nep-ara New Economics Papers
on MENA - Middle East and North Africa
Issue of 2023‒07‒10
fourteen papers chosen by
Paul Makdissi
Université d’Ottawa

  1. The Joint Crediting Mechanism in the Paris Agreement Era: The Challenges of and Potential for Future Saudi-Japanese Cooperation By Shigeto Kondo
  2. Methane Emissions Baseline Forecasts for Saudi Arabia Using the Structural Time Series Model and Autometrics By Anwar Gasim; Lester C. Hunt; Jeyhun Mikayilov
  3. Lessons from Gulf Cooperation Council Countries’ Participation in the Clean Development Mechanism By Mari Luomi; Thomas Bosse; Zlata Sergeeva
  4. The Relationship Between Burnout Operators with the Functions of Family Tehran Banking Melli Iran Bank in 2015 By Mohammad Heydari; Matineh Moghaddam; Habibollah Danai
  5. Internal quality assurance in Moroccan universities: literature review and proposal of a QMS By Tayeb OUAZZANI CHAHDI; Mohamed TAHROUCH
  6. Monitoring indicators of economic activity in Sudan amidst ongoing conflict using satellite data By Abushama, Hala; Guo, Zhe; Siddig, Khalid; Kirui, Oliver K.; Abay, Kibrom A.; You, Liangzhi
  7. Urban Transport Energy Demand Model for Riyadh: Methodology and Preliminary Analysis By Abu Toasin Oakil; Ahm Mehbub Anwar; Alma; Nourah Al Hosain; Abdelrahman Muhsen; Anvita Arora
  8. Water security in Iraq By Shapland, Greg
  9. The Impact of the Basel III banking regulation on Moroccan banks By Mohammed Mikou
  10. Internal quality assurance in Moroccan universities: case study By Tayeb OUAZZANI CHAHDI; Mohamed TAHROUCH
  11. Geographic Barriers to Education in Disadvantaged Communities: Evidence from High School Openings in Israeli Arab Localities By Elad DeMalach
  12. Distribution Hosting Capacity Tool By Khalid Alhadhrami
  13. Den Krieg in Sudan stoppen: Zivile Akteure, nicht allein die Konfliktparteien, sollten die Friedensverhandlungen führen By Ali, Hager; Kurtz, Gerrit
  14. 기후변화에 따른 아프리카ㆍ중동의 식량안보 위기와 한국의 협력방안(Impacts of Climate Change and Policy Implications on Food Security in Africa and the Middle East) By Kang, Munsu; Han, Seoni; Son, Sung Hyun; Kim, Yejin; Jeong, Minji; Park, Kyu Tae

  1. By: Shigeto Kondo (King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center)
    Abstract: The joint crediting mechanism (JCM) is a Japan-initiated bilateral mechanism for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions while transferring Japan’s technologies to partner countries in exchange for transferring carbon credits to Japan. It is seen as a leading pilot mechanism of “cooperative approaches” under Article 6.2 of the Paris Agreement. As of February 2022, 214 projects with 22 partner countries, including Saudi Arabia, had been selected by the Japanese government for support. Japan and Saudi Arabia have thus far implemented one project under this mechanism, and another project is in the process of being approved.
    Keywords: Article 6, Carbon market, Carbon pricing, Clean technology, Climate change
    Date: 2023–06–06
  2. By: Anwar Gasim; Lester C. Hunt; Jeyhun Mikayilov (King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center)
    Abstract: Reducing methane (CH4) emissions is key to near-term efforts to limit global warming. CH4 is the second most abundant anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) in the atmosphere after carbon dioxide (CO2). The production, transport, and consumption of fossil fuels, in addition to waste and agriculture, account for most anthropogenic CH4 emissions globally (IPCC 2018). Although CH4has only a 12-year lifetime in the atmosphere, it is 84 times more potent per ton than CO2 in a 20-year period and 28 times more potent in a 100-year period (IPCC 2018). The drastically stronger short-term potency of CH4 explains why its short-term impact on global warming is considerably greater than that of CO2. Therefore, meeting the goals of the Paris Agreement necessitates not only decarbonization but also significant CH4 emissions reductions, especially in the near term.
    Keywords: Belt and Road, Capital expenditure, Circular Carbon Economy, CO2 emissions
    Date: 2023–04–14
  3. By: Mari Luomi; Thomas Bosse; Zlata Sergeeva (King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center)
    Abstract: Carrbon markets have rapidly risen on government and corporate agendas in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries as the region gears up to implement the Paris Agreement and pursue ambitious net-zero greenhouse gas (GHG) emission targets. Governments have expressed interest in participating in international carbon markets in their most recent nationally determined contributions (NDCs), various major companies across the region have set ambitious emission reduction targets, and three GCC countries have begun developing voluntary carbon market standards or marketplaces.
    Keywords: Article 6, Carbon market, Carbon pricing, Clean technology
    Date: 2023–06–06
  4. By: Mohammad Heydari; Matineh Moghaddam; Habibollah Danai
    Abstract: In this study, the relationship between burnout and family functions of the Melli Iran Bank staff will be studied. A number of employees within the organization using appropriate scientific methods as the samples were selected by detailed questionnaire and the appropriate data is collected burnout and family functions. The method used descriptive statistical population used for this study consisted of 314 bank loan officers in branches of Melli Iran Bank of Tehran province and all the officials at the bank for >5 years of service at Melli Iran Bank branches in Tehran. They are married and men constitute the study population. The Maslach Burnout Inventory in the end internal to 0/90 alpha emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and low personal accomplishment Cronbach alpha of 0/79 and inventory by 0/71 within the last family to solve the problem 0/70, emotional response 0/51, touch 0/70, 0/69 affective involvement, roles, 0/59, 0/68 behavior is controlled. The results indicate that the hypothesis that included the relationship between burnout and 6, the family functioning, problem solving, communication, roles, affective responsiveness, affective fusion there was a significant relationship between behavior and the correlation was negative. The burnout is high; the functions within the family will be in trouble.
    Date: 2023–06
  5. By: Tayeb OUAZZANI CHAHDI (ENCGT - Ecole Nationale de Commerce et de Gestion de Tanger - UAE - Université Abdelmalek Essaâdi, UEMF - Université Euro Méditerranéenne de Fès); Mohamed TAHROUCH (ENCGT - Ecole Nationale de Commerce et de Gestion de Tanger - UAE - Université Abdelmalek Essaâdi)
    Abstract: This article sheds light on the development of the culture of Quality Assurance (QA) in the Moroccan higher education system and its implementation by universities. It first highlights the multifaceted definition of quality assurance and describes its recent development in the American, Canadian, and European higher education systems. It concludes that the criteria defining the concept of QA were established by the North for the North and forced the South to align with them to maintain their cooperative relationships. The article then discusses the Moroccan legal framework established for the higher education system and the significant role reserved for its regular evaluation. It highlights the 4 levels of evaluation of the performance of this system and concludes that its feasibility necessarily involves universities deploying their own Quality Management System (QMS) and standardizing their academic practices by establishing their quality standards, with permanent and reproducible procedures. Drawing on relevant literature on the subject and using a descriptive and comparative approach, we propose a QMS model that, in our view, would best suit the case of Moroccan universities, with the ambition of being able to apply it to a concrete case and make it a future publication.
    Abstract: Cet article jette la lumière sur le développement de la culture de l'assurance qualité (AQ) dans le système d'enseignement supérieur marocain et de sa mise en oeuvre par l'université. Il souligne d'abord la multiformité de la définition de l'assurance qualité et décrit son développement récent dans les système d'enseignement supérieur américain, canadien et européen et conclue par le fait que les critères qui définissent le concept d'AQ furent établis par le nord pour le nord et ont forcé le sud à s'y aligner pour conserver leurs relations de coopération. L'article aborde ensuite l'arsenal juridique marocain instauré pour le système d'enseignement supérieur et la place importante réservée à son évaluation régulière. Il met en évidence les 4 niveaux d'évaluation de la performance de ce système et en déduit que sa faisabilité implique forcément pour les universités de déployer en leur sein leur propre système de management de la qualité (SMQ) et de normaliser leur pratique académique en instaurant leurs standards de qualité, avec des procédures permanentes et reproductibles. Nous appuyant sur la bibliographie pertinente consacrée à ce sujet et procédant d'une approche descriptive et comparative, nous proposons un modèle de SMQ qui, de notre point de vue, s'adapterait le mieux au cas des universités marocaines, avec l'ambition de pouvoir l'appliquer sur un cas concret et en faire une prochaine publication.
    Keywords: Assurance qualité, enseignement supérieur, système de management de la qualité (SMQ), Maroc
    Date: 2023–05–12
  6. By: Abushama, Hala; Guo, Zhe; Siddig, Khalid; Kirui, Oliver K.; Abay, Kibrom A.; You, Liangzhi
    Keywords: REPUBLIC OF THE SUDAN; EAST AFRICA; AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA; AFRICA; satellite observation; data; conflicts; economic activities; nitrogen dioxide; air quality; air pollution; Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF); Rapid Support Forces (RSF)
    Date: 2023
  7. By: Abu Toasin Oakil; Ahm Mehbub Anwar; Alma; Nourah Al Hosain; Abdelrahman Muhsen; Anvita Arora (King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center)
    Abstract: Saudi Arabia intends to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 278 million tonnes of CO2 equivalent annually by 2030, according to its Nationally Determined Contribution to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Among many policies it is introducing, a mass transit system and transit-oriented development are being advanced with the expectation of reducing energy consumption and GHG emissions in Riyadh. To what extent such an initiative can reduce energy consumption and GHG emissions is an important question. In this paper, a methodology is developed to systematically measure the impact of mass transit and transit-oriented development in Riyadh on energy demand.
    Keywords: Land use-Transportation interaction, Spatial economic model, Transit oreinted development, Urban energy model
    Date: 2023–06–13
  8. By: Shapland, Greg
    JEL: R14 J01
    Date: 2023–05–01
  9. By: Mohammed Mikou
    Abstract: This paper estimates the social costs and benefits of the Basel III banking regulation application to Moroccan banks, which, inter alia, imposed higher capital requirements. The paper quantifies the impact of higher capital requirements on (i) lending rates, (ii) bank refinancing costs, and (iii) banking system resilience. Our findings indicate that the increase in capital requirements for Moroccan banks has a limited impact on lending and refinancing costs. The benefit of greater banking system resilience in terms of systemic risk appears to be more significant in expectations.
    Date: 2023–06–21
  10. By: Tayeb OUAZZANI CHAHDI (ENCGT - Ecole Nationale de Commerce et de Gestion de Tanger - UAE - Université Abdelmalek Essaâdi, UEMF - Université Euro Méditerranéenne de Fès); Mohamed TAHROUCH (ENCGT - Ecole Nationale de Commerce et de Gestion de Tanger - UAE - Université Abdelmalek Essaâdi)
    Abstract: This article is a continuation of a previously published article on the same subject, focusing on the literature review. It presents the results of an action research conducted alongside the conceptualization of a quality management system for a Moroccan university, which was recently published in this journal. The described QMS is based on the governance bodies of the university and its functional units, requiring a clear identification of interactions between these entities at the political, strategic, and operational levels. The implementation of this QMS was carried out at Euromed University of Fes (UEMF), which chose to adopt a quality assurance approach to measure and continuously improve its performance. The article outlines the political and strategic objectives set by the governance bodies and describes the implemented QMS to achieve them. The article also presents a 360-degree evaluation system, including upward, downward, and cross-evaluations of personnel, components, and services at regular intervals. Real-time processing and analysis of the collected data and information enable the timely deployment of improvement actions. The entities involved in this approach, as well as the tools, processes, and procedures implemented, are presented along with the initial academic, scientific, managerial, and reputational outcomes.
    Abstract: Cet article s'inscrit dans la continuité de celui déjà publié sur le même sujet et consacré à la revue de la littérature. Il est le fruit d'une recherche-action menée en parallèle avec un travail de conceptualisation du système de management de la qualité pour l'université marocaine et qui a fait l'objet d'une récente publication dans cette revue. Le SMQ ainsi décrit repose sur les organes de gouvernance de l'Université et ses organes fonctionnels et implique d'identifier clairement les interactions entre ces entités, aux trois niveaux politique, stratégique et opérationnel. Nous avons eu la chance et le privilège de le mettre en oeuvre à l'Université Euromed de Fès (UEMF) qui a fait le choix de déployer une démarche d'assurance qualité pour mesurer et améliorer durablement sa performance et de nous confier une partie de ce travail. L'article rappelle les objectifs politiques et stratégique fixés par les instances de gouvernance et décrit le SMQ mis en place pour les atteindre. On y trouve un système d'évaluation à 360°, ascendante, descendante et croisée qui prévoit à des périodes régulières établies et validées, des évaluations internes du personnel, des composantes et des services, en traitant en temps réel les données et informations recueillies et en les restituant aux parties prenantes sous une forme facilement et rapidement exploitable pour déployer les actions de progrès qui s'imposent. Les entités impliquées dans cette démarche, les outils, processus et procédures mis en oeuvre y sont également présentés en même temps que les premières retombées académiques, scientifiques, managériales et de réputation.
    Keywords: assurance qualité, enseignements supérieur, système de management de la qualité (SMQ), Euromed, Fès, Maroc
    Date: 2023–05–15
  11. By: Elad DeMalach (Bank of Israel)
    Abstract: Secondary school enrollment has grown substantially over the past century, but there is surprisingly little economic evidence on the effects of geographic access to high schools, particularly for remote and disadvantaged communities. I attempt to fill this gap in the literature by examining the effects of openings of new local high schools for the Arab minority in Israel over two episodes: (1) Historical openings in 1972-1995 for Israeli Arabs (2) Recent openings in 2007-2014 for the poorer Bedouin population of the Negev in southern Israel. For both episodes, I find that the establishment of a high school in a locality increases high school completion rates by about 5-7 percentage points. The effect is higher for localities that were further away from pre-existing schools. For the historical Arab sample, I also examine the long-run effects and find an increase in post-secondary attainment and in women’s employment and earnings. Among the Negev Bedouin population, I also observe a decrease in the number of juvenile criminal records. Overall, these findings suggest that the geographic barrier to high school access is important, especially for disadvantaged communities, and that establishing a high school in remote communities can be beneficial in multiple aspects.
    Date: 2023–02
  12. By: Khalid Alhadhrami (King Abdullah Petroleum Studies and Research Center)
    Abstract: This study presents the methodology for the KAPSARC Distribution Hosting Capacity Tool (KDHCT). This tool can support the future of renewable energy in Saudi Arabia. The use of distributed energy resources (DERs), such as solar panels, energy storage and electric vehicles (EVs), is expected to increase. The KDHCT evaluates how many of these assets a particular distribution system can accommodate. The number of DERs and the load that an electric distribution system can reliably accommodate without significant grid upgrades is called its hosting capacity (HC) (Abad, Ma, and Han 2019). HC analysis informs electricity customers and utilities about the best places and times to install DERs and EVs on any distribution system. Thus, utilities can avoid reliability problems and costly distribution system upgrades.
    Keywords: Battery storage, Benefits of electricity trade, Business models, Climate change
    Date: 2023–05–14
  13. By: Ali, Hager; Kurtz, Gerrit
    Abstract: In Sudan kämpfen die wichtigsten Sicherheitskräfte des Landes gegeneinander. Eine schnelle militärische Entscheidung ist angesichts des relativ ausgeglichenen Kräfteverhältnisses zwischen den Sudanesischen Streitkräften (SAF) und den Rapid Support Forces (RSF) nicht zu erwarten. Durch dieses strategische Patt sind die Chancen auf eine erfolgreiche Vermittlung nicht ausweglos. Dafür müssten Sudans internationale Partner aber von dem seit Jahrzehnten dominierenden Ansatz Abstand nehmen, Gewaltakteuren die Hauptrolle in Verhandlungen zuzugestehen. Zivile Akteure haben eine breite Anti-Kriegs-Koalition gebildet, die bei Friedensgesprächen von Anfang an den Ton angeben sollte. Dies könnte durchaus auch im Interesse der Konfliktparteien sein, denn diese brauchen einen dritten Akteur, der ihr Verhältnis in Zukunft moderieren kann. Die Bundesregierung sollte sich um eine stärkere Koordination internationaler Vermittlungsansätze unter ziviler Führung aus Sudan bemühen. In der EU sollte sie eine Initiative zur Eingrenzung des finanziellen Spielraums der sudanesischen Gewaltakteure anstoßen.
    Keywords: Sudanese Armed Forces, SAF, Rapid Support Force, RSF, Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo, Hemedti, Abdel Fattah al-Burhan, Omar al-Bashir, Jeffrey Feltman, Molly Phee, Intergovernmental Authority on Development, IGAD, UNITAMS, Friends of Sudan, Salva Kiir Mayardit, Forces of Freedom and Change
    Date: 2023
    Abstract: 본 연구는 기후변화가 아프리카·중동의 식량안보에 미치는 영향에 대한 연구를 통해 우리나라의 대아프리카 및 대중동 농업·식량 분야 정책시사점을 제공하는 데 목적이 있다. 가뭄, 홍수와 같은 기상이변이 아프리카와 중동지역에서 점차 빈번해지고 있으며, 특히 농산물 가격 상승과 영양 부족 인구 증가에 영향을 주고 있다. 이에 따라 아프리카·중동 주곡에 대한 품종 개발, 관개수로 시설 확대를 통한 수자원 확보, 기상재해 경보 시스템 도입과 같은 생산 측면에서의 협력과 더불어 소비 측면에서는 취약계층 지원을 위한 식량원조 역시 확대할 필요가 있다. As a result of the recent outbreak of the Russia-Ukraine war, the global agri-food supply chain has collapsed, thereby raising concerns about food security in Africa and the Middle East. The international community is paying greater attention to the issue of food security caused by climate change, which is actually affecting food supply and demand in Africa and the Middle East as a result of frequent weather conditions, such as droughts, flooding, and heat waves. As a result of an intensifying drought, North Africa increased its imports of external grain in January 2022, and East Africa has experienced droughts that have adversely affected its crops in recent years. It is therefore increasingly important for the international community to cooperate to respond to the food security crisis resulting from climate change, and Korea should expand its cooperation to address climate change, food security, and agriculture in Africa and the Middle East. Climate change has both a global and a national impact, and African and Middle Eastern developing countries, especially those with insufficient climate resilience, are particularly vulnerable to the impact of climate change on agriculture and food production. It is therefore necessary to develop policies that can help lead the discussion of climate change in the international community while also increasing support for the agri-food sector through official development assistance (ODA) funded by Korea. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to analyze the food security crisis in Africa and the Middle East caused by climate change from the perspective of supply and demand, and to identify potential areas of cooperation. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) defines food security as “a situation in which everyone is always physically, socially and economically accessible to a sufficient amount of safe and nutritious food, while meeting individual dietary needs and preferences for a healthy and active life.” Therefore, food security should be considered throughout the entire food production and consumption process, toward which this study also examined the current state of the African and Middle Eastern food security crisis, causes of food insecurity, and policies to address it.(the rest omitted)
    Keywords: 농업정책; ODA; Agricultural Policy
    Date: 2022–12–30

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