nep-ara New Economics Papers
on MENA - Middle East and North Africa
Issue of 2023‒10‒09
29 papers chosen by
Paul Makdissi, Université d’Ottawa

  1. The Impact of Maternal Education on Early Childhood Development: The Case of Turkey By : Deniz Karaoglan; : Serap Sagir; Meltem Dayioglu; Dürdane Sirin Saraçoglu
  2. Digitalization and the UAE Economy: A New Driver of Sustainable Development By : Jamel Zarrouk
  3. Implementation of financial technology in the Moroccan insurance sector, start-up obstacles and proposed solutions By Abderrahim Jaadani; Ali Ouchekkir
  4. Public Debt, Growth, and Stabilization in Tunisia: A New Narrative for A Structural Reform Agenda By : Leila Baghdadi; Moez Labidi
  5. Conceptual model of the cultural factors impacting the deployment of cooperative Supply Chain Management practices: the case of the Moroccan context By Mahmoud El Hassouni; Mustapha Machrafi
  6. The future of artificial intelligence in the Arab world The experience of some Arab countries By Bouzid Merouane
  7. The Behavioral Mechanisms of Voluntary Cooperation across Culturally Diverse Societies: Evidence from the US, the UK, Morocco, and Turkey By Weber, Till O.; Schulz, Jonathan F.; Beranek, Benjamin; Lambarraa-Lehnhardt, Fatima; Gächter, Simon
  8. The répercussion of macroeconomic factors on the performance of the Moroccan stock market: Econometric Study using the VAR Model By Abdelhadi Alimoussa; Hicham Assalih
  9. Returns to Education in the Marriage Market: Bride Price and School Reform in Egypt By : Jingyuan Deng; Nelly Elmallakh; Luca Flabbi; Roberta Gatti
  10. Digital transformation in the Moroccan banking sector: A revolution in financial practices and services By Jihane Jaouad; Ali Ouchekkir
  11. Introducing the Sudan Labor Market Panel Survey 2022 By : Caroline Krafft; Ragui Assaad; Ruby Cheung
  12. The Structure of the Labor Force and Employment in Sudan By : Caroline Krafft; Ragui Assaad; Adriana Cortes-Mendosa; Isabel Honzay
  13. The Sudan Syndrome: State-Society Contests and The Future of Democracy After The December 2018 Revolution By Ibrahim Elbadawi; Alzaki Alhelo
  14. The energy transition between economic growth and ecological preservation: An empirical analysis of the Kuznets environmental curve in Morocco By Rachid Ech-Choudany; Hicham Hafid
  15. Saudi Arabia: 2023 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; Staff Report; and Informational Annex By International Monetary Fund
  16. Startups in Algeria From the conceptual and regulatory framework to the supporting structures and programmes By Amina Badreddine
  17. Analysis of the determinants of digital technology adoption in Moroccan audit firms: development of an explanatory conceptual model Analyse des déterminants de l'adoption des technologies numériques dans les cabinets d'audit marocains : élaboration d'un modèle conceptuel explicatif By Mohamed El Adib; Mohamed Achraf Nafzaoui
  18. Türkiye Proudly Celebrating the Centennial of the Signing of the Lausanne Peace Treaty By Tulun, Teoman Ertuğrul
  19. Perceived risk of mobile banking among moroccan consumers: which measurement instrument? mobile banking among moroccan consumers: which measurement instrument? By Boualou Soukaina; Najwa Dorhmi; Pr. Ilham El Haraoui
  20. ‬Socioemotional wealth and internal audit in family firms: trade-off between economic and non-economic goals By Nebbache Salah Eddine; Mokrani Abdelkrim
  21. Impact of Mineral Resource Rent on Ecological Footprint in Gulf Countries By Ruba Aljarallah
  22. Assessing the Sustainability of Jordan’s Public Debt: The Importance of Reviving the Private Sector and Improving Social Outcomes By : Zafiris Tzannatos; Ibrahim Saif
  23. West Bank and Gaza: Report to the Ad Hoc Liaison Committee By International Monetary Fund
  24. West Bank and Gaza: Selected Issues By International Monetary Fund
  25. Funding Stability and the Pricing of Retail Rates: Evidence from Turkish Banking Sector By Koray Alper; Tanju Capacioglu
  26. Menarche, Marriage Age, Education, and Employment in Africa, the Middle East, and Central Asia By Seth R. Gitter; Onyedikachukwu Onyemeziem; William Corcoran
  27. Analysis of the digital transformation in the public transport sector Case of ‘Etuspay’ electronic payment in the Wilaya of Tiaret By Ladjouzi Soumiya; Abbache Mounsif
  28. Aligning Leadership Styles for Effective Knowledge Management in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq By Abdulwahab Mohammed, Sana
  29. Étude empirique sur l'adoption des services bancaires mobiles au Maroc Empirical study on the adoption of mobile banking services in Morocco By Soukaina Boualou; Najwa Dorhmi; Ilham El Haraoui

  1. By: : Deniz Karaoglan (Gebze Technical University); : Serap Sagir (Middle East Technical University, Department of Economics); Meltem Dayioglu (Middle East Technical University, Department of Economics); Dürdane Sirin Saraçoglu (Middle East Technical University, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: In this paper, we investigate the relationship between mother’s education level and the development of young children in Turkey using representative microdata from the 2018 Turkey Demographic and Health Survey (TDHS). The data include detailed information about the developmental status of young children of 36-to-59 months old. We find that only when the mother has at least a high school level education, there is a positive impact on the child’s developmental status as summarized the Early Childhood Development (ECD) index, which is an index constructed based on the child’s four developmental domains. We also show that the household’s wealth is also positively associated with the child’s developmental status, particularly in the socioemotional and the learning readiness domains.
    Date: 2023–08–20
  2. By: : Jamel Zarrouk (Boulder Economics Consultancy)
    Abstract: This paper defines and examines the state of the digital economy in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), highlighting the essential role played by digital technologies in sustaining the economy and the people of the UAE through the COVID-19 pandemic. In the years before the pandemic, the UAE invested heavily through expenditures by government-related enterprises, private companies, and households to establish the required broadband and wireless infrastructure and devices necessary to push forward the digitalization of the economy. This has enabled the rapid adoption of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in the production and consumption of goods and services at the level of the government, the private sector, and households. The paper takes stock of the benefits drawn from digitalization as an enabling and disruptive force in the development of the UAE economy and suggests some high-level policy principles that inform the government policy agenda for inclusive ICT sector development in the post-COVID-19 era
    Date: 2023–08–20
  3. By: Abderrahim Jaadani (fsjes Agdal - Laboratoire d'études et de recherches en sciences de gestion); Ali Ouchekkir (fsjes Agdal - Laboratoire d'études et de recherches en sciences de gestion)
    Abstract: The undertaken study aims to examine the reasons for the delay in implementing financial technologies in both the conventional and participatory insurance sectors in Morocco while providing recommendations to overcome these obstacles. To achieve these objectives, a qualitative research approach was adopted, involving industry professionals to obtain detailed responses using semi-structured interview methods. This method facilitated a comprehensive analysis of our research problem. The obtained results revealed the existence of several difficulties and barriers hindering the implementation of financial technologies in the insurance sector in Morocco. These obstacles include resistance to change within companies, regulatory constraints, concerns about data security, and the need to train employees in new technologies. All these factors have contributed to the delayed adoption of financial technologies in the Moroccan insurance sector. However, the study does not merely highlight the obstacles; it also proposes recommendations to overcome them. Among these recommendations are raising awareness and providing training to stakeholders about the benefits of financial technologies, establishing a regulatory framework conducive to innovation, strengthening cybersecurity measures, and fostering collaboration among sector actors to promote the adoption of financial technologies. This study holds particular significance in the current context characterized by multiple crises and a focus on digital transformation. Indeed, it represents the first attempt to explore and analyze the specific challenges of implementing financial technologies in the insurance sector in Morocco while offering tailored solutions for industry professionals. By shedding light on these challenges and providing practical recommendations, this study contributes to stimulating the development of the Moroccan insurance sector in the era of digital transformation.
    Abstract: L'étude entreprise vise à examiner les raisons du retard de l'implémentation des technologies financières dans le secteur assurantiel conventionnel et participatif au Maroc, tout en proposant des recommandations pour surmonter ces obstacles. Afin d'atteindre ces objectifs, une approche de recherche qualitative a été adoptée, faisant appel aux professionnels de l'industrie pour obtenir des réponses détaillées à l'aide de la méthode des entretiens semi- directifs. Cette méthode a permis de fournir une analyse approfondie de notre problématique. Les résultats obtenus ont révélé l'existence de plusieurs difficultés et barrières entravant l'implémentation des technologies financières dans le secteur assurantiel au Maroc. Parmi ces obstacles, on peut citer la résistance au changement au sein des entreprises, les contraintes réglementaires, les préoccupations en matière de sécurité des données et la nécessité de former les employés aux nouvelles technologies. Ces facteurs ont tous contribué à retarder l'adoption des technologies financières dans le secteur assurantiel marocain. Toutefois, l'étude ne se contente pas de mettre en évidence les obstacles, elle propose également des recommandations pour les surmonter. Parmi ces recommandations, on peut citer la sensibilisation et la formation des parties prenantes aux avantages des technologies financières, la mise en place d'un cadre réglementaire favorable à l'innovation, le renforcement de la cybersécurité et la collaboration entre les acteurs du secteur pour favoriser l'adoption des technologies financières. Cette étude revêt une importance particulière dans le contexte actuel marqué par une accumulation de crises et une orientation vers la transformation numérique. En effet, elle représente la première tentative de découvrir et d'analyser les difficultés spécifiques à l'implémentation des technologies financières dans le secteur assurantiel au Maroc, tout en proposant des solutions adaptées aux professionnels du secteur. En mettant en lumière ces défis et en offrant des recommandations pratiques, cette étude contribue à stimuler le développement du secteur assurantiel marocain dans l'ère de la transformation digitale.
    Keywords: Financiel technology, insurance, Takaful, insurtech, Technologie financière, assurance, Assurtech
    Date: 2023–06–18
  4. By: : Leila Baghdadi (University of Tunis); Moez Labidi (Arab Planning Institute, Kuwait; University of Monastir, FSEG Mahdia; and DEFI, Tunisia)
    Abstract: This paper assesses debt sustainability in Tunisia using the Debt Sustainability Analysis (DSA). We construct three hypothetical scenarios (A, B and C) over the period 2023-2027. The first two scenarios are called Business as usual approaches. In Scenario A, we assume that Tunisia will continue the same path as in the past three years, without an IMF agreement. In scenario B, Tunisia reaches an agreement with the IMF. However, the lack of considerable progress on the reform agenda causes the ending of the IMF agreement. The last one (Scenario C) is a proactive reform scenario. We conclude that “business as usual” approach (scenario A and B) cannot guarantee neither economic resilience nor debt sustainability. There is an urgent need for a broader approach to debt sustainability with reforms, similar to Scenario C, that would lead to resilience toward both economic and non-economic shocks.
    Date: 2023–08–20
  5. By: Mahmoud El Hassouni (UM5R - Université Mohammed V de Rabat); Mustapha Machrafi (UM5R - Université Mohammed V de Rabat)
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of culture on supply chain cooperation practices in Morocco. We collected data from supply chain managers via LinkedIn and analyzed these data using the chisquare technique on SPSS. The results of the analysis show that hierarchical distance, collectivist culture, and high uncertainty avoidance culture all have positive and equal degree influences on commitment, cooperation, and information sharing among supply chain actors. However, it was also found that collectivist culture and degree of leniency do not affect opportunistic behavior. It is important to note that although our refined model is based on empirical data and has passed the test of statistical tests, it represents an approximation of reality and must be interpreted in the light of the limitations inherent in any research approach. In conclusion, this study shows that the Moroccan culture is conducive to the deployment of supply chain cooperation practices.
    Abstract: L'objectif de cette étude est d'examiner l'influence de la culture sur les pratiques de coopération en chaîne d'approvisionnement au Maroc. Nous avons recueilli des données auprès de managers de chaîne d'approvisionnement via LinkedIn, et analysé ces données à l'aide de la technique de chi-deux sur SPSS. Les résultats de l'analyse montrent que la distance hiérarchique, la culture collectiviste et la culture à fort évitement de l'incertitude ont toutes des influences positives et de même degré sur l'engagement, la coopération et le partage d'informations entre les acteurs de la chaîne d'approvisionnement. Cependant, il a également été constaté que la culture collectiviste et le degré d'indulgence n'ont pas d'effet sur les comportements opportunistes. Il est important de noter que bien que notre modèle affiné ait été basé sur des données empiriques et ait passél'épreuve des tests statistiques, il représente une approximation de la réalité et doit être interprété à la lumière des limites inhérentes à toute démarche de recherche. En conclusion, cette étude montre que la culture marocaine est favorable au déploiement de pratiques de coopération en chaîne d'approvisionnement.
    Keywords: Intercultural management, Conceptual model, Cultural studies, Morocco, Supply Chain cooperation, Culture nationale, Cooperation Supply Chain, Management Interculturel, Maroc, Modèle conceptuel, Etudes culturelles
    Date: 2023–08–31
  6. By: Bouzid Merouane (UMBB - Université M'Hamed Bougara Boumerdes)
    Abstract: For more than two decades, artificial intelligence has been making major transformations in various sectors: from education, healthcare, to public transportation, business, entertainment, war, and more. Therefore, this sector has turned into a major competition arena among the countries of the world. Arab countries live in different internal conditions, which are clearly reflected in their plans to adopt artificial intelligence in their discourse, strategies, and institutions. Arab countries, especially in the Gulf, hastened to adopt the latest technologies, institutions, standards and plans to localize and use artificial intelligence, which reflected positively on their ranking in global indicators. On the other hand, other Arab countries are still groping their way, with attempts to teach artificial intelligence subjects in some curricula with the aim of laying the foundations for this industry.
    Keywords: intelligence artificial intelligence research centers the strategy innovation decisions. JEL Classification Codes: J23, J24, intelligence, artificial intelligence, research centers, the strategy, innovation decisions. JEL Classification Codes: J23
    Date: 2023–06–04
  7. By: Weber, Till O. (Newcastle University); Schulz, Jonathan F. (George Mason University); Beranek, Benjamin (Missouri State University); Lambarraa-Lehnhardt, Fatima (ZALF - Centre for Agricultural Landscape and Land Use Research); Gächter, Simon (University of Nottingham)
    Abstract: We examine the role of cooperative preferences, beliefs, and punishments to uncover potential cross-societal differences in voluntary cooperation. Using one-shot public goods experiments in four comparable subject pools from the US and the UK (two similar Western societies) and Morocco and Turkey (two comparable non-Western societies), we find that cooperation is lower in Morocco and Turkey than in the UK and the US. Using the ABC approach - in which cooperative attitudes and beliefs explain cooperation - we show that cooperation is mostly driven by differences in beliefs rather than cooperative preferences or peer punishment, both of which are similar across the four subject pools. Our methodology is generalizable across subject pools and highlights the central role of beliefs in explaining differences in voluntary cooperation within and across culturally, economically, and institutionally diverse societies. Because our behavioral mechanisms correctly predict actual contributions, we argue that our approach provides a suitable methodology for analyzing the determinants of voluntary cooperation of any group of interest.
    Keywords: cross-cultural experiments, punishment, beliefs, conditional cooperation, ABC method, voluntary cooperation, public goods, WEIRD societies
    JEL: C9 H4 C7 D2
    Date: 2023–08
  8. By: Abdelhadi Alimoussa (Laboratoire des Sciences Economiques et Politiques Publiques (LSEPP) Faculté d’Economie et de Gestion de Kénitra); Hicham Assalih
    Abstract: The essence of this research lies in exploring the macroeconomic factors that exert their influence on the evolution of the stock market in Morocco. To achieve this, we rely on the methodology of time series econometrics, specifically the Vector Autoregressive (VAR) model. The available data spans a period of 21 years, ranging from 2002 to 2022, and has been meticulously extracted from reports originating from various sources, such as the Casablanca Stock Exchange (BVC), the Manar platform of the Ministry of Finance, Bank-Maghreb, the High Commission for Planning (HCP), the World Bank, and the International Monetary Fund (IMF). The conclusions drawn from this investigation prove to be highly enlightening. It is indisputable that key variables such as the Consumer Price Index, Gross National Savings, Gross Domestic Product (GDP), and Real Effective Exchange Rate play a pivotal role in the dynamics of the stock market. Specifically, our inquiry reveals that the Consumer Price Index and Gross National Savings have a positive influence on the development of the stock market. Conversely, GDP and the Real Effective Exchange Rate manifest a negative impact on stock market growth. In conclusion, our work extends to the analysis of causal relationships as well as the decomposition of variances, thereby deepening our understanding of the intricate interactions between these macroeconomic factors and the evolution of the stock market in Morocco.
    Abstract: L'essence de cette recherche réside dans l'exploration des facteurs macroéconomiques qui exercent leur influence sur l'évolution du marché boursier au Maroc. Pour ce faire, nous nous appuyons sur l'approche de l'économétrie des séries chronologiques, en particulier le modèle VAR (Vector Autoregressive). Les données à notre disposition couvrent une période de 21 années, s'étalant de 2002 à 2022, et ont été extraites avec soin des rapports émanant de diverses sources, telles que la Bourse des Valeurs de Casablanca (BVC), la plateforme Manar du Ministère des Finances, Bank-Maghreb, le Haut-Commissariat au Plan (HCP), la Banque Mondiale et le Fonds Monétaire International (FMI). Les conclusions découlant de cette investigation se révèlent particulièrement éclairantes. Il est indubitable que des variables clés telles que l'indice des prix à la consommation, l'épargne nationale brute, le produit intérieur brut (PIB) et le taux de change réel effectif jouent un rôle prépondérant dans la dynamique du marché boursier. Plus précisément, notre enquête révèle que l'indice des prix à la consommation et l'épargne nationale brute exercent une influence positive sur le développement du marché boursier. À l'opposé, le PIB et le taux de change réel effectif se traduisent par un impact négatif sur la croissance du marché boursier. En guise de conclusion, nos travaux s'étendent vers l'analyse des liens de causalité ainsi que la décomposition des variances, approfondissant ainsi notre compréhension des interactions complexes entre ces facteurs macroéconomiques et l'évolution du marché boursier au Maroc.
    Keywords: Macroeconomic variables VAR modelling MASI stock index and variance decomposition. Classification JEL : C22, C32, C51, E44 Paper type : Empirical Research, Macroeconomic variables, VAR modelling, MASI stock index and variance decomposition. Classification JEL : C22
    Date: 2023–08–29
  9. By: : Jingyuan Deng (World Bank’s Office of the Chief Economist for the Middle East and North Africa); Nelly Elmallakh (World Bank’s Office of the Chief Economist for the Middle East and North Africa); Luca Flabbi (University of North Carolina); Roberta Gatti (World Bank’s Office of the Chief Economist for the Middle East and North Africa)
    Abstract: This paper posits marriage market returns as a contributing factor to stagnant female labor force participation despite increasing female education. The paper examines the marriage market returns of female education by exploiting a very direct measure of returns: bride price, a significant amount of resources transferred by the groom at the time of marriage. The paper also looks at current and future husband’s wages as additional sources of returns. It addresses endogeneity and identification issues by exploiting a school reform in Egypt that reduced the number of years required to complete primary education from six to five. The staggered rollout of the reform generates exogenous sources of variation in female schooling both across and within birth years and administrative units. The analysis implements an instrumental variable estimator with fixed effects at the birth year and at the administrative unit levels. The estimated return to a bride’s compulsory education is about 100% for bride price, about 14% for husband’s wage at the time of marriage, and about 16% for a measure of husband’s permanent income. Further empirical evidence suggests that educational assortative mating could be an important mechanism through which the marriage market returns are taking place.
    Date: 2023–08–20
  10. By: Jihane Jaouad (fsjes Agdal - Laboratoire d'études et de recherches en sciences de gestion); Ali Ouchekkir (fsjes Agdal - Laboratoire d'études et de recherches en sciences de gestion)
    Abstract: Nowadays, digital transformation has taken a prominent place in various economic sectors, including banking. The Moroccan banking sector has not escaped this global trend, where digitalization has brought a real revolution in financial practices and services. The objective of this research work is to study in depth the digital transformation in the Moroccan banking sector by opting for an analysis of the internal process, banking practices and financial services. Particular attention will be paid to establishing an appropriate link between the competitiveness of banking institutions and digitalization, taking care to mention the relevant theories relating to this digitalization. We will try to identify the major changes induced by digitalization and to highlight the potential benefits in terms of profitability. To achieve our objective, and after a theoretical exploration phase based on a literature review, we chose a qualitative approach through semi-directive interviews. These interviews were conducted with a representative sample of 12 branches belonging to various Moroccan banks. It should be stressed that we sought the expertise of industry professionals in order to gather detailed responses, which would enable us to carry out an in-depth and detailed analysis of our problem, thus providing a better understanding of the subject. The responses and data collected revealed signs of innovation in products and practices, highlighting the challenges and opportunities related to digital transformation. These findings help to identify the factors for success or failure of this digitalization, while providing insight into future prospects. In the current context, characterized by a series of crises and a trend towards digital transition, this study takes on a singular and relevant significance. It stands out as an essential contribution to a better understanding of the changes in Moroccan banking, proposing appropriate measures to meet the challenges and seize the opportunities of the digital revolution. The qualitative approach offers in-depth and contextualized information from professionals, filling an academic gap and providing practical recommendations for the digital transformation of the Moroccan banking sector.
    Abstract: De nos jours, la transformation digitale a pris une place prépondérante dans divers secteurs économiques, y compris celui de la banque. Le secteur bancaire marocain n'a pas échappé à cette tendance mondiale, où la digitalisation a entraîné une véritable révolution dans les pratiques et les services financiers. L'objectif de ce travail de recherche est d'étudier en profondeur la transformation digitale dans le secteur bancaire marocain en optant à une analyse du processus interne, des pratiques bancaires et des services financiers. Une attention particulière sera portée sur l'établissement d'une liaison adéquate entre la compétitivité des institutions bancaires et la digitalisation, en prenant soin de mentionner les théories pertinentes se rapportant à cette digitalisation. Nous nous attacherons à identifier les changements majeurs induits par la digitalisation et de mettre en évidence les bénéfices potentiels en termes de rentabilité. Pour atteindre notre objectif, et après une phase d'exploration théorique basée sur une revue de la littérature, nous avons choisi une approche qualitative par des entretiens semi-directifs. Ces entretiens ont été menés auprès d'un échantillon représentatif de 12 agences appartenant à différentes banques marocaines. Il convient de souligner que nous avons sollicité l'expertise des professionnels de l'industrie afin de recueillir des réponses détaillées, qui nous permettront une analyse approfondie et détaillée de notre problématique, apportant ainsi une meilleure compréhension du sujet. Les réponses et les données recueillies ont révélé des signes d'innovation des produits et des pratiques, mettant en évidence les défis et opportunités liés à la transformation digitale. Ces constatations permettent d'identifier les facteurs de réussite ou d'échec de cette digitalisation, tout en fournissant un aperçu des perspectives futures. Dans le contexte actuel, caractérisé par une série de crises et une tendance vers la transition numérique, cette étude revêt une signification singulière et pertinente. Elle s'impose comme une contribution essentielle visant à mieux comprendre les changements dans la banque marocaine, en proposant des mesures adaptées pour relever les défis et saisir les opportunités de la révolution digitale. L'approche qualitative offre des informations approfondies et contextualisées auprès des professionnels, comblant une lacune académique et fournissant des recommandations pratiques pour la transformation digitale du secteur bancaire marocain.
    Keywords: Digital transformation, Moroccan banks, Competitive banking, Moroccan customer, Transformation digitale, Banques marocaines, Compétitivité bancaire, Client marocain
    Date: 2023–06–18
  11. By: : Caroline Krafft (St. Catherine University); Ragui Assaad (University of Minnesota, Humphrey School of Public Affairs.); Ruby Cheung (St. Catherine University)
    Abstract: This paper describes the new Sudan Labor Market Panel Survey (SLMPS) 2022, the first nationally representative survey in Sudan in almost a decade. The paper details the design of the survey, including the topics covered by this multi-purpose household survey and the complexities of the sampling strategy, which over-sampled refugees and the internally displaced. The training, fieldwork, resulting sample, and weights are described. Key demographic and labor market indicators are then compared to other, older nationally representative data sources, both to assess the validity of the SLMPS data and update our understanding of Sudan’s labor market. The rich, publicly available data of the SLMPS provide substantial opportunities for researchers to better understand the evolution of Sudan’s labor market, economy, and society.
    Date: 2023–08–20
  12. By: : Caroline Krafft (St. Catherine University); Ragui Assaad (University of Minnesota, Humphrey School of Public Affairs.); Adriana Cortes-Mendosa (St. Catherine University); Isabel Honzay (St. Catherine University)
    Abstract: Sudan’s economy and society have been repeatedly disrupted by political turmoil since 2018, with challenges further compounded by the COVID-19 pandemic. How this turbulent period has affected Sudan’s labor market was previously unknown, as Sudan’s last household survey was in 2014/15. This paper investigates the state of Sudan’s labor market as of 2022, using the new, nationally-representative Sudan Labor Market Panel Survey data. The analyses examine labor supply, including the evolution of the age structure of the Sudanese population, the trends in age at marriage and fertility, the educational composition of the population, current enrollment rates, labor force participation, as well as employment and unemployment rates. The analyses also investigate the structure of employment by broad economic activity and institutional sector, by occupation, and by degree of informality. The results of the analyses show sizeable demographic pressures on Sudan’s labor market from a large youth population. While historically Sudan had made appreciable progress in expanding access to education, that progress plateaued for cohorts born in the 1980s and later. Declines in labor force participation over time and particularly for women may reflect the labor market impacts of Sudan’s recent political and economic turbulence. Unemployment is primarily a challenge for youth, new entrants to the labor market. Agriculture continues to play a sizeable role in employment in Sudan, along with non-wage non-agricultural work and informal wage work. Informality is extremely high in private sector wage work (98%), and employment is largely within microenterprises. Relatively few private sector wage workers receive employment benefits or protections, with 60% working outside establishments and 37% working irregularly, highlighting the elevated level of vulnerable employment in Sudan.
    Date: 2023–08–20
  13. By: Ibrahim Elbadawi (Economic Research Forum); Alzaki Alhelo (Department of Economics, University of Khartoum, Sudan.)
    Abstract: Around 65 years ago when Sudan was about to gain its independence, it was described as a “bright spot in a dark continent.” Unfortunately, that optimism about Sudan could not have been more wrong. Instead, Sudan has come to be a country defined by conflicts, political instability, and development failures. To date, the country has experienced three long-reigning, dysfunctional, and autocratic military regimes interrupted by three popular uprisings (in 1964, 1986, and 2018-present). The first two led to short-lived democracies, while, as before, the demise of the last autocratic regime led to the formation of the current transitional government, entrusted with the task of preparing the country for democratic elections in 2023. However, this nascent transitional government was toppled by a palace coup on 25 October 2021 well before the much-anticipated election of 2023. This peculiar Sudanese political history came to be characterized in popular Sudanese literature as the “Sudan Syndrome.” The main research questions considered in this paper revolve around explaining this “syndrome, ” drawing lessons for the current transition, and exploring how Sudan can break free from the vicious cycle that plagued its post-independence history toward the stable, prosperous, democratic state that was originally thought to be its destiny. We use the “narrow corridor” model of Daron Acemoglu and James Robinson as the main analytical framework for analyzing the phenomena and for drawing lessons for the current political transition in Sudan. Specifically, we ask three fundamental questions: how can Sudan re-enter the corridor following the recent setback in October 2021? How can the country broaden the corridor and stay in it toward a balanced and mature democratic project? Finally, how can the country engineer the national project for achieving these two objectives while accounting for both the political and economic agenda of the social contract?
    Date: 2023–08–20
  14. By: Rachid Ech-Choudany (Université Mohammed V de Rabat. Faculté des Sciences Juridiques, Economiques et Sociales, Souissi); Hicham Hafid (Université Mohammed V de Rabat. Faculté des Sciences Juridiques, Economiques et Sociales, Souissi)
    Abstract: In a global context marked by climate hazards and the use of non-renewable sources of energy, Morocco has embarked on a new energy strategy over the last two decades aimed at developing renewable energies, particularly solar and wind power. The goal is to reduce its dependence on fossil fuels and become a regional hub given its geographical location. This article attempts to quantify the impact of the energy transition on both the economic and environmental systems, using carbon dioxide emissions as the variable to be explained and introducing other explanatory variables, namely renewable electricity production and trade openness over the period from 1990 to 2020. The empirical approach used is based on the Staggered Lag Autoregressive Model and the Granger causality test. The results of this study show the existence of cointegration between the variables at all levels of significance, as well as a positive correlation between economic growth and environmental policies. On the other hand, the role of renewable energies in limiting CO2 emissions was not confirmed, and consequently, there was a negative correlation between changes in GDP and CO2 emissions in the short and long term.
    Abstract: Dans un contexte mondial marqué par les aléas climatiques, suite à l'utilisation des énergies de source non renouvelable, le Maroc a entamé depuis les deux dernières décennies une nouvelle stratégie énergétique visant le développement d'énergies renouvelables, particulièrement de source solaire et éolienne. Le but étant d'alléger sa dépendance aux énergies fossiles et de devenir un hub régional au regard de son positionnement géographie. Cet article tente de quantifier l'impact de la transition énergétique à la fois sur le système économique et environnemental, en utilisant les émissions de dioxyde de carbone comme variable à expliquer et en ajoutant des facteurs explicatifs supplémentaires, comme la production d'électricité renouvelable( ER), produit intérieur brut (PIB) et l'ouverture commerciale (OC) de 1990 à 2020. L'approche empirique mobilisée repose sur le Modèle Autorégressif à Retards Échelonnés ainsi de tester la causalité de Granger au sens de Toda- Yamamoto. Les résultats de cette étude montrent l'existence d'une cointégration entre nos variables pour tous les niveaux de significativité ainsi qu'une corrélation positive entre la croissance économique et les politiques environnementales. En revanche, Il n'y a pas de preuve que les énergies renouvelables jouent un rôle dans la réduction des émissions de CO2 et par conséquent, une corrélation négative entre l'évolution du PIB et les émissions de CO2 à CT et à LT.
    Keywords: Renewable energy, Energy transition, Economic growth, Environmental policy., Energie renouvelable, Transition énergétique, Croissance économique, Politique environnementale, Q 40
    Date: 2023–08–11
  15. By: International Monetary Fund
    Abstract: Saudi Arabia’s economy is booming, unemployment is at a record low, the output gap is closed, inflation is contained, and fiscal and external buffers have been rebuilt. The continuation of Vision 2030 reforms has helped advance the country’s economic diversification agenda, including through reduced reliance on oil.
    Date: 2023–09–06
  16. By: Amina Badreddine (UMBB - Université M'Hamed Bougara Boumerdes)
    Abstract: The main objective of this paper is to analyze the environment in which the Algerian Start-ups have been confronted since their creation, together with the main actors and mechanisms made available to these groups. Besides, we have firstly provided definition to the conceptual framework of the Start-up in Algeria in terms of legal and economic regulations with everything pertaining to the labeling and creation of Startups. Afterwards, we dared to establish a diagnosis of the environment in which they evolve, throughout analyzing the strengths and weaknesses of the main actors and mechanisms dedicated to Start-ups. In virtue of which, we noted the awareness of the Algerian public authorities of the limits of the existing mechanisms dedicated to promoting entrepreneurship in Algeria. As consequence, we advocated the need to adapt the regulatory framework by implementing specific tools for the creation and support of Start-ups, in respect such as incubation and acceleration structures along with the financing formulas and means that are better adapted to the increased needs of Start-ups.
    Keywords: Startups Incubators Business plan Algeria JEL Classification Codes: M13 O32, Startups, Incubators, Business plan, Algeria JEL Classification Codes: M13, O32
    Date: 2023–06–04
  17. By: Mohamed El Adib (UIT - Université Ibn Tofaïl); Mohamed Achraf Nafzaoui
    Abstract: Mohamed EL ADIB & Mohamed Achraf NAFZAOUI. Analysis of the determinants of digital technology adoption in Moroccan audit firms: development of an explanatory conceptual model.
    Keywords: Digitalization Adoption of new technology Digital transformation UTAUT Audit firm. JEL Classification: M10, M42, Paper type: Theoretical Research, Digitalization, Adoption of new technology, Digital transformation, UTAUT, Audit firm. JEL Classification: M10
    Date: 2023–08–19
  18. By: Tulun, Teoman Ertuğrul (Center For Eurasian Studies (AVİM))
    Abstract: The Republic of Türkiye commemorates the centenary of the Lausanne Peace Treaty, signed on July 24, 1923. This pivotal treaty formed the bedrock for the establishment of the Republic. Historically significant, the treaty underscored the prowess of the Nationalist Movement, led by Mustafa Kemal, to nullify the previously imposed Treaty of Sevres and forge a new accord with the Allies on favorable terms. The Lausanne Treaty signified the transformation of Turkey from a collapsed empire to an independent, sovereign state, securing its recognition among sovereign nations. Atatürk, in his iconic "Nutuk", hailed the treaty as a triumphant rebuttal to long-standing conspiracies against the Turkish nation. This accomplishment was a product of a protracted campaign that began with the 1919 Declaration of Amasya, emphasizing Turkey's sovereignty and independence. Despite a century since its ratification, the Lausanne Peace Treaty's importance resonates, given the contemporary challenges and regional tensions it continues to address.
    Date: 2023–07–23
  19. By: Boualou Soukaina (UIT - Université Ibn Tofaïl); Najwa Dorhmi (UIT - Université Ibn Tofaïl); Pr. Ilham El Haraoui (UIT - Université Ibn Tofaïl)
    Abstract: Perceived risk has been the focus of several researches in consumer behavior's field, particularly in light of the rise of new technologies and, specially, mobile phones, notably in the banking industry, where banks constantly strive to solicit the trust of their customers in order to encourage them to use the services offered on mobile applications. Our research outcomes have enabled the development of a valid and reliable measure instrument of perceived risk's concept. This instrument comprises six 6 items covering time risk, social risk, privacy risk and security risk, . However, we decided to exclude three items from the initial list, one related to the social aspect and two related to the performance of mobile banking applications.
    Abstract: Le risque perçu a fait l'objet de plusieurs recherches dans le domaine du comportement du consommateur notamment avec l'émergence des nouvelles technologies et celle du mobile en particulier. D'autant plus, dans le secteur bancaire, où les banques s'efforcent constamment à solliciter la confiance de leurs clients afin de les inciter à utiliser les services offerts sur les applications mobiles. Les résultats de cette recherche ont permis de développer un instrument de mesure valide et fiable du risque perçu composé de 6 items liés à la perception du risque temporel, social, de confidentialité et de sécurité tandis que nous avons décidé de retirer trois items de la liste initiale à savoir un item relatif à l'aspect social et deux autres liés à la performance des applications de mobile Banking.
    Keywords: Perceived risk, Mobile banking, consumer behavior, measurement instrument, Moroccan bank’s client, e risque perçu, services bancaires mobile, comportement du consommateur, instrument de mesure, client bancaire marocain
    Date: 2023–08–21
  20. By: Nebbache Salah Eddine (Ecole Supérieure de Commerce –Koléa, (Algérie)); Mokrani Abdelkrim (Ecole Supérieure de Commerce –Koléa, (Algérie))
    Abstract: The paper considers that the internal auditing role in family firms is unique owing to the overlap and ambiguity of roles between the family and the firm. Besides, family firms' characteristics seem to influence the internal audit role. In this context, internal auditing must effectively deal with the factors leading to conflict in family firms. The study aims to emphasize the interpretation of the internal audit role in family businesses, and the article suggests a specific role for the internal audit that is the tradeoff between economic aspirations and socioemotional wealth dimensions. In order to achieve this objective, a questionnaire was prepared and distributed to internal auditors, chief financial officers, and certified public accountants of Algerian family businesses. The results reveal that the cognitive role had the highest mean score (3.04), followed by the trade-off between economic and non-economic goals (2.79) and the disciplinary role (2.64).
    Keywords: internal audit family firm conflict socioemotional wealth JEL Classification Codes: G38 G41 M42, internal audit, family firm, conflict, socioemotional wealth JEL Classification Codes: G38, G41, M42
    Date: 2023–06–04
  21. By: Ruba Aljarallah (Public Authority for Applied Education and Training)
    Abstract: It is mostly the countries in the Gulf region that are blessed with natural resources that are faced with significant resource capital management challenges. As a result, these nations' capacity to utilize their blessed natural resources in the creation of goods that can be exported is reduced. Through the utilization of time-series data spanning the years 2000-2020, the research examined the main critical components that are responsible for causing damage to the ecosystem in five Gulf countries mainly, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Qatar, Kuwait, and Oman. The utilization of resource rents rather than resource value is a direct result of this phenomenon. According to the findings, mineral resource rents are the most significant determinants of the resource, which depletes mineral resources, in addition, economic activity and the renting out of resources also raise the ecological footprint. Industrialization also increases the ecological footprint in Gulf countries. According to the findings, it is vital to enact different resource regulations and policies that could be based on incentives to reduce the ecological footprints and the consumption of natural resources.
    Keywords: Ecological footprint, Resource rent, Developing countries, Regulation, Environment
    JEL: Q30 Q50 Q57
  22. By: : Zafiris Tzannatos (The Lebanese Center for Policy Studies and the Jordan Strategy Forum); Ibrahim Saif
    Abstract: This paper examines debt sustainability in Jordan. First, it notes Jordan’s economic trajectory, which has been characterized by long stop-go cycles; real GDP per capita peaked in the early 1980s followed by a precipitous decline in 1992, then peaked again in the early 2010s and has since declined to levels last seen in the early 2000s. Second, these long swings have been associated with increasing reliance on international support. Much of this international support has contributed to increasing levels of public debt, the composition of which is shifting from domestic to external browning – something that should be examined against the exchange rate that has remained pegged for three decades. Third, due to unprecedented high rates of economic growth during the 2000s, the debt-to-GDP ratio was reduced by half during the 2000s even though the debt level doubled. Having nearly reached a fiscal cliff by the end of the 2010s, the government announced hundreds of reforms supported by Jordan’s international partner, which aim to improve macroeconomic management and accelerate private sector development. For now, debt sustainability seems feasible for the next three to four years, but in the future, it will depend on how quickly, consistently, and effectively the reforms will be pursued and whether there will be any adverse external shocks. We conclude that the right policy mix to reduce the debt-to-GDP ratio should focus on policies that promote economic growth, rationalize – not necessarily reduce – public expenditures, raise revenues in a non-regressive way, and take into account several implicit liabilities such as those arising from the pension system and climate change adaptation measures.
    Date: 2023–08–20
  23. By: International Monetary Fund
    Abstract: The outlook for the Palestinian economy remains dire, with risks tilted to the downside. Amid a deteriorating security, political and social situation, the recovery is losing momentum and per capita income is projected to decline over the medium term. The fiscal crisis remains unresolved, amid limited prospects for much-needed deep expenditure reforms and resolution of the outstanding fiscal files with Israel. The banking sector remains stable and well-monitored, but early signs of asset quality deterioration are emerging.
    Keywords: Expenditure; Financial sector; International organization; Pension spending; Public debt; Revenue administration; Structural reforms
    Date: 2023–09–13
  24. By: International Monetary Fund
    Abstract: Years of isolation and continuous conflicts have left Gaza’s economic development far behind that of the West Bank. In 2022, per capita income in Gaza was only a quarter of that in the West Bank, and unemployment and poverty rates were much higher. This reflects much lower employment and investment rates as well as considerably lower productivity growth. While Israeli-imposed restrictions on access and movement of labor and goods severely hinder trade outcomes and productive capacity in both West Bank and Gaza, restrictions are far more severe for Gaza. As a result of this Gaza blockade and repeated wars with Israel since 2008, the capital stock is stagnant, and infrastructure is derelict (especially electricity). Analytical work suggests sizeable economic gains from boosting Gaza’s electricity infrastructure. Prospects for declining donor aid risk worsening Gaza’s humanitarian crisis. Under these conditions, Gaza is unlikely to meet the U.N. 2030 Sustainable Development Goals. A major easing of the blockade and financing constraints is necessary to improve prospects, provided the security situation can be assured in parallel.
    Keywords: Economic sectors; Financial intermediation; Labor; Trade barriers; Pensions; Pension reform
    Date: 2023–09–13
  25. By: Koray Alper (European Investment Bank); Tanju Capacioglu (Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey)
    Abstract: This paper documents how a system wide deterioration in funding quality, which we argue to be underpinned by macroeconomic conditions, can have a substantial effect in the pricing of deposit and loan rates. The study is motivated by a puzzling observation from Turkish banking system. During 2015-2016, retail rates of Turkish banks displayed a persistent upward trend when the policy and money market rates remained unchanged. We conjecture that the underlying reason was the continued deterioration in the structural liquidity positions of Turkish banks, reflected as rising loan-to-deposit ratios (LDR). Our results show that in the presence of increasing pressures from worsening funding quality, banks with high LDRs tried to attract more deposits while trying to slow down loan growth rates. To this end, these banks offered higher rates to deposits, particularly, to more stable deposit types. Similarly, evidence suggest that, on the loans side, banks with worse funding quality raised the rates more. As expected, banks increased the rates for the clients/segments where they have more market power. On the other side, despite the increasing pressures on interest rate margins, high LDR banks don’t seem to have opted for risky loans.
    Keywords: Retail rates, banks, financial stability, macro-financial linkages.
    JEL: D22 E43 G21
    Date: 2023–09
  26. By: Seth R. Gitter (Department of Economics, Towson University); Onyedikachukwu Onyemeziem (Department of Economics, Towson University); William Corcoran (Department of Economics, Towson University)
    Abstract: Child marriage is still relatively common in low-income countries, with 40% of Sub-Saharan African and 25% of Middle Eastern girls marrying before the age of 18. Case studies in individual countries have shown that delaying marriage for girls is associated with more years of schooling and a higher probability of employment. Many of these studies have used menarche, the age of a girl’s first menstrual period, as an instrument for marriage age to avoid omitted variable bias. This paper tests and demonstrates the external validity of these case studies across 12 countries using data from demographic health surveys. We show that age at menarche is a potential instrument for marriage age in the pooled sample and stronger in countries with higher rates of child marriage. The results support previous findings that delayed marriage is associated with a higher number of years of school completed and probability of employment, with a few exceptions where average marriage age is higher. This work adds to the evidence base for policy to increase marriage age for the long-term well-being of women in low-income countries.
    Keywords: Child Marriage, Women's Menarche, Menarche.
    JEL: O12 I25
    Date: 2023–09
  27. By: Ladjouzi Soumiya (ENSM - Ecole nationale supérieure de management - pôle universitaire Koléa - Ecole nationale supérieure de management - pôle universitaire Koléa); Abbache Mounsif (ENSM - Ecole nationale supérieure de management - pôle universitaire Koléa - Ecole nationale supérieure de management - pôle universitaire Koléa)
    Abstract: The study we have conducted concerns the analysis of the digital transformation in the public transport sector. Hence, our problematic was articulated around the presentation of an inventory of fixtures as of the use of electronic payment "Etuspay" in urban public transport (buses) in the Wilaya of Tiaret. In order to do that, we used a quantitative methodthrough a survey of 50 inhabitants of the region. The results obtained show that public transport users adhere to the new "Etus pay" system and that the parameter of trust in this method hardly constitutes an obstacle to its use.
    Keywords: Public Transport Electronic Payment Etus Pay Bus Tiaret. JEL Classification Codes: R41 E42, Public Transport, Electronic Payment, Etus Pay, Bus, Tiaret. JEL Classification Codes: R41, E42
    Date: 2023–06–04
  28. By: Abdulwahab Mohammed, Sana
    Abstract: This study investigates the relationship between leadership styles and knowledge management within organizations. The main objective is to identify the most appropriate leadership style that fosters effective knowledge management practices and encourages knowledge sharing among employees. To achieve this, a quantitative research approach was adopted, employing questionnaire surveys as the primary data collection method. The reliability of the research instrument was assessed using Cronbach's alpha. The study employed regression analysis to analyse the collected data and determine the influence of various leadership styles on knowledge management outcomes. By analysing the data, the study aimed to identify the leadership style that demonstrated the greatest positive impact on knowledge sharing within organizations. The findings of this research suggest that democratic leadership style is the most appropriate for knowledge management initiatives. The data indicated a significant positive correlation between democratic leadership and knowledge sharing, indicating that leaders who adopt a democratic approach facilitate an environment that encourages open communication, collaboration, and knowledge exchange. Based on the results, this study recommends that leaders embrace a democratic leadership style to enhance knowledge management practices. Organizations should prioritize creating an inclusive and participative culture that fosters employee engagement, empowerment, and involvement in decision-making processes.
    Keywords: Leadership styles, Knowledge management, Democratic leadership, Autocratic Leadership, Laissez-Faire Leadership, Knowledge sharing, Knowledge Hiding.
    JEL: M0 M12
    Date: 2023–06–18
  29. By: Soukaina Boualou (UIT - Université Ibn Tofaïl); Najwa Dorhmi (UIT - Université Ibn Tofaïl); Ilham El Haraoui (UIT - Université Ibn Tofaïl)
    Abstract: The banking landscape has undergone a significant transformation with the advent of alternative service delivery channels like mobile banking apps. However, despite the advantages these services offer, their uptake among Moroccan clients remains relatively limited. This study aims to uncover the key factors influencing the decision to adopt such services. In order to do so, we carried out an online survey disseminated through social media and gathered 98 responses from individuals who has a bank account but do not use mobile banking apps. Our findings indicate a significant correlation between perceived effort, perceived usefulness, social influence, and the intention to use mobile banking apps. The used methodology, facilitated the validation and reliability testing of our survey instrument, involving meticulous translation, and rephrasing of all items, and utilizing a five-point Likert scale for measurements. We opted for exploratory factor analysis as the evaluation method, revealing underlying data structures and explaining correlations among our variables. Following this, we tested the hypothesized influence between our dependent and independent variables through multiple regression. Despite our research's valuable insights, it does have limitations. Given our data collection method's online nature, our sample was one of convenience, potentially limiting our findings' generalizability. Nonetheless, our research has substantial practical implications. Banks can use our findings to gain a deeper understanding of what drives customer decisions to adopt mobile banking services, thereby enabling them to tailor their offerings accordingly relationship between the different variables on the intention to use mobile banking services.
    Abstract: L'évolution du secteur bancaire a vu l'émergence de services comme les applications mobiles. Cependant, leur adoption par les clients marocains est faible. L'objectif de cette étude est d'examiner les raisons sous-jacentes de cette situation. Une enquête en ligne, diffusée sur les réseaux sociaux et totalisant 98 réponses, a été réalisée auprès de personnes possédant un compte bancaire mais n'utilisant pas ces applications. Les résultats montrent une corrélation entre l'effort perçu, l'utilité perçue, l'influence sociale et l'intention d'utiliser les applications. La méthodologie assurait la validité et la fiabilité des données, avec une attention particulière à la traduction et reformulation des questions, et une échelle de Likert à cinq points. L'analyse factorielle exploratoire a dévoilé la structure des données et a clarifié les liens entre les variables. Les hypothèses ont ensuite été validées par une régression multiple. Malgré la pertinence des découvertes, l'étude présente des limites, notamment à cause de la nature de l'échantillon en ligne. Néanmoins, elle offre des informations utiles pour les banques souhaitant adapter leurs services mobiles selon les besoins et perceptions des clients.
    Keywords: Effort expectancy, performance expectancy, Mobile banking, Unified theory of acceptance and use of technology., Effort perçu, utilité perçue, influence sociale, mobile banking, Théorie unifiée de l'acceptation et de l'utilisation de la technologie.
    Date: 2023–08–24

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