nep-bec New Economics Papers
on Business Economics
Issue of 2021‒12‒20
nine papers chosen by
Vasileios Bougioukos
London South Bank University

  1. Cross-Product and Cross-Market Adjustments Within Multiproduct Firms: Evidence from Antidumping Actions By Xiaohua Bao; Bruce A. Blonigen; Zhi Yu
  2. Access to finance employment growth and firm performance of South Asia firms By Bui, Anh Tuan; Pham, Linh Chi; Ta, Thi Khanh Van
  3. Financial constraints and productivity growth: firm-level evidence from a large emerging economy By Yusuf Kenan Bagir; Unal Seven
  4. Ultra-Fast Broadband Access and Productivity :Evidence from Italian Firms By Carlo Cambini; Elena Grinza; Lorien Sabatino
  5. Ceo pay and the rise of relative performance contracts: A question of governance? By Bell, Brian; Pedemonte, Simone; Van Reenen, John
  6. Firm expectations and economic activity By Enders, Zeno; Hünnekes, Franziska; Müller, Gernot J.
  7. Small and Vulnerable: Small Firm Productivity in the Great Productivity Slowdown By Sophia Chen; Do Lee
  8. Corporate Indebtedness and Investment: Micro Evidence of an Inverted U-Shape By Ibrahim Yarba
  9. Asset Prices and Business Cycles with Liquidity Shocks By Mahdi Nezafat; Ctirad Slavik

  1. By: Xiaohua Bao; Bruce A. Blonigen; Zhi Yu
    Abstract: Multiproduct firms are responsible for the vast majority of global trade. A prior literature examines how multiproduct firms respond to trade liberalizations that simultaneously affect all of the firms' products and inputs. In contrast, our study uses Chinese firm-product-level export data to examine how an AD action, a very targeted trade policy against a specific product in a specific export destination, affects a multiproduct firms' price and quantity decisions across its other products and export destinations. We find robust evidence for a new phenomenon we call within-firm cross-product trade deflection whereby an AD duty against one of the firm's products in one of its export destinations is associated with reduced prices and increased sales of its other products across all markets. This type of effect depends on increasing costs from joint production within multiproduct firms, something that is often assumed away in many models of the multiproduct firm. We also document for the first time a within-firm chilling effect whereby an AD action in one export destination on a product leads the firm to raise price and lower quantity of the product in other export destinations to lower the risk of AD actions in these other markets.
    JEL: F13 F14 L11 L23
    Date: 2021–11
  2. By: Bui, Anh Tuan; Pham, Linh Chi; Ta, Thi Khanh Van
    Abstract: Using firm-level data on 11,000 companies across seven countries in South Asia, this paper explores the effects of access to finance on employment growth and performance at the firm level. The paper focuses on how the impact of financing obstacles varies across firm sizes. The results show that higher obstacles in access to finance reduces employment growth and performance for firms of all sizes, especially micro and small firms. We find significant differences between firms with less than 10 employees and small firm, which suggests that significant reforms are needed to drive micro firm growth to small and medium enterprises.
    Keywords: Access to finance obstacles,employment growth,Total factor of productivity
    JEL: J21 J41 M51
    Date: 2021
  3. By: Yusuf Kenan Bagir; Unal Seven
    Abstract: We study whether the linkage between financing and productivity growth strengthens as the severity of financial constraints increases by using firm-level administrative data from a large emerging economy. We also explore whether upstream firms’ financial constraints play a role in the linkage between finance and productivity. Using a combination of administrative databases of tax registry and firm-to-firm trade data of 896,317 Turkish firms from 2007 to 2018, employing various robustness tests and controlling for reverse causality, we find strong evidence that firms facing higher financial constraints exhibit a higher sensitivity of total factor productivity (TFP) growth to debt growth. Moreover, we show that a rise in upstream firms’ financial constraint level also leads to increased sensitivity of TFP growth to debt growth. Our results reveal important channels through which financial constraints could hinder productivity growth in Turkey.
    Keywords: TFP growth, Financial constraints, Debt growth
    JEL: D24 G30 O16
    Date: 2021
  4. By: Carlo Cambini; Elena Grinza; Lorien Sabatino
    Abstract: We study the impact of ultra-fast broadband (UFB) infrastructures on the total factor productivity (TFP) and labor productivity of firms. We use unique balanced panel data for the 2013-2019 period on incorporated firms in Italy. Using the geographical location of the firms, we match firm data with municipality-level information on the diffusion of UFB, which started in 2015 in Italy. We derive consistent firm-level TFP estimates by adopting a version of the Ackerberg et al.’s (2015) method, which also accounts for firm fixed effects. We then assess the impact of UFB on productivity and deal with the endogeneity of UFB by exploiting the physical distance between each municipality and the closest backbone node. Our results show an overall positive impact of UFB on productivity. Services companies benefit the most from advanced broadband technologies, as do firms located in the North-West and South of Italy. We further decompose the impact of full-fiber networks (FTTH) from mixed copper-fiber connections (FTTC) and find that FTTH networks significantly contribute to enhancing firm productivity. Finally, by exploiting Labor Force Survey data, we provide suggestive evidence that productivity increases from UFB might be related to structural changes at the workforce level.
    Keywords: Ultra-fast broadband (UFB); fiber-based networks; fiber-to-the-home (FTTH)
    JEL: L96 D24 D22
    Date: 2021–12–03
  5. By: Bell, Brian; Pedemonte, Simone; Van Reenen, John
    Abstract: We exploit the large rise in relative performance awards in the United Kingdom over the last two decades to investigate whether these contracts improve the alignment between CEO pay and firm performance. We first document that corporate governance appears to be stronger when institutional ownership is greater. Then, using hand-collected data from annual reports on explicit contracts, we show that (1) CEO pay still responds more to increases in the firms' stock performance than to decreases, and, importantly, this asymmetry is stronger when corporate governance is weak as measured by low institutional ownership; and (2) "pay for luck"persists as remuneration increases with random positive shocks, even when the CEO has equity awards that explicitly condition on firm performance relative to peer firms in the same sector. A major reason why relative performance contracts do not eliminate pay for luck is that CEOs who fail to meet the terms of their past performance awards are able to obtain more generous new equity rewards in the future in weakly governed firms. We show the mechanism operates both through the quantum of shares and the structure of new contracts. These findings suggest that reforms to the formal structure of CEO pay contracts are unlikely to align incentives in the absence of strong corporate governance.
    JEL: N0 R14 J01
    Date: 2021–10–14
  6. By: Enders, Zeno; Hünnekes, Franziska; Müller, Gernot J.
    Abstract: We assess how firm expectations about future production impact current production and pricing decisions. Our analysis is based on a large survey of firms in the German manufacturing sector. To identify the causal effect of expectations, we rely on the timing of survey responses and match firms with the same fundamentals but different views about the future. Firms that expect their production to increase (decrease) in the future are 15 percentage points more (less) likely to raise current production and prices, compared to firms that expect no change in production. In a second step, we show that expectations also matter even if they turn out to be incorrect. Lastly, we aggregate expectation errors across firms and find that they account for about 15 percent of aggregate fluctuations. JEL Classification: E32, D84, E71
    Keywords: business cycle, news, noise, propensity score matching, survey data
    Date: 2021–12
  7. By: Sophia Chen; Do Lee
    Abstract: We provide broad-based evidence of a firm size premium of total factor productivity (TFP) growth in Europe after the Global Financial Crisis. The TFP growth of smaller firms was more adversely affected and diverged from their larger counterparts after the crisis. The impact was progressively larger for medium, small, and micro firms relative to large firms. It was also disproportionally larger for firms with limited credit market access. Moreover, smaller firms were less likely to have access to safer banks: those that were better capitalized banks and with a presence in the credit default swap market. Horseraces suggest that firm size may be a more important and robust vulnerability indicator than balance sheet characteristics. Our results imply that the tightening of credit market conditions during the crisis, coupled with limited credit market access especially among micro, small, and medium firms, may have contributed to the large and persistent drop in aggregate TFP.
    Keywords: Credit constraint;Financial crisis;Firm size;Intangibles;Producvitity;SMEs;WP;TFP growth;creditor bank;size premium;credit market access;micro firm;vulnerability indicator
    Date: 2020–12–18
  8. By: Ibrahim Yarba
    Abstract: This study investigates the link between corporate indebtedness and investment by utilizing a novel firm-level data, which contains the universe of all incorporated manufacturing firms in Turkey over the last decade. The results of the panel regression model with multi-dimensional fixed effects provide significant evidence of an inverted-U relationship between indebtedness and investment, indicating that leverage increases investment up to a certain level, and after that further increase in leverage has an adverse impact on investment. This non-monotonic relationship is evident for all firm size groups. Conspicuously, the indebtedness level that becomes an impediment to investment is significantly lower for SMEs than large firms, which is in support of the arguments that small firms are more likely to be affected by debt overhang. Results also reveal that firms holding more cash can sustain higher level of debts without hurting investment activity. This is also the case for high capital-intensive firms and exporters. Findings of this paper highlight the importance of policies to make equity financing more attractive, incentivise the uptake and provision of equity capital from private investors, and deepen the capital markets.
    Keywords: Corporate debt, Firm investment; Cash policy; SMEs, Debt overhang
    JEL: C23 D22 E22 G31 G32
    Date: 2021
  9. By: Mahdi Nezafat; Ctirad Slavik
    Abstract: We develop a production based asset pricing model with financially constrained firms to explain the observed high equity premium and low risk-free rate volatility. Investment opportunities are scarce and firms face productivity and liquidity shocks. A negative liquidity shock forces firms to liquidate a fraction of their assets. We calibrate the model to U.S. data and find that it generates an equity premium and a level and volatility of risk-free rate comparable to those observed in the data. The model also fits key aspects of the behavior of aggregate quantities, in particular, the volatility of aggregate consumption and investment.
    Keywords: general equilibrium; business cycles; production based asset pricing; equity premium and risk-free rate puzzles;
    JEL: E20 E32 G12
    Date: 2021–11

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