nep-cbe New Economics Papers
on Cognitive and Behavioural Economics
Issue of 2011‒06‒18
nine papers chosen by
Marco Novarese
University Amedeo Avogadro

  1. SPIRITUALITY IN THE WORK PLACE AND ITS IMPACTS ON THE EFFICIENCY OF MANAGEMENT By Dr. Kamran Janfeshan; Belal Panahy; Seid-Mehdi Veiseh; Farideh Kamari
  2. Fairness and Cheating By Daniel Houser; Stefan Vetter; Joachim Winter
  3. Size matters - when it comes to lies By Gerald Eisenkopf; Ruslan Gurtoviy; Verena Utikal
  4. On the Nature of Reciprocity: Evidence from the Ultimatum Reciprocity Measure By Andreas Nicklisch; Irenaeus Wolff
  5. A Field Study of Social Learning By Arthur Fishman; Uri Gneezy
  6. The coordination value of monetary exchange: Experimental evidence By G. Camera; M. Casari
  7. Accounting for real wealth in heterogeneous-endowment public good games By Nikolaos Georgantzís; Antonios Proestakis
  9. The effect of interviewer personality, skills and attitudes on respondent co-operation with face-to-face surveys By Jäckle, Annette; Lynn, Peter; Sinibaldi, Jennifer; Tipping, Sarah

  1. By: Dr. Kamran Janfeshan (Kermanshah Branch, Islamic Azad university, Iran); Belal Panahy (Payam-e-noor University, Iran); Seid-Mehdi Veiseh (Payam-E-Noor University, Iran); Farideh Kamari (Science Educational Technology)
    Abstract: In the modern word, successful organizations have undertaken new values and approaches, and due to these values, they have achieved more morality and success. People are also deeply interested in embracing morality, not only in their personal lives, but also in their career and social life. When the society is packed with technology, communication, complication and instability, people show a tendency toward morality to fill the vacuity appeared in their lives, not only within their personal lives, but also within their career life where they spend a part of their time. Encouraging morality in work has some advantages for organizations. Morality at work results in creativity, honesty and trust, self-success, organization, commitment, and better performance of the organization. When someone feels committed to the organization s/he works for is loyal to moral and human values and respects its employees, s/he feels a kind of adaptation with the values of the organization and works for those values. The more a person is committed to morality, the more his/her creativity, mental and spiritual justice, moral and social justice, and managerial and ruling justice will be. People who have values based on theism, believe in the divine origin of the human being and in the afterlife and consider themselves as responsible and answerable before God, their existence society, and the world. This paper, in addition to giving a definition of morality, has studied morality at work from the viewpoint of different theorists, and the essence of morality from the viewpoint of religion, naturalism and existentialism, and its correlation with important managerial and organizational variables
    Keywords: Spirituality, Justice, Naturalism, Religious Viewpoint, Existentialism
    JEL: M0
    Date: 2011–03
  2. By: Daniel Houser (Interdisciplinary Center for Economic Science and Department of Economics, George Mason University); Stefan Vetter (University of Munich); Joachim Winter (University of Munich)
    Abstract: We present evidence from a laboratory experiment showing that individuals who believe they were treated unfairly in an interaction with another person are more likely to cheat in a subsequent unrelated game. Specifically, subjects first participated in a dictator game. They then flipped a coin in private and reported the outcome. Subjects could increase their total payoff by cheating, i.e., lying about the outcome of the coin toss. We found that subjects were more likely to cheat in reporting the outcome of the coin flip when: 1) they received either nothing or a very small transfer from the dictator; and 2) they claimed to have been treated unfairly.
    Keywords: cheating, fairness, experimental design
    JEL: C91 D63
    Date: 2011–01
  3. By: Gerald Eisenkopf; Ruslan Gurtoviy; Verena Utikal
    Abstract: A small lie appears trivial but it obviously violates moral commandments. We analyze whether the preference for others’ truth telling is absolute or depends on the size of a lie. In a laboratory experiment we compare punishment for different sizes of lies controlling for the resulting economic harm. We find that people are sensitive to the size of a lie and that this behavioral pattern is driven by honest people. People who lie themselves punish softly in any context.
    Keywords: Lying, norm violation, punishment, experiment
    Date: 2011
  4. By: Andreas Nicklisch; Irenaeus Wolff
    Abstract: We experimentally show that current models of reciprocity are in- complete in a systematic way using a new variant of the ultimatum game that provides second-movers with a marginal-cost-free punish- ment option. For a substantial proportion of the population, the de- gree of rst-mover unkindness determines the severity of punishment actions even when marginal costs are absent. The proportion of these subjects strongly depends on a treatment variation: higher xed costs of punishment lead to harsher responses. The fractions of purely self- ish and inequity-averse participants are small and stable. Among the variety of reciprocity models, only one accommodates (rather than predicts) parts of our ndings. The treatment e ect is unaccounted for. We discuss ways of incorporating our ndings into the existing models.
    Keywords: Distributional fairness, experiments, intention-based fair- ness, reciprocity, ultimatum bargaining
    Date: 2011
  5. By: Arthur Fishman (Bar-Ilan University); Uri Gneezy (UC San Diego)
    Abstract: We present a field study of social learning. The setting is a pair of adjacent fast food restaurants serving very similar cuisine whose main clientele are the students at a nearby major university. We observed whether an uninformed customer's choice of restaurant depends on the relative queue lengths at the two restaurants. Observations were made at two separate observation periods, the start of the academic year, when a significant proportion of customers had little or no experience with either restaurant, and the middle of the year, when most customers already had previous experience with the restaurants. It is found, consistent with the social learning hypothesis, that relative queue length has a significant effect at the first period but not at the second.
    Date: 2011–05
  6. By: G. Camera; M. Casari
    Abstract: Under what conditions can cooperation be sustained in a network of strangers? Here we study the role of institutions and uncover a new behavioral foundation for the use of monetary systems. In an experiment, anonymous subjects could cooperate or defect in bilateral random encounters. This sequence of encounters was indefinite; hence multiple equilibria were possible, including full intertemporal cooperation supported by a social norm based on community punishment of defectors. We report that such social norm did not emerge. Instead, the availability of intrinsically worthless tokens favored the coordination on intertemporal cooperation in ways that networks of strangers were unable to achieve through social norms.
    JEL: C90 C70 D80
    Date: 2011–05
  7. By: Nikolaos Georgantzís (GLOBE & Department of Economics, University of Granada); Antonios Proestakis (GLOBE & Department of Economics, University of Granada)
    Abstract: Wealth heterogeneity infuences people's behavior in several socioeconomic environments, especially when groups consisting of "unequal" members have to take a collective action which affects all members equally or proportionally. After eliciting real out-of-lab wealth, we form 4-player groups playing an one-shot public good game with heterogeneous laboratory endowments. Endowing subjects according or against their real wealth gives rise to a series of interesting results. Endowment heterogeneity, lack of real relative wealth information and being "rich" both inside and outside the lab raise contributions. Finally, when eliciting subjects' beliefs, we find out that only relatively "poor" subjects expect others to contribute more than what they actually are prepared to do theirselves.
    Keywords: Public goods, experiment, endowment heterogeneity, real wealth
    Date: 2011–06–01
  8. By: Dr. Mohammad Ali Motafakkerazad; Sakineh Sojoodi; Nassim M. Aslaninia (Economic Department, University of Tabriz, Iran)
    Abstract: Buy domestic promotions in various countries often urge citizens to help domestic workers whose jobs are threatened by imports. To explain why purchasers might engage in buy domestic purchase activities, researchers develop and test a behavioral model about why people help distressed victims. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of factors underlying consumer choice of domestic vs. foreign products on a sample of consumers in Iran. For this purpose authors use multiple-group structural equation analysis of survey data from Iran to test the model that features seven explanatory constructs drawn from previous behavioral research. Empirical results confirmed the postulated that domestic punches costs, similarity and common fate have significant impact on consumer domestic purchase decisions. However, findings did not lend support for theoretical propositions related to ethnocentric, patriotism, social concerns. Implications for domestic economic are outlined in the conclusions
    Keywords: Iranian Goods, Patriotism, Ethnocentrism, Social concern, Responsibility, Conceptual Model
    JEL: M0
    Date: 2011–03
  9. By: Jäckle, Annette; Lynn, Peter; Sinibaldi, Jennifer; Tipping, Sarah
    Abstract: This paper examines the role of interviewers experience, attitudes, personality traits and inter-personal skills in determining survey co-operation. We take the perspective that these characteristics influence interviewers behaviour and hence influence the doorstep interaction between interviewer and sample member. We use a large sample of 842 face-to-face interviewers working for a major survey institute and analyse co-operation outcomes for over 100,000 cases contacted by those interviewers over a 13-month period.
    Date: 2011–06–09

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