New Economics Papers
on Banking
Issue of 2008‒04‒21
five papers chosen by
Roberto J. Santillán–Salgado, EGADE-ITESM

  1. M&A and post merger integration in banking industry: the missing link of corporate culture By Carretta, Alessandro; Farina, Vincenzo; Schwizer, Paola
  2. Banking on Development. Private Financial Actors and Donors in Developing Countries By Javier Santiso
  3. The Rational of Private Bank Note Issuance. The Enskilda Banks in the Economic and Financial Development of Nineteenth Century Sweden By Anders Ögren
  4. Impact of bank competition on the interest rate pass-through in the euro area By M. van Leuvensteijn; C. Kok Sørensen; J.A. Bikker; A.A.R.J.M. van Rixtel
  5. Relationship Lending within a Bank-based System: Evidence from European Small Business Data By Hans Degryse; Partick Van cayseele

  1. By: Carretta, Alessandro; Farina, Vincenzo; Schwizer, Paola
    Abstract: The intense concentration process taking place in the financial systems of the major countries has attracted substantial attention from stakeholders and academics. The impact of M&A on value creation and efficiency / effectiveness improvements of banks involved appears, on the whole, disappointing and still hard to create benefits for customers. The reason seems to lie in the difficulty of governing a post-merger integration process, which generally requires good governance and management practices, significant experience and attention to cultural profiles and individuals’ behavior. More in detail, management literature recognizes the importance of corporate culture, considered as the set of values and decisions that drive individuals’ behaviors within organizations, for explaining alliance success in M&A operations. In fact cultural clashes could determine conflicts and negative effects, on one hand, on the timing and the effectiveness of the post-merger integration process and, on the other hand, on motivation and turnover of individuals. Set in Italian banking industry, this paper proposes a framework, applied to a representative sample of cases (about 78,2% of market share, based on total assets), for assessing cultural similarity of actors involved in M&A operations. Corporate culture is measured using an ethnographic approach focusing on language as its special artifact. The assessment is based on the definition of some key concepts that are relevant for the banking industry (e.g., competencies, competition, customer, disclosure, human resources, innovation, risk) and on a text-analysis model applied to a corpus of reference texts produced by the surveyed banks three years before M&A. The elaboration of data uses Wordsmith 4, a text analysis software developed by Oxford University. The paper is organized as follows: at first, we analyze and explain how low levels of cultural compatibility before M&A could limit the success of post-merger integration processes of banks. After, we propose and describe the measurement procedure of the cultural fit among bidder and target banks, based on text analysis. Lastly, we conclude with the discussion of the results obtained for each couple of banks involved in M&A and with suggestions for future applications of our framework.
    Keywords: Banks; Merger & Acquisitions; Post-merger Integration; Corporate Culture
    JEL: M14 G34 G21
    Date: 2007
  2. By: Javier Santiso
    Abstract: A large, untapped reservoir of potential partnerships between private financial institutions (banks, asset managers, private equity firms, etc.) and aid donors remains to be fully exploited. Banks, private equity and asset management firms are important parts of a broad set of private actors in the field. Private financial institutions take increasingly into account variables other than financial ones to assess their investment decisions around the world. The OECD Global Forum on Development could host a market place for ideas for improving and promoting donor-private financial institutions partnerships: an Innovation Laboratory on Development Finance. An OECD Development Finance Award hosted by the OECD Global Forum on Development should be created
    Date: 2008–03–11
  3. By: Anders Ögren
    Abstract: First established during the 1830's, the Enskilda banks were characterized by unlimited liability and the right to issue bank notes. In Swedish banking history, these banks have been considered to be primitive relics. This paper utilizes new data to revise this picture. Issuing notes based on an anchor provided by the National bank, the Enskilda banks made an important contribution to the development of liquid capital markets and for economic growth. The note issuance was also of importance to overcome shortages of liquidity due to both seasonal and regional variations in demand. In view of the crucial role of the Enskilda banks, the Banking Act of 1864, which permitted freer establishment and automatic prolongation of the charters for such banks, must be judged to have been an important institutional change.
    JEL: E40 G21 N13 N23
    Date: 2008
  4. By: M. van Leuvensteijn; C. Kok Sørensen; J.A. Bikker; A.A.R.J.M. van Rixtel
    Abstract: This paper analyses the impact of loan market competition on the interest rates applied by euro area banks to loans and deposits during the 1994-2004 period, using a novel measure of competition called the Boone indicator. We find evidence that stronger competition implies significantly lower spreads between bank and market interest rates for most loan market products, in line with expectations. Using an error correction model (ECM) approach to measure the effect of competition on the pass-through of market rates to bank interest rates, we likewise find that banks tend to price their loans more in accordance with the market in countries where competitive pressures are stronger. Further, where loan market competition is stronger, we observe larger bank spreads (implying lower bank interest rates) on current account and time deposits. This would suggest that the competitive pressure is heavier in the loan market than in the deposit markets, so that banks under competition compensate for their reduction in loan market income by lowering their deposit rates. We observe also that bank interest rates in more competitive markets respond more strongly to changes in market interest rates. These findings have important monetary policy implications, as they suggest that measures to enhance competition in the European banking sector will tend to render the monetary policy transmission mechanism more effective.
    Keywords: Monetary transmission, banks, retail rates, competition, panel data
    JEL: D4 E50 G21 L10
    Date: 2008–03
  5. By: Hans Degryse; Partick Van cayseele
    Abstract: This paper adds to the relationship lending debate by investigating detailed contract information obtained from examining nearly eighteen thousand bank loans. The beneficiaries all were very small firms that operate within the continental European bank-based system. That is, with data gathered for Belgium, we investigate price and non-price terms of the loan contract. We test for the possibility of intertemporal rent shifting by banks. The empirical evidence shows two opposing effects. On the one hand, the length of a bank-firm relationship increases the loan rate. On the other hand, widening the relationship by buying other information sensitive products from a bank decreases the loan rate. Thus the effect on the price operates more through the dimension of the relationship than through the length of the relationship. We also find that the length of the financial relationship slightly negatively influences the probability of pledging collateral.
    Date: 2008–03

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