nep-ara New Economics Papers
on MENA - Middle East and North Africa
Issue of 2023‒01‒30
four papers chosen by
Paul Makdissi
Université d’Ottawa

  1. Impacts of economic growth and CO2 emissions on health expenditures in Morocco ARIB Fatima, TARBALOUTI Essaid, ET-TOUILE Houria, MOUSSANE Aboutayeb By Arib Fatima; Tarbalouti Essaid; Houria Et-Touile; Moussane Aboutayeb
  2. Regulatory approximation under ALECA: Assessing the economic and social effects on the Tunisian agricultural sector By Raza, Werner G.; Tröster, Bernhard; Von Arnim, Rudi; Chandoul, Jihen; Ben Rouine, Chafik
  3. Picture This: Social Distance and the Mistreatment of Migrant Workers By Toman Barsbai; Vojtech Bartos; Victoria Licuanan; Andreas Steinmayr; Erwin Tiongson; Dean Yang
  4. The Music Education role in cultural economics and sustainable development دور التربية الموسيقية والتعليم الموسيقي في اقتصاديات الثقافة والتنمية المستدامة By Essefi, Mohammed Mehdy

  1. By: Arib Fatima (UCA - Université Cadi Ayyad [Marrakech]); Tarbalouti Essaid (UCA - Université Cadi Ayyad [Marrakech]); Houria Et-Touile (UCA - Université Cadi Ayyad [Marrakech]); Moussane Aboutayeb (UCA - Université Cadi Ayyad [Marrakech])
    Abstract: Health expenditures, CO2 emissions, and economic growth play a central role in the current debate on environmental protection and sustainable development. Carbon dioxide is the main GHGs that deteriorates the environment and has an impact on human health. At the same time, economic growth also impacts health conditions positively or vice versa. This paper attempts to study the impact of economic growth and CO2 emissions on health expenditures in the presence of trade per capita and gross fixed capital formation in Morocco using auto regressive distributed lag (ARDL) method for the period 1990-2020. Our empirical results show that there is a significant long-run as well as the short-run relationship between health expenditures, CO2 emissions, and economic growth in Morocco. The empirical evidence indicates a significant positive impact of CO2 emissions and economic growth on health expenditures in Morocco over the study period. The results also revealed that CO2 emissions and economic growth had a positively significant impact on health expenditures in the long run; however, there was no significant impact in the short run. Fixed capital formation and trade per capita were also found to have no significant impact on health expenditures in the short run. The current study and results have significant implications in theory and practice. Then, policy recommendations to control pollution, especially CO2 emissions and health expenditures without compromising economic growth are proposed.
    Abstract: Les dépenses de santé, les émissions de CO2 et la croissance économique jouent un rôle central dans le débat actuel sur la protection de l'environnementet le développement durable, Le dioxyde de carbone est le principal GES qui détériore l'environnement et a un impact sur la santé humaine. En parallèle, la croissance économique affecte également les conditions de santé, parfois de manière positive ou vice versa. Notre article s'efforce d'étudier l'impact de la croissance économique et des émissions de CO2 sur les dépenses de santé en présence de la formation brute de capital fixe et du commerce par habitant au Maroc en utilisant un modèle dynamique de données de panel estimé à l'aide de la méthode des ARDL pour la période 1990-2020. Nos résultats empiriques montrent qu'il existe une relation significative à long terme ainsi qu'à court terme entre les dépenses de santé, les émissions de CO2 et la croissance économique au Maroc. L'évidence empirique indique un impact positif significatif des émissions de CO2 et de la croissance économique sur les dépenses de santé du Maroc pour la période étudiée. Les résultats ont également révélé que les émissions de CO2 et la croissance économique avaient un impact positivement significatif sur les dépenses de santé à long terme ; cependant, il n'y avait pas d'impact significatif à court terme. Il a également été constaté que la formation de capital fixe et du commerce par habitant n'avait d'impact significatif sur les dépenses de santé à court terme. L'étude et les résultats actuels ont des implications significatives en théorie et en pratique. Ensuite, des recommandations de politiques visant à contrôler la pollution, en particulier les émissions de CO2 et les dépenses de santé sans compromettre la croissance économique sont proposées.
    Keywords: health expenditures, economic growth, CO2 emissions, Morocco, ARDL, croissance économique, émissions de CO2, Maroc, dépenses de santé
    Date: 2022–12
  2. By: Raza, Werner G.; Tröster, Bernhard; Von Arnim, Rudi; Chandoul, Jihen; Ben Rouine, Chafik
    Abstract: The negotiations on a deep and comprehensive free trade area (DCFTA) between Tunisia and the European Union (EU) have been ongoing since 2015. Better known by its French acronym - Projet d'accord de libre-échange complet et approfondi' (ALECA) - the agreement aims for an ambitious liberalisation of trade and investment in order to integrate Tunisia's economy further into the EU single market. In this study, the authors explicitly consider the costs that Tunisian producers have to incur in the process of regulatory approximation of agricultural standards to EU regulations through ALECA. Based on estimations of compliance costs from interviews with Tunisian exporters to the EU, the effects of regulatory adjustment to EU regulations and private standards in agricultural and food sectors are simulated in the ÖFSE Global Trade model. Moreover, the effects of bilateral reductions in tariffs and quotas and potential changes in productivity and NTM trade costs are taken up in interrelated scenarios. With this approach, the authors are able to provide a more comprehensive picture than previous studies of the multiple implications of ALECA for the agricultural sector in Tunisia. Our assessment concludes that ALECA has significant downside risks, as value-added in Tunisian agriculture might decline by up to 8.3 %. These effects need to be considered in the negotiations and in the broader context for sustainable agricultural development in Tunisia.
    Date: 2022
  3. By: Toman Barsbai; Vojtech Bartos; Victoria Licuanan; Andreas Steinmayr; Erwin Tiongson; Dean Yang
    Abstract: International migrant workers are vulnerable to abuses by their employers. We implemented a randomized controlled trial of an intervention to reduce mistreatment of Filipino women working as domestic workers (DWs) by their household employers in Hong Kong and Saudi Arabia. The intervention -- encouraging DWs to show their employers a photo of their family while providing a small gift when starting employment -- caused DWs to experience less mistreatment, have higher satisfaction with the employer, and be more likely to stay with the employer. DWs' families in the Philippines also come to view international labor migration more positively, while they generally remain unaware of the intervention. An online experiment with potential employers in Hong Kong and the Middle East suggests that a mechanism behind the treatment effect is a reduction in the employer's perceived social distance from the employee.
    JEL: J50 O15
    Date: 2022–12
  4. By: Essefi, Mohammed Mehdy (Hassan II University - Casablanca)
    Abstract: Art materials in Morocco and the Arab world have not received enough attention, perhaps due to a lack of awareness of their ability to contribute to development, by creating long-term added value, and achieving an integrated cultural economy that strongly supports the country's economy, to preserve culture and to preserve identity. Music productions may not attract the interest of managers and investors, not because of their few, but because of their low quality and low positive impact on the beneficiary, and therefore their impact on the workings of the country's economy. On the other hand, musical productions depend on the economic boom, political stability, cultural heritage and also are closely linked to scientific research. How, then, can a society with a shabby musical culture, a musical identity in the process of being forgotten, and an almost total absence of musical scientific research aspire to a sound cultural economy? Is it possible to do without music industries in the economy of a country? How can music education and music education contribute to scientific, cultural and economic development? Keywords: Music Education, Cultural Economics, Sustainable Development.
    Date: 2021–04–01

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