nep-ara New Economics Papers
on MENA - Middle East and North Africa
Issue of 2023‒07‒17
twenty-one papers chosen by
Paul Makdissi
Université d’Ottawa

  1. A Tale of Two Crises: Turkey of the Early Aughts and Today’s Lebanon By Altug, Sumru; Dagher, Leila
  2. Political and economic implications of the Turkish earthquakes: Centralisation of power has eroded state capacity By Aksoy, Hürcan Asl¸; Çevik, Salim
  3. Artificial intelligence and the stock market: An applied theoretical analysis to address the positioning of Morocco By Inssafe Bachir; Abdnbi El Marzouki
  5. Satisfaction with Amenities and Taste for Revolt in the Middle East By Hassan F. Gholipour; Mohammad Reza Farzanegan
  6. Omani hydrogen for Germany and the EU: Not just a matter of energy policy By Ansari, Dawud
  7. Exploring consumer preferences and the willingness to pay for domestically produced finfish in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia By Gomez, Miguel I.; Mohammed, Broom; Li, Jie; Ballco, Petjon; Zhang, Yanan
  8. Revisiting the Determinants of Investment- The Case of Tunisia By Nesrine Dardouri; Abdelkader Aguir; Ramzi Farhani; Mounir Smida
  9. Micro- and Macroeconomic Impacts of a Place-Based Industrial Policy By Enghin Atalay; Ali Hortaçsu; Mustafa Runyun; Chad Syverson; Mehmet Fatih Ulu
  10. The Impact of a Large-Scale Natural Disaster on Local Economic Activity: Evidence from the 2003 Bam Earthquake in Iran By Mohammad Reza Farzanegan; Sven Fischer
  11. Trade Liberalization and Local Labor Markets in Morocco By Roche Rodriguez, Jaime Alfonso; Robertson, Raymond; Lopez-Acevedo, Gladys; Zárate, Daniela Ruiz
  12. Climate Change, Loss of Agricultural Output and the Macro-Economy: The Case of Tunisia By Devrim YILMAZ; Sawsen BEN-NASR; Achilleas MANTES; Nihed BEN-KHALIFA; Issam DAGHARI
  13. The impacts of remote work on employee well-being and gender equality By Kol, Cemre; Kurt, Beliz
  14. The architecture of the Sudanese agricultural sector and its contribution to the economy between 1990 and 2021 By Alhelo, Alzaki; Siddig, Khalid; Kirui, Oliver K.
  15. Stopping the War in Sudan: Civilian actors, not just the parties to the conflict, should lead the peace negotiations By Ali, Hager; Kurtz, Gerrit
  16. Evaluating Cereal Market (Dis)Integration in Less Developed and Fragile Markets: The Case of Sudan By Abay, Kibrom; Abdelfattah, Lina Alaaeldin; Breisinger, Clemens; Siddig, Khalid H. A.
  17. Prebisch and Singer in the Egyptian cotton fields By Diab, Osama
  18. Libya: 2023 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for Libya By International Monetary Fund
  19. L'impact de la guerre du Soudan de 2023 sur l'Afrique et au-delà By Kohnert, Dirk
  20. Intelligence territoriale et positionnement stratégique des regions au Maroc : Le cas de la région de Fès Meknes en perspective By Lhoussaine Alla; Badr Bentalha; Atif Elyoussfi
  21. Monitoring indicators of economic activity in Sudan amidst ongoing conflict using satellite data [in Arabic] By Abushama, Hala; Guo, Zhe; Siddig, Khalid; Kirui, Oliver K.; Abay, Kibrom A.; You, Liangzhi

  1. By: Altug, Sumru; Dagher, Leila
    Abstract: Crises in emerging economies often involve capital flow reversals, devaluations, and large drops in real activity, and are typically caused by unsustainable fiscal positions, financial sector fragility, and political instability. All these factors were present in the crises endured by Turkey and Lebanon, albeit with a 20-year difference.
    Keywords: lebanon; turkey; imf; economic crisis
    JEL: H12 P51
    Date: 2023
  2. By: Aksoy, Hürcan Asl¸; Çevik, Salim
    Abstract: On 6 February 2023, Turkey was hit by one of the worst earthquakes in its history. Buildings were destroyed and damaged across the southern and eastern provinces. The official death toll is already over 50, 000, and it is conceivable that the real numbers will be much higher. The earthquake also exposed the scale of political and institutional deterioration in Turkey. During Recep Tayyip Erdoægan's two decades in power, Turkey has experienced an enormous construction boom, evolved into an important player in humanitarian aid, and become an increasingly important regional military actor. However, the earthquake revealed that the highly centralised and personalised system of power had weakened state institutions and undermined their capacity to deliver. Turkey needs to reform its disaster management and governance. The European Union should assist the recovery and reconstruction efforts by targeting aid and using the momentum to mitigate anti-Westernism.
    Keywords: Turkey, earthquakes, death toll, Justice and Development Party (AKP), Recep Tayyip Erdoægan, construction boomregional military actor, state capacity, anti-Westernism, European Union
    Date: 2023
  3. By: Inssafe Bachir (Université Mohamed 5-Agdal); Abdnbi El Marzouki (Université Mohamed V de rabat-Maroc)
    Abstract: The use of artificial intelligence has become increasingly a necessity in all areas of life. The field of finance and the stock exchange was also affected by the major advantages presented by the latter, from the speed of execution to the simplification of processes and transactions. Consequently, in this article, we intend to infer the development of financial technologies, often mentioned in brief by finTech in the Moroccan financial sector, by adopting a theoretical analysis method, to examine the place of this new industry in our country. This method consists of detecting the challenges and opportunities of this new industry and studying the internal and external environment of artificial intelligence in Morocco. Based on a review of theoretical and empirical literature, this article reveals the use of artificial intelligence in the financial sector specifically in the stock market. Also relying on theories that put the relationship between artificial intelligence and the financial market. The central objective is to focus on the factors that influence, negatively and positively the rise of these technologies in the Moroccan stock market. Our study explores in another aspect the progress of artificial intelligence in the financial sector, its main stock market strategies and its revolution in the Moroccan stock market. The findings revealed the power of artificial intelligence as a tool for improving the productivity and efficiency of the financial market. As well as they revealed the steady steps of Morocco towards the transformation and technologicaldevelopment of the financial sector, which are explained by the intense efforts provided, and by the necessary measures taken to overcome all the obstacles.
    Abstract: De nos jours, l'usage de l'intelligence artificielle est devenu de plus en plus une nécessité dans tous les domaines de la vie. Le domaine de la finance et de la bourse également été touchés par les avantages majeurs présenter par cette dernière, dès la rapidité de l'exécution jusqu'à la simplification des processus et des transactions. En conséquence, dans cet article, nous avons l'intention d'inférer le développement des technologies financière, souvent mentionnée en bref par finTech dans le secteur financier Marocain, en adoptant une méthode d'analyse théorique, pour examiner la place de cette nouvelle industrie a notre pays. Cette méthode consiste à détecter les challenges et les opportunités de cette nouvelle industrie et d'étudier l'environnement interne et externe d'intelligence artificielle au Maroc. Cet article dévoile en se basant sur une revue de littérature théorique et empirique, l'utilisation d'intelligence artificielle au secteur financier précisément en marché boursier. En s'appuyant aussi sur les théories qui mis la relation entre l'intelligence artificielle et le marché financier. L'objectif central est de mettre le point sur les facteurs qui influent, négativement et positivement l'essor de ces technologies dans le marché boursier marocain. Notre étude explore dans un autre volet le progrès de l'intelligence artificielle dans le secteur financier, ses principales stratégies boursières ainsi que sa révolution dans la bourse marocaine. Les conclusions ont révélé, la puissance d'intelligence artificielle comme un outil d'amélioration de la productivité et l'efficacité du marché financier. Ainsi qu'ils ont révélé les pas réguliers du Maroc envers la transformation et le développement technologique du secteur financier, qui s'expliquent par les efforts intenses fournis, et par les mesures nécessaires prisent pour dépasser tous les obstacles.
    Keywords: Artificial intelligence, financial sector, stock market, finTech, Morocco., Intelligence artificielle, secteur financier, marché boursier, Maroc.
    Date: 2023–04–26
  4. By: Abdelmajid Lamsiah (USMBA - Université Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah); Badr Bentalha (ENCGF - Ecole Nationale de Commerce et de Gestion De Fès - USMBA - Université Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah)
    Abstract: Diversity is Morocco's brand par excellence, whether it be ideological, cultural, or economic. This diversity is tightly related to the values of dialogue and consensus for the sake of continuity and coexistence. Morocco's "one and indivisible national identity" (Morocco's Constitution of 2011) operates through practical standards, far from any propaganda. The Jewish community's visibility is undeniable, and it subscribes to the value of belonging to Morocco. Moroccan Jews' socio-economic and cultural determinism evinces their pragmatic philosophy whenever it comes to Moroccan national interest. The exploratory target of this study is to stand on the involvement of Moroccan Jews in the fulfilment of King Mohammed VI's ambitious economic project and then assess their complementarity to promote Moroccan foreign economy. In a more transparent manner, the power notion underlying Moroccan Jews is then embedded in their ability to handle economic matters intelligently. The pertinent questions are: to what extent do Moroccan Jews bring forth their powerful economic skills? By what mechanisms do they play a leading role on regional and trans-regional scales using economic intelligence? The study is suggested to fill a gap in Moroccan literature concerning Moroccan Jews' economic intelligence by conducting analysis through targeted case studies. The findings of this research clearly show the strong belonging of Moroccan Jews to the Alaouite Monarch and their distinguished sense of patriotism. Their economic contribution was demonstrated on multiple occasions.
    Abstract: La diversité est une marque privilégiée du Maroc, qu'elle soit idéologique, culturelle ou économique. Cette diversité est étroitement liée aux valeurs de dialogue et de consensus dans un souci de continuité et de coexistence. L'identité nationale une et indivisible du Maroc (Constitution marocaine de 2011) fonctionne selon des normes pratiques, loin de toute propagande. La visibilité de la communauté juive est indéniable et souscrit à la valeur de l'appartenance au Maroc. Le déterminisme socio-économique et culturel des Juifs marocains témoigne de leur philosophie pragmatique lorsqu'il s'agit de l'intérêt national marocain. L'objectif exploratoire de cette étude est de comprendre l'implication des Juifs marocains dans la réalisation du projet économique du Roi Mohammed VI, puis d'évaluer leur complémentarité pour promouvoir l'économie extérieure marocaine. De manière plus transparente, la notion de pouvoir sous-jacente aux Juifs marocains est alors ancrée dans leur capacité à gérer intelligemment les questions économiques. La question principale est de savoir dans quelle mesure les Juifs marocains mettent en avant leurs puissantes compétences économiques ? Par quels mécanismes jouent-ils un rôle de premier plan à l'échelle régionale et transrégionale en utilisant l'intelligence économique ? L'étude proposée vise à combler un vide dans la littérature marocaine concernant l'intelligence économique des Juifs marocains en menant une analyse à travers des études de cas. Les résultats de cette recherche montrent clairement la forte appartenance des Juifs marocains au monarque alaouite et leur sens distingué du patriotisme. Leur contribution économique a été démontrée à de multiples occasions.
    Keywords: Moroccan Jews, economic intelligence, the belonging concept, case study, patriotism
    Date: 2023–05–25
  5. By: Hassan F. Gholipour; Mohammad Reza Farzanegan
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between individuals’ satisfaction with amenities and environmental quality and taste for revolt in the Middle East. Using recent World Value Survey data (WVS7, 2017-2021) from Egypt and Iraq (which have been experiencing severe environmental degradation and inadequate and mismanagement of public infrastructure) and applying Probit regressions, our results show that satisfaction with amenities and environmental quality indicators are negatively and statistically related to individuals’ inclination towards revolt in both countries. This finding is more pronounced in urban areas, particularly in large cities. We also find that individuals’ satisfaction with amenities and environmental quality affect the taste of revolt through the individual’s life satisfaction and satisfaction with the government’s provision of utilities. The analysis for Egypt suggests that satisfaction with public transportation systems, roads and highways, air quality, and housing quality are significantly and negatively associated with support for revolutionary action. For the Iraq sample, we find that dissatisfaction with roads and highways, water quality, school quality, and the physical settings of cities lead to a higher probability of support for uprising.
    Keywords: amenities, air quality, Middle East, environment, pollution, revolution, satisfaction
    JEL: D74 H54 Q53
    Date: 2023
  6. By: Ansari, Dawud
    Abstract: Germany and the EU plan to import hydrogen and its derivatives from the Arab Gulf states. Although Germany has signed a joint declaration of intent with the Sultanate of Oman to this end, its efforts focus primarily on Oman's larger neighbours. However, it would be a mistake to overlook Oman's potential role within German and European energy policy, geostrategy, and climate diplomacy. Oman's ambitious hydrogen plans can provide Germany and the EU with affordable clean energy; and enhanced (trade) relations with the Sultanate align with a value-based approach to trade, support global climate action, and stabilise regional power balances - thus preventing the potential of dangerous conflict.
    Keywords: Germany, EU, hydrogen imports, Oman, United Arab Emirates (UAE), Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Kuwait, liquefied natural gas (LNG)
    Date: 2023
  7. By: Gomez, Miguel I.; Mohammed, Broom; Li, Jie; Ballco, Petjon; Zhang, Yanan
    Keywords: Agribusiness, Marketing, Agricultural and Food Policy
    Date: 2023
  8. By: Nesrine Dardouri; Abdelkader Aguir (ESPI - Ecole Supérieure des Professions Immobilières); Ramzi Farhani; Mounir Smida
    Abstract: This study aims to analyse the determinants of investment for developing countries, through the case of Tunisia, which is strongly affected by such a dynamic. Using the ARDL model on annual data for the period 1987 to 2020, we found evidence of a short-and long-term relationship between various social and economic variables and the investment. These findings have important policy implications for economic agents, politicians, and policymakers. This study is useful to identify the socioeconomic determinants of total investment in Tunisia.
    Keywords: Investment, Economic growth, Tunisia
    Date: 2023–05–15
  9. By: Enghin Atalay; Ali Hortaçsu; Mustafa Runyun; Chad Syverson; Mehmet Fatih Ulu
    Abstract: We investigate the impact of a set of place-based subsidies introduced in Turkey in 2012. Using firm-level balance-sheet data along with data on the domestic production network, we first assess the policy’s direct and indirect impacts. We find an increase in economic activity in industry-province pairs that were the focus of the subsidy program, and positive spillovers to the suppliers and customers of subsidized firms. With the aid of a dynamic multi-region, multi-industry general equilibrium model, we then assess the program’s impacts. Based on the calibrated model we find that, in the long run, the subsidy program is modestly successful in reducing inequality between the relatively under-developed and more prosperous portions of the country. These modest longer-term effects are due to the ability of households to migrate in response to the subsidy program and to input-output linkages that traverse subsidy regions within Turkey.
    JEL: D20 E2 E6 H5 L5
    Date: 2023–06
  10. By: Mohammad Reza Farzanegan; Sven Fischer
    Abstract: This study provides new causal evidence for the impact of a large-scale natural disaster on local economic activity in Iran using nighttime light intensity. We apply the synthetic control method (SCM) and nighttime light (NTL) data from 1992 to 2020 for 31 provinces and 429 counties to study the impact of the 2003 Bam earthquake in the Iranian Kerman Province. According to the results and statistical inference tests for the SCM, Bam County and four neighboring counties experienced a statistically significant boost in economic activity in the years following the earthquake. This increase in local economic activity can be explained by the combination of several factors, such as an unprecedented inflow of national and international disaster relief during the reformist government of President Khatami, the political trust and mobilization of civil society in this period, the cultural importance of Bam, the severity of the earthquake, and the media attention. Additionally, economic activity in Bam County returns to its pre-disaster development path after seven years.
    Keywords: natural disaster, natural hazard, synthetic control, earthquake, economic development, nighttime light, Iran, Bam
    JEL: E01 H84 O11 O44 O53 Q51 Q54 R11 R12
    Date: 2023
  11. By: Roche Rodriguez, Jaime Alfonso (World Bank); Robertson, Raymond (Texas A&M University); Lopez-Acevedo, Gladys (World Bank); Zárate, Daniela Ruiz (Bank of Mexico)
    Abstract: Morocco's trade liberalization policies have promoted economic progress over the past two decades. However, effects on Morocco's local labor market outcomes vary. By combining three complementary approaches and modeling techniques, this paper estimates: (i) how trade agreements have increased trade flows, (ii) the relationship between trade exposure and mixed local labor market outcomes, and (iii) the relationship between firm employment and exports. Our results show that trade policy has increased trade flows, but this has led to mixed results for workers: increased trade has decreased informality but has failed to improve female labor force participation (FLFP). This appears to be due to a shift from female labor-intensive industries, such as apparel and textile sectors, to capital-intensive sectors that are predominantly male-intensive. Our firm level analysis confirms these results by showing that increase in employment from exports has occurred mainly in male, labor-intensive sectors.
    Keywords: trade policy, trade flows, labor market outcomes, firm dynamics
    JEL: F13 F16 O14 O19
    Date: 2023–06
  12. By: Devrim YILMAZ; Sawsen BEN-NASR; Achilleas MANTES; Nihed BEN-KHALIFA; Issam DAGHARI
    Abstract: Using an empirical, multi-sectoral, open economy, Stock-Flow Consistent model, this paper assesses the long-term consequences of a sustained climate-induced decline in agricultural production for the Tunisian economy. Focus is placed on agricultural and processed food production and the feedback loops of balance sheet and liquidity effects on the real economy. The model is empirically calibrated using a range of national accounts, input-output, balance of payments and balance sheet datasets, agricultural projections from crop models and it is simulated for the period 2018- 2050. We show that costs of inaction in the face of declining agricultural production are dire for Tunisia. We find that the economy will face high and rising unemployment and inflation, growing internal and external macroeconomic imbalances and a looming balance of payments crisis, especially if global food inflation remains high in the coming decades. We then simulate two possible adaptation scenarios envisaged by policymakers and show that adaptation investments in water resources, increased water efficiency in production and a public, investmentdriven big push, can put the economy back on a sustainable path in the long run.
    Keywords: Tunisie
    JEL: Q
    Date: 2023–06–09
  13. By: Kol, Cemre; Kurt, Beliz
    Abstract: Covid-19 lockdowns resurfaced the dynamics that influence the distribution of household duties and reinforced gender disparity due to the domestic roles of women. We analyzed the effects of remote work on work efficacy and satisfaction of employees in terms of gender equality in Turkey. The primary data gathered from the authors' survey have been compared to unique e-survey of Eurofound for Italy. The methodology of this research has displayed a regression analysis to find the impact of remote work on the remote workers of Turkey by using the data collected from our online survey. It has been found that the satisfaction and wellbeing of employees have been reduced by the effects of remote work. Women in comparison to men, in particular, have reported higher levels of work quality and efficacy while reporting lower levels of satisfaction during remote work period.
    Keywords: Remote work; Gender inequality; Well-being; Work efficacy; Covid-19
    JEL: C1 I31 J16 J28
    Date: 2023–06–19
  14. By: Alhelo, Alzaki; Siddig, Khalid; Kirui, Oliver K.
    Abstract: The paper reviews the performance of the Sudanese agricultural sector over the last three decades (1990 through 2021) and examines the drivers of that performance. Key findings show that the sector’s contribution to gross domestic product was greater during the 1990–1999 period than during the other two decades; agricultural productivity as well was higher in that decade than in the subsequent two decades. The sector has remained a major source of employment and livelihood. During the last decade reviewed (2010–2021), the sector regained its leading position as a generator of foreign currency. Public investment in agriculture and government spending allocated to the sector were lower than in other countries in the region. Political elites have generally lacked commitment to development plans in the sector. Political developments in Sudan have disrupted more recent efforts to revitalize the sector. Climate change, as manifested in rising temperature, declining rainfall, and drought, is a substantial determinant currently affecting the sector. The paper discusses some broad recommendations for improving the performance of the Sudanese agricultural sector.
    Keywords: REPUBLIC OF THE SUDAN; EAST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; agricultural sector; gross national product; agricultural productivity; employment; livelihoods; public investment; government spending; development; political aspects; climate change; gross domestic product
    Date: 2023
  15. By: Ali, Hager; Kurtz, Gerrit
    Abstract: Sudan's two main security forces are fighting each other. A swift military outcome is not to be expected in view of the relatively balanced power between the Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF) and the Rapid Support Forces (RSF). This strategic stalemate means that the chances for successful mediation are not hopeless. For this to happen, however, Sudan's international partners would have to abandon the approach that dominated negotiations for decades, namely giving violent actors a leading role in negotiations. Civilian actors formed a broad anti-war coalition that should set the tone for peace talks from the very beginning. This could well be in the interest of the parties to the conflict, as they will need a third actor to arbitrate their relationship in the future. The German government should strive for stronger coordination of the international mediation approaches under civilian leadership from Sudan, while the European Union (EU) should initiate constrains on the financial leeway of Sudan's violent actors.
    Keywords: Sudan, War, Omar al-Bashir, Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF), Rapid Support Forces (RSF), General Abdel Fattah al-Burhan, General Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo (Hemedti)
    Date: 2023
  16. By: Abay, Kibrom; Abdelfattah, Lina Alaaeldin; Breisinger, Clemens; Siddig, Khalid H. A.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Agricultural Finance, Research Methods/Statistical Methods
    Date: 2023
  17. By: Diab, Osama
    Abstract: This article explores new approaches to the study of colonial trade relationships between Egypt and Britain in the long 19th century. More specifically, it employs the Prebisch-Singer Hypothesis (PSH) to assess whether Egypt’s barter terms of trade (BTT) with Britain has deteriorated or improved during the long 19th century. The article argues that the BTT evolution is key to understanding two central phenomena of the modern capitalist era away from Weberian- and Sombartian-style culturalist interpretations. First is the growing uneven development–known as the Great Divergence–between the 'core' and the 'periphery' of the global economic system, and second is the rise of anti-colonial sentiments and policies in the Global South.
    Date: 2023–06–20
  18. By: International Monetary Fund
    Abstract: This is the first Article IV Consultation since 2013. Libya’s institutional framework has helped the country through a period of significant macroeconomic volatility and turmoil. There have been exceptional swings in oil production and revenues since the fall of the Ghaddafi regime in 2011. Despite this, the measures taken by the Central Bank of Libya, including the currency’s devaluation in 2021, helped maintain a large buffer of international reserves. The stability of the exchange rate will remain an important anchor for monetary policy going forward.
    Date: 2023–06–08
  19. By: Kohnert, Dirk
    Abstract: For decades, the history of Sudan, Africa's third largest country with around 46 million inhabitants, has been marked by violent clashes between the northern, Muslim and Arab military elites of the capital Khartoum at the expense of the civilian population. Since Sudan gained independence in 1956, there have been 16 attempted coups, six of which were successful. That was more than in any other country on a continent that has itself seen more coups than any other region in the world. Two civil wars between the government in Khartoum and the southern regions claimed around 1.5 million victims. In addition, the ongoing conflict in the western Darfur region has killed more than 200, 000 people and displaced two million people. In these conflicts, borders mean little. Control of resources and subjects is the primary objective, and forces arising in the borderlands seek revenge on the despised metropolitan elites. Sudan's geopolitical importance in a volatile region bordering the Red Sea, the Sahel and the Horn of Africa, as well as its agricultural prosperity, attracted regional and global actors and hampered the successful transition to civilian-led government and sustainable development. In addition to Great Britain, the former colonial power, Russia, the USA, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and other neighbouring countries were fighting for influence in Sudan, including Ethiopia, Chad and South Sudan. They, too, were affected by political unrest and conflict and suffered under the burden of Sudanese refugees fleeing the fighting to neighbouring countries. The British colonial rulers had already used existing differences to divide the population according to ethnic and regional affiliations, a practice that survives to this day. Militia activism deepened divisions among rebel supporters. This divide-and-conquer policy corresponded to a well-established tactic used by African governments in ethnic civil wars, often exploiting the militias to encourage and facilitate ethnic migration by integrating the militias into the national army. Transnational, well-entrenched criminal networks involved in drug-, arms- and human trafficking also stood ready to take advantage of the chaos. This made Sudan one of the most fragile countries in the world. Sudan's collapse would not only shake its neighbours, but could also upset several other African countries, including fragile states in the Sahel, and East and North Africa. The side effects of such an incalculable conflict zone and the resulting chaos would also affect Western Europe, which is already suffering from the influx of refugees from Syria and other war zones in the Middle East and Africa.
    Keywords: Soudan; conflit soudanais de 2023; Soudan du Sud; Afrique subsaharienne; trafic d'armes; trafic de drogue; famine; réfugiés; migration; développement durable; démocratisation; post-colonialisme; secteur informel; commerce international; nationalisme; Russie; Grande-Bretagne; Pakistan; APD; ONG; études africaines;
    JEL: E26 F22 F24 F35 F51 F52 F54 F63 H12 H27 H56 H77 H84 I31 J46 J61 L31 N17 N37 N47 N97 O17 O55 Z13
    Date: 2023–06–09
  20. By: Lhoussaine Alla (ENSAF - École nationale des sciences appliquées de Fès = National School of Applied Sciences of Fez); Badr Bentalha (ENCGF - Ecole Nationale de Commerce et de Gestion De Fès - USMBA - Université Sidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah); Atif Elyoussfi
    Abstract: In the context of globalization of economies and the intensity of intra and inter regional competition that this generates, territorial development actors are more challenged than ever to inscribe it in a process of collective intelligence and good governance, in order to produce a quality local service and better satisfy the needs and expectations of both consumers and investors. It follows that the definition and implementation of the strategic positioning of the territory becomes a real challenge for territorial leaders in order to improve the attractiveness of their region and to trigger and boost a virtuous process of reliable, equitable and liveable local development. This supposes, among other things, a good knowledge of the territorial potential, before its capitalization in the service of a sustainable competitive advantage for the region, likely to guarantee the satisfaction of the needs of all the other stakeholders, while standing out from the offers of the competing regions, via the territorial economic intelligence (TEI). Through this research, we aim to highlight the place and role of territorial economic intelligence as a lever for the adoption of a smart and sustainable territorial specialization strategy (4S) for a given region, in order to better shape and promote its strategic positioning. To deal with this issue, we adopted a prospective approach for an integrated strategy of competitive and performing territorial positioning, preceded by the territorial diagnosis and the analysis of the strategic territorial vision of the Region. Compared to the ambitions linked to the vision of socio-economic development of the FezMeknes Region, its current strategic positioning testifies to the under-exploitation of its numerous potentialities and distinctive resources. The 2030 perspective puts territorial economic intelligence at the heart of the new territorial positioning strategy, with the redefinition of the roles of the CRIs (Regional Investment Centre), the new investment charter.
    Abstract: A l'ère de la mondialisation et de la globalisation des économies, et l'intensité de la compétition intra et inter régions que cela génère, les acteurs du développement territorial sont, plus que jamais, interpellés à l'inscrire dans un processus d'intelligence collective et de bonne gouvernance, pour produire un service local de qualité et mieux satisfaire les besoins et attentes tant des consommateurs que des investisseurs. Il s'ensuit que la définition et la mise en œuvre du positionnement stratégique du territoire devient un véritable enjeu pour les responsables territoriaux afin d'améliorer l'attractivité de leur région et d'en déclencher et booster un processus vertueux du développement local tant fiable, équitable et vivable. Ce qui suppose, entre-autres, une bonne connaissance du potentiel territorial, avant sa capitalisation au service d'un avantage concurrentiel durable pour la région, susceptible de garantir la satisfaction des besoins toutes les autres parties prenantes, tout en se démarquant des offres des régions concurrentes, via l'intelligence économique territoriale (IET). Par cette recherche, nous visons mettre en évidence la place et le rôle de l'IET comme levier d'adoption de stratégie de spécialisation territoriale intelligente et durable (4S) pour une région donnée, pour mieux façonner et promouvoir son positionnement stratégique. Pour traiter cette problématique, nous avons adopté une approche prospective pour une stratégie intégrée de positionnement territorial compétitif et performant, précédée par le diagnostic territorial et l'analyse de la vision stratégique territoriale de la Région. Comparativement aux ambitions liées à la vision de développement socio-économique de la Région Fès-Meknès, son positionnement stratégique actuel témoigne de la sous-exploitation de ses nombreuses potentialités et ressources distinctives. La perspective 2030 mette l'intelligence économique territoriale au cœur de la nouvelle stratégie de positionnement territorial, avec la redéfinition des rôles des CRI (Centre Régional d'Investissement), la nouvelle charte d'investissement.
    Keywords: Territorial intelligence, 4S, territorial marketing positioning, territorial governance, Territorial Marketing, Intelligence territoriale, veille économique, positionnement marketing territorial, gouvernance territoriale, Marketing Territorial
    Date: 2023–05–25
  21. By: Abushama, Hala; Guo, Zhe; Siddig, Khalid; Kirui, Oliver K.; Abay, Kibrom A.; You, Liangzhi
    Keywords: REPUBLIC OF THE SUDAN; EAST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; satellite observation; data; conflicts; economic activities; nitrogen dioxide; air quality; air pollution; Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF); Rapid Support Forces (RSF)
    Date: 2023

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