract: Introduction: Mild cognitive impairment is the pathological case in which the individual is between dementia and healthy. Therefore, especially in the protection, it is necessary to maintain and protect the cognitive functions. The physical activities exercised by the old people are crucial in increasing the cognitive functions or in maintenance of the present condition.Aim: In this research, the aim is to analyse the effects of the physical activities on the cognitive functions of the old people with mild cognitive impairment.Methods: The research was organized within the order of pretest-posttest design as experimental type using control groups. For the experiment, 25 old people with mild cognitive impairment who were convenient for physical activities were selected with regard to the doctors’ advice. For the control group, a group of old people with mild cognitive impairment was listed. For the old people in the experimental group, a physical activity programme was applied including 30 minutes walk and 30 minutes regular exercise three days in a week which had continued for four weeks. Nothing was applied on the control group. Sociodemographic form and Standardized Mini Mental Test were applied on the old people both before and after the activity. The data has been analysed using Mann Whitney U test and percentage distributions.Results: The average age of the experimental group is 71.3±3.6and the control group is 70.2±42. The average mini mental test point of the old people in the experimental group before the activity (20.6±2.4) increased considerably after the activity (24.3±3.6) and the difference is significant statistically (p<0.05). When the mini mental test points of the experimental and control group was compared after the activity, it was found out that the experimental group has higher points compared to the experimental group and the difference is significant (p<0.05).Conclusions: Regular and a three-day week physical activity program improved the cognitive functions of the old people with mild cognitive impairment.
    Keywords: Elderly, Mild cognitive impairment, Physical activity, Cognitive functions
    JEL: I19
  2. By: Anne-Sophie Hayek; Claudia Toma; Dominique Oberlé; Fabrizio Butera
    Abstract: We hypothesized that individual grading in group work, a widespread practice, hampers information sharing in cooperative problem solving. Experiment 1 showed that a condition in which members’ individual contribution was expected to be visible and graded, as in most graded work, led to less pooling of relevant, unshared information and more pooling of less-relevant, shared information than two control conditions where individual contribution was not graded, but either visible or not. Experiment 2 conceptually replicated this effect: Group members primed with grades pooled less of their unshared information, but more of their shared information, compared to group members primed with neutral concepts. Thus, grading can hinder cooperative work and impair information sharing in groups.
    Keywords: information sharing; grades; hidden profiles; cooperation; mixed-motives
    Date: 2015–05–06
  3. By: Stan Hu; Stuart Mestelman Author_Name: William Scarth
    Abstract: We extend the study of efficiency‐wage environments via laboratory experiments in three ways. First, we introduce exogenous shocks that increase the opportunity for rejection of the gift‐exchange outcome. These additional tests emerge since we carefully derive a series of theoretical predictions so that support for efficiency wages requires much more than simply observing that wage and effort levels exceed what would emerge with competition. Second, we focus on how the exogenous shocks can affect how both suppliers and demanders of labour view what is fair. Finally, we provide evidence to bolster our confidence in the applicability of the payroll tax side liability equivalence proposition in public economics.
    Date: 2015–05
  4. By: Duffy, Sean; Smith, John; Woods, Kristin
    Abstract: It is well-known that subjects can exhibit a preference for increasing payments. Smith (2009a) makes a related prediction that the difference between the preference increasing wage payments and the preference for increasing non-wage payments will be largest for intermediate payments. We find evidence consistent with this prediction. Consistent with previous experiments, we find that the preference for increasing payments is increasing in the size of the payments. Also consistent with the literature, we find that the preference for increasing wage payments is stronger than the preference for non-wage payments.
    Keywords: time preference; sequences; intertemporal choice; economic psychology
    JEL: C91 D90
    Date: 2015–05–07
  5. By: Timar, Levente; Grimes, Arthur; Fabling, Richard
    Abstract: Published as: Motu Working Paper 14-13 Motu Economic and Public Policy Research, November 2014
    Keywords: Property values, earthquake risk, cognitive dissonance, hedonic model, repeat sales model, Institutional and Behavioral Economics, Risk and Uncertainty, Q54, R21, R30,
    Date: 2015–02
  6. By: Teresa Bago d'Uva (Erasmus University Rotterdam, the Netherlands); Esen Erdogan Ciftci (Novartis, Turkey); Owen O'Donnell (Erasmus University Rotterdam, the Netherlands, University of Macedonia, Greece); Eddy van Doorslaer (Erasmus University Rotterdam, the Netherlands)
    Abstract: Biased longevity expectations will lead to suboptimal decisions regarding saving, retirement, annuitization and health, with consequences for wellbeing in old age. Systematic differences in the accuracy of longevity expectations may partly explain heterogeneity in economic behaviour by education and cognitive functioning. Analysis of eight waves of the US Health and Retirement Study reveals that individuals with lower levels of education and cognitive functioning report survival probabilities that are less accurate in predicting their in-sample mortality. There is little evidence that the gradients in the veracity of expectations are due to the less educated and cognitively able responding less to changes in objective mortality risks. However, high school dropouts and the least cognitively able report survival probabilities that are less stable and display greater un explained variability. These disadvantaged groups appear to be less confident in their longevity beliefs, which is justified given that their expectations are less accurate.
    Keywords: Expectations; Mortality; Health; Cognition; Education
    JEL: D83 D84 I12 J14
    Date: 2015–05–07
  7. By: Rannah Hetherington (The University of Melbourne)
    Abstract: The practicum is accepted as being mutually beneficial. Relationships between all members in the supervisory set are a significant component of the pre-service teacher practicum experience. The strength of these relationships supports social justice for pre-service teachers.This qualitative study explores the epistemological beliefs of a group of university based supervisors to determine their perceptions of professional reciprocal relationships. As a newly emerging qualitative methodology, in educational research, cognitive mapping was used to explore and challenge individual and collective perceptions of relationships developed in the practicum. Data derived through the mapping activity represents a subjective ‘collective’ view of what constitutes a professional reciprocal relationship and how these relationships can better support pre-service teacher development, university-school partnerships and inform systemic policy.
    Keywords: Cognitive Mapping, professional relationships, teacher education, practicum
    JEL: I29 I23

This nep-cbe issue is ©2015 by Marco Novarese. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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