New Economics Papers
on Banking
Issue of 2007‒08‒27
eight papers chosen by
Roberto J. Santillán–Salgado, EGADE-ITESM

  1. Who pays for banking supervision? Principles and practices By Donato Masciandaro; Maria Nieto; Henriette Prast
  2. Strengthening the governance and performance of state-owned financial institutions By Scott, David H.
  3. Should new or rapidly growing banks have more equity? By Niinimäki , Juha-Pekka
  4. A new approach to measuring competition in the loan markets of the euro area By Michiel van Leuvensteijn; Jacob Bikker; Adrian van Rixtel; Christoffer Kok-Sorensen
  5. The Operation of the Moratorium on New Bank Licenses on the Hong Kong banking system 1965-81 By Catherine R. Schenk
  6. Federal Home Loan Bank advances and commercial bank portfolio composition By W. Scott Frame; Diana Hancock; Wayne Passmore
  7. The Provision of Banking Services in Latin America: Obstacles and Recommendations By Liliana Rojas-Suarez;
  8. Painful Transitions: The Impact of Economic Growth and Government Policies on Hong Kong's 'Chinese' Banks, 1945-70 By Leo F. Goodstadt

  1. By: Donato Masciandaro; Maria Nieto; Henriette Prast
    Abstract: This paper focuses on the financing of banking supervision. Countries are classified according to who finances banking supervision – the tax payer and/or the supervised industry -, and how the budget and fees are determined. We show that funding regimes differ across countries. Public funding is more often found when banks are supervised by the central bank, while supervision funded via a levy on the regulated banks is more likely in the case of a separate financial authority. Finally, some countries apply mixed funding. In general, there is a trend toward more private funding. We also find a relation between sources of financing and accountability arrangements. Public financing is associated with accountability towards the parliament, while private financing is more likely to go hand in hand with accountability towards the government. The financing issue is important because the financing regime may affect the behaviour of the supervisor and hence the quality of supervision. Regulatory capture, industry capture and the supervisor's self interest may affect supervisory policy. No theoretical model has been developed prescribing the optimal financing of supervision. Our results suggest that the actual choice of financing is a casual one, not based on either considerations of incentive-compatability or on the beneficiary approach. As it is to be expected that financial regulation will become more internationally organized in the future, careful analysis of the financing issue will become even more relevant.
    Keywords: banking supervision; budgetary independence; accountability; financial governance; central banks; financial authorities.
    JEL: C33 G3
    Date: 2007–06
  2. By: Scott, David H.
    Abstract: Corporate governance arrangements define the responsibilities, authorities and accountabilities of owners, boards of directors, and executive managers of a company. Good corporate governance is as important for state financial institutions as for private sector companies. Many of the problems that commonly afflict state financial institutions can be associated with, if not attributed directly to, weaknesses in corporate governance. This note draws on guidelines recently published by the OECD and the Basel Committee for Banking Supervision to compile a comprehensive corporate governance evaluation framework relevant to state-owned commercial and development finance institutions. It highlights aspects of this framework that are considered to be of particular importance to state financial institutions by citing innovative practices in a number of countries. Finally, it presents a detailed case study of the governance arrangements in place at the Development Bank of Southern Africa.
    Keywords: National Governance,Corporate Law,Emerging Markets,Debt Markets,Banks & Banking Reform
    Date: 2007–08–01
  3. By: Niinimäki , Juha-Pekka (Bank of Finland Research)
    Abstract: There is substantial evidence that new banks and rapidly growing banks are risk prone. We study this problem by designing a relationship-lending model in which a bank operates as a financial intermediary and centralised monitor. In the absence of deposit insurance, the bank’s limited liability option creates an incentive problem between the bank and its depositors, the likely outcome of which is a reduction in the amounts of resources allocated to monitoring its borrowers. Hence, the bank must signal its safety to depositors by maintaining the equity ratio held. The optimal equity ratio is dynamic, ie new banks need relatively more equity than established banks, which enjoy profitable old lending relationships – charter value – that reduce the incentive problem. However, if an established bank grows rapidly, its share of old relationships also decreases and the bank will have to raise its equity ratio. With deposit insurance, regulators should set higher equity requirements for new banks and rapidly growing banks than for those in a more established position. The results of the model can be extended to more general inter-firm control of credit institutions.
    Keywords: financial intermediation; relationship banking; financial fragility; bank regulation; deposit insurance; moral hazard; product quality
    JEL: G11 G21 G28
    Date: 2007–09–04
  4. By: Michiel van Leuvensteijn; Jacob Bikker; Adrian van Rixtel; Christoffer Kok-Sorensen
    Abstract: This paper is the first that applies a new measure of competition, the Boone indicator, to the banking industry. This approach is able to measure competition of bank market segments, such as the loan market, whereas many well-known measures of competition can consider the entire banking market only. Like most other model-based measures, this approach ignores differences in bank product quality and design, as well as the attractiveness of innovations. We measure competition on the lending markets in the five major EU countries as well as, for comparison, the UK, the US and Japan. Our findings indicate that over the period 1994-2004 the US had the most competitive loan market, whereas overall loan markets in Germany and Spain were among the best competitive in the EU. The Netherlands occupied a more intermediate position, whereas in Italy competition declined significantly over time. The French, Japanese and UK loan markets were generally less competitive. Turning to competition among specific types of banks, commercial banks tend to be more competitive, particularly in Germany and the US, than savings and cooperative banks.
    Keywords: Banking industry; competition; loan markets; marginal costs; market shares.
    JEL: C33 G3
    Date: 2007–08
  5. By: Catherine R. Schenk (University of Glasgow)
    Abstract: In the mid-1960s two major institutional changes decreased the freedom for competition among banks in Hong Kong. In 1964, in response to a supposed ¡¥interest rate war¡¦ the Exchange Banks Association (the precursor to the Hong Kong Association of Banks) was able to negotiate an Interest Rate Agreement that applied to all banks operating in the colony. Secondly, in May 1965, after two waves of banking crisis in February and April of that year, the government imposed a moratorium on new bank licenses. Both restrictions were retained (in amended form) until 2001. The longevity of both of these anticompetitive regulations in Hong Kong had a profound impact on the development of the banking system in the 36 years they were in force. This paper investigates the operation and impact of the moratorium on the banking system of Hong Kong. It will first show how the regulation of price competition in Hong Kong led to calls from banks for further protection from non-price competition and how this became specifically aimed at foreign banks. Secondly, the paper will discuss the changes in the operation of the moratorium and how it influenced foreign acquisition. This turned out to be an inadequate solution to poor governance partly because the barriers to entry increased the bargaining power of local banks in the acquisition process. Finally, the paper assesses the moratorium¡¦s impact on the expansion of deposit taking finance companies outside the prudential regulations of the banking system, and how the regulation of these new institutions was only reluctantly introduced by the government. The general conclusions are that the moratorium and the interest rate agreement together decreased the regulatory breadth of the government, and reduced the incentives for mergers and acquisitions that might have improved governance. Evidence of fraud and poor governance immediately after the lifting of the moratorium show that it was not an effective cure for the governance problems of the Hong Kong banking system. Barriers to entry were not a substitute for effective prudential supervision.
    Date: 2006–10
  6. By: W. Scott Frame; Diana Hancock; Wayne Passmore
    Abstract: The primary mission of the 12 cooperatively owned Federal Home Loan Banks (FHLBs) is to provide their members financial products and services to assist and enhance member housing finance. In this paper, we consider the role of the FHLBs' traditional product--"advances," or collateralized loans to members--in stabilizing commercial bank members' residential mortgage lending activities. ; Our theoretical model shows that using membership criteria (such as a minimum of 10 percent of the portfolio being in mortgage-related assets) or using mortgage-related assets as collateral does not ensure that FHLB advances will be put to use for stabilizing members' financing of housing. Indeed, our model demonstrates that advances--a relatively low cost managed liability--are most likely to influence lending only when such liabilities are used to finance "relationship" loans (i.e., loans to bank-dependent borrowers) that will be held on a bank's balance sheet and are least likely to influence lending for loans where the loan rate is heavily influenced by securitization activities, like mortgages. ; Using panel vector autoregression (VAR) techniques, we estimate recent dynamic responses of U.S. bank portfolios to FHLB advance shocks, to bank lending shocks, and to macroeconomic shocks. Our empirical findings are consistent with the predictions of our theoretical model. First, recent bank portfolio responses to FHLB advance shocks are of similar magnitude for mortgages, for commercial and industrial loans, and for other real estate loans. This suggests that advances are just as likely to fund other types of bank credit as to fund single-family mortgages. Second, unexpected changes in all types of bank lending are accommodated using FHLB advances. Third, FHLB advances do not appear to reduce variability in bank residential mortgage lending resulting from macroeconomic shocks. However, some banks appear to have used FHLB advances to reduce variability in commercial and industrial lending in response to such macroeconomic shocks. Thus, relatively low cost managed liabilities may be used to finance "relationship" borrowers (which are typically business borrowers, rather than residential mortgage borrowers), although this use for advances appears to have diminished over time.
    Date: 2007
  7. By: Liliana Rojas-Suarez;
    Abstract: The depth of and access to financial services provided by banks throughout Latin America are extremely low in spite of its recognized importance for economic activity, employment and poverty alleviation. Low financial depth and access hurts the poor the most and is due to a variety of obstacles that are presented in this paper in four categories, along with recommendations to overcome them. The first category groups socio-economic obstacles that undercut the demand for financial services of large segments of the population. The second category identifies problems in the operations of the banking sector that impedes the adequate provision of financial services to households and firms. The third category captures institutional deficiencies, with emphasis on the quality of the legal framework and the governability of the countries in the region. The fourth category identifies regulations that tend to distort the provision of banking services. Recommendations to confront these obstacles include innovative proposals that take into consideration the political constraints facing individual countries. Some of the policy recommendations include: public-private partnerships to improve financial literacy, the creation of juries specialized in commercial activities to support the rights of borrowers and creditors, and the approval of regulation to allow widespread usage of technological innovations to permit low-income families and small firms to gain access to financial services.
    Keywords: Banking Services, Latin America
    JEL: G21 G32 O16 O17 O54
    Date: 2007–06
  8. By: Leo F. Goodstadt (University of Dublin)
    Abstract: Hong Kong¡¦s Chinese banks survived the loss in 1949 of their traditional role in serving the trade and currency needs of Mainland clients and the restrictions imposed on the local gold market. But they allowed foreign banks to overtake them in financing the new manufacturing sector in Hong Kong. Using unpublished archival material, this paper traces how official banking policies encouraged them to cling to their traditional business model until forced to change by a collapse in the property market.
    Date: 2006–11

This issue is ©2007 by Roberto J. Santillán–Salgado. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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