nep-ara New Economics Papers
on MENA - Middle East and North Africa
Issue of 2023‒01‒23
six papers chosen by
Paul Makdissi
Université d’Ottawa

  1. Child Growth and Refugee Status: Evidence from Syrian Migrants in Turkey By Murat Demirci; Andrew Foster; Murat Kırdar
  2. Forsa pilot evaluation baseline survey results By Shabrawy, Atef El; Gilligan, Daniel O.; Kurdi, Sikandra; Tabe-Ojong, Martin Paul Jr.; Yassa, Basma
  3. The perception of the impact of the adoption of IFRS on the quality of financial information by Moroccan financial actors: Modeling by structural equations By Adil LAOUANE; Mohamed Torra
  4. Optimal Capital structure and financial stability By Firano, Zakaria; Filali adib, Fatine
  5. Governing Hybridized Electricity Systems: The Case of Decentralized Electricity in Lebanon By Alix Chaplain; Éric Verdeil
  6. Morocco: Central Bank Transparency Code Review By International Monetary Fund

  1. By: Murat Demirci (Department of Economics, Koç University); Andrew Foster (Department of Economics and Population Studies and Training Center, Brown University); Murat Kırdar (Department of Economics, Boğaziçi University, Bebek, Istanbul 34342, Turkey and Population Studies and Training Center, Brown University)
    Abstract: This study examines disparities in health and nutrition among native and Syrian-refugee children in Turkey. With a view toward understanding the need for targeted programs addressing child well-being among the refugee population, we analyze, in particular, the Turkey Demographic and Health Survey (TDHS). The TDHS is one of few data sets providing representative data on health and nutrition for a large refugee and native population. We find no evidence of a difference in infant or child mortality between refugee children born in Turkey and native children. However, refugee infants born in Turkey have lower birthweight and ageadjusted weight and height than native infants. When we account for a rich set of birth and socioeconomic characteristics that display substantial differences between natives and refugees, the gaps in birthweight and age-adjusted height persist, but the gap in age-adjusted weight disappears. Although refugee infants close the weight gap at the mean over time, the gap at the lower end of the distribution persists. The rich set of covariates we use explains about 35% of the baseline difference in birthweight and more than half of the baseline difference in current height. However, even after that, refugee infants’ average birthweight is 0.17 standard deviations (sd) lower and their current height is 0.23 sd lower. These gaps are even larger for refugee infants born prior to migrating to Turkey, suggesting that remaining deficits reflect conditions in the source country prior to migration rather than deficits in access to maternal and child health services within Turkey
    Keywords: Syrian refugees, birthweight, anthropometric measures, forced displacement, Turkey
    JEL: J61 O15 F22 R23 R58
    Date: 2022–12
  2. By: Shabrawy, Atef El; Gilligan, Daniel O.; Kurdi, Sikandra; Tabe-Ojong, Martin Paul Jr.; Yassa, Basma
    Abstract: The Forsa program, launched in 2021 by the Egyptian Ministry of Social Solidarity has been designed as a graduation program targeted to current beneficiaries of the Takaful cash transfer program. To understand how well Forsa supports household income generation and to better understand the beneficiary household characteristics which may relate to program success, the International Food Policy Research Institute in collaboration with the Ministry of Social Solidarity is running a randomized control trial of the pilot Forsa program (see IFPRI MENA Regional Program Policy Note 21 for more details on the program and evaluation design). A baseline household survey collected in January-February 2022 provides a detailed picture of the eligible households in the targeted communities, including the employment situation and work-related skills of the household members intending to participate in Forsa. The household survey data was collected in the eight governorates of the pilot: Beni-Suef, Sharqia, Qalyoubia, Luxor, Fayoum, Menia, Souhag, and Assuit. 24 households Forsa-eligible households were surveyed in each of 323 communities: 16 households from the pool of current Takaful beneficiaries and 8 from the pool of Takaful rejected applicants. The final sample size was 7, 752 households. Each household was asked whether they were willing to enroll in Forsa and, if so, which household member would participate in the trainings. 83% of sampled eligible households indicated willingness to enroll in Forsa. The large majority of these (77%) indicated a preference for the self-employment track.
    Keywords: EGYPT, ARAB COUNTRIES, MIDDLE EAST, NORTH AFRICA, AFRICA, agricultural economics, cash transfers, data analysis, data collection, households, income, poverty, poverty alleviation, surveys, surveying, economic inclusion program
    Date: 2022
  3. By: Adil LAOUANE (UIT - Université Ibn Tofaïl); Mohamed Torra (UIT - Université Ibn Tofaïl)
    Abstract: The adoption of IFRS by the different payers has always been accompanied by the accentuation of the debate on the impact of such implementation on the quality of the financial information produced according to this new accounting framework. Therefore, it seemed appropriate to conduct our research by analyzing the perception of the main Moroccan financial actors on the impact of the adoption of IFRS on the quality of the annual accounts of the adopting listed companies. Therefore, we sent our questionnaire to a sample of 64 major players in the Moroccan financial market. In order to draw valid conclusions, we have based our methodological choices on the positivist paradigm, where the hypotheses of our problem are derived from theory. Following this logic, we have chosen a quantitative approach based on structural equations, and more precisely on the PLS method, which does not require a large number of observations and does not demand a normal distribution of the basic data. Therefore, our main results seem to indicate that the implementation of the IFRS standards has contributed positively to the improvement of the quality of financial communication. Moreover, Moroccan financial actors believe that the adoption of IFRS could significantly improve the financial performance of companies. Finally, the main users of financial information consider that the adoption of IFRS is of considerable interest to adopting companies listed in Casablanca.
    Abstract: L'adoption des normes IFRS par les différents payés a été toujours accompagnée par l'accentuation du débat qui porte sur l'impact d'une telle implémentation sur la qualité de l'information financière produite suivant ce nouveau référentiel comptable. De ce fait, Il nous a paru judicieux de mener notre recherche en analysant la perception des principaux acteurs financiers marocains quant à l'impact de l'adoption des normes IFRS sur la qualité des comptes annuels des entreprises cotées adoptives. De ce fait, nous avons adressé notre questionnaire à un échantillon composé de 64 acteurs majeurs dans le marché financier marocain. Pour tirer des conclusions valides, nous nous sommes basés sur des choix méthodologiques qui s'abritent sous le paradigme positiviste, où les hypothèses de notre problématique sont dégagées à partir de la théorie. Suivant cette logique, nous avons retenu une approche quantitative basée sur les équations structurelles, et plus précisément sur la méthode PLS qui n'exige pas un nombre important d'observations et ne demande pas une distribution normale des données de base. De ce fait, nos principaux résultats semblent indiquer que la mise en place des normes IFRS à contribuer positivement à l'amélioration de la qualité de la communication financière. De plus, les acteurs financiers marocains estiment que l'adoption des normes IFRS pourrait améliorer significativement la performance financière des entreprises. Et en dernier lieu, les principaux utilisateurs de l'information financière considèrent que l'adoption des normes IFRS porte un intérêt considérable pour les entreprises adoptives cotées à la place casablancaise.
    Keywords: Perception, IFRS, financial communication, financial performance, quality of information, normes IFRS, communication financière, performance financière, la qualité de l'information
    Date: 2022–11–30
  4. By: Firano, Zakaria; Filali adib, Fatine
    Abstract: This paper attempts to answer the fundamental question of the choice of capital structure. The financial structure in Morocco raises several questions about the behaviour of firms, especially in relation to the banking system and the financial market. We tried to determine the factors that explain the choice of financial structure. In addition to the traditional known factors, we were able to introduce the effects of financial stability on the financial structure. The results obtained affirm that Moroccan companies are in a hierarchical conception of the choice of financing and they prefer the use of internal financing with a particularity where companies with long experience are less and less attracted by external financing. In addition, financial stability significantly affects the choice of financing method. Indeed, when the financial system is stable, companies prefer to use external financing, which results in over-indebtedness that negatively affects the stability of the Moroccan financial system in a second rank. We generalize this theoretical conception to assert that the degree of financial stability can have effects on the choice of the financial structure of companies.
    Keywords: financial structure; banking system; pecking order; financial stability
    JEL: G2 G3
    Date: 2022
  5. By: Alix Chaplain (CERI - Centre de recherches internationales (Sciences Po, CNRS) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Éric Verdeil (CERI - Centre de recherches internationales (Sciences Po, CNRS) - Sciences Po - Sciences Po - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: Policymakers see decentralized electricity supply as a way to both decarbonize energy systems and to fill the gap of electricity access in many countries where strong growth leave the grid lagging behind. This article sheds some light on the case of countries such as Lebanon, where diesel-fueled decentralized electricity systems have existed for years and increasingly coexist with, rather than being replaced by, solar powered systems. It is based on a synthesis of public quantitative data and qualitative information gathered through surveys. The article argues that understanding such dynamics involves an analysis, not only of the technological and socioeconomic determinants of the adoption of decentralized energy technologies but also of the political struggles between the various actors, with a particular focus on corporate actors, and wealthy users. In addition, the article shows how different political temporalities play in reproducing or opening the assemblage of technologies and interests that shape the hybridized energy landscape. The article also shows that hybridization has repercussions on the energy configuration as a whole, both in the evolving market share of each technology but also by deeply fragmenting the access to electricity along social and territorial lines and by pushing essential private actors to disconnect from the grid. As a conclusion, the promises of sustainable transitions need to be critically examined in light of these trends
    Keywords: Lebanon,electricity,solar power,distributed energy,diesel generator
    Date: 2022
  6. By: International Monetary Fund
    Abstract: The Bank Al-Maghrib (BAM) has implemented expanded and comprehensive transparency practices in a number of areas, notably related to the primary mandate of price stability and the shared mandate of financial stability. This reflects the BAM’s public commitment to transparency anchored in the new 2019 BAM Law and articulated as a strategic orientation under the quinquennial plan for 2019-2023. This level of transparency enabled the BAM to gain the noteworthy trust of the stakeholders met by the mission and to safeguard its autonomy.
    Date: 2022–12–19

This nep-ara issue is ©2023 by Paul Makdissi. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.