nep-ara New Economics Papers
on MENA - Middle East and North Africa
Issue of 2023‒01‒02
seven papers chosen by
Paul Makdissi
Université d’Ottawa

  1. Income shocks, bride price and child marriage in Turkey By Isabelle Chort; Rozenn Hotte; Karine Marazyan
  2. Korea's Economic Presence in Iran under Trump and Its Prospects during the Biden Presidency By Azad, Shirzad
  3. Information technology governance: An exploratory study in moroccan public sector By Aadil Belhaj; Jamal Zahi
  4. OLD BUT RESILIENT STORY: IMPACT OF DECENTRALIZATION ON SOCIAL WELFARE By Ahmet Faruk Aysan; Dilek Demirbaş; José Luis Alberto Delgado
  5. Manufactured exports, disaggregated imports and economic growth: the case of Kuwait By Kalaitzi, Athanasia; Chamberlain, Trevor W.
  6. The Impact of Behavioral Economics on Marketing: The Case of Multinational Consumer Companies in Egypt By Radi, Sherihan
  7. Ökologie, Zusammenleben, Handel, Diplomatie: "Weltausstellungen haben wieder an Legitimität gewonnen" von Patrice Ballester By P. Ballester

  1. By: Isabelle Chort (TREE - Transitions Energétiques et Environnementales - UPPA - Université de Pau et des Pays de l'Adour - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, IUF - Institut Universitaire de France - M.E.N.E.S.R. - Ministère de l'Education nationale, de l’Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche, IZA - Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit - Institute of Labor Economics); Rozenn Hotte; Karine Marazyan
    Abstract: This paper investigates the impact of income shocks and bride price on early marriage in Turkey. Weather shocks provide an exogenous source of variation of household income through agricultural production. A decrease in rainfall observed over the 9 months period corresponding to the growing season is found to negatively affect both agricultural production and returns for the majority of crops and vegetables. Data on weather shocks are merged with individual and household level data from the Turkish Demographic and Health Surveys 1998 to 2013. The practice of bride-price, still vivid in many regions of the country, may provide incentives for parents to marry their daughter earlier, when faced with a negative income shock. In addition, marriages precipitated by negative income shocks may present specific features (endogamy, age and education difference between spouses). To study the role of payments to the bride's parents, we interact our measure of shocks with a province-level indicator of a high prevalence of bride-price. We find that girls living in provinces with a high practice of bride-price and exposed to a negative income shocks when aged 12-14 (resp. 12-17) have a 28% (resp. 20%) higher probability to be married before the age of 15 (resp. 18). Such women are also more likely to give birth to their first child before 18 and for those who married religiously first, the civil ceremony is delayed by 2 months on average. Our results suggest that girl marriage still participates to household strategies aimed at mitigating negative income shocks in contemporary Turkey.
    Keywords: Child marriage,Income shocks,Bride price,Weather shocks,Turkey
    Date: 2021–10–12
  2. By: Azad, Shirzad (Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran)
    Abstract: On July 14, 2015, when Iran and the 5+1 group (the United States, Russia, China, France, Britain, and Germany) ultimately agreed over the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA), the Republic of Korea (ROK) was practically one of the top three trade partners of the Persian Gulf country. In early May 2016 and only a few months after the nuclear deal was carried through, the then Korean President, Park Geun-hye, made an official visit to Iran where the two countries vowed to ratchet up their economic relations from roughly $6 billion to more than $18 billion in the years to come. Accompanied by “the largest business delegation in the history of Korean presidential trips,” Park’s high-profile trip to Iran persuaded many interested experts and observers to believe that the East Asian country was really determined to shore up its economic weight in Iran by drawing certain policies relevant to the long-term presence of Korean businesses in the Middle Eastern country (Choi 2016). Despite all those upbeat expectations about the ROK’s future economic and technological role in Iran, however, various data and statistics coming out indicate that over the past several years nearly all well-known Korean brands and products have increasingly lost their market share in the Mideast country to brands and goods supplied by other competitors. As a matter of fact, in the late 1990s and early 2000s the East Asian nation emerged as one of the Persian Gulf country’s top trading partners in the world, outstripping a number of Tehran’s traditional trading partners from the West. And while Korea managed to even expand its economic presence in Iran in the heydays of sundry international sanctions levied against the Middle Eastern country over its contentious nuclear program a couple of years before the JCPOA was eventually agreed in 2015, the ROK has been doing relatively poor in Iran during the past years (Azad 2018). Such lackadaisical performance, epitomized by abandoning the long-established pattern of significant trade in energy with Iran, has critically influenced a sharp decline in the total volume of two-way commerce between the two countries.
    Keywords: during the Biden Presidency; Koreas Economic Presence in Iran
    Date: 2022–10–06
  3. By: Aadil Belhaj (Université Hassan 1er [Settat]); Jamal Zahi (Université Hassan 1er [Settat])
    Abstract: Increased investments in information technology (IT) and information systems (IS) have pushed private companies as well as public sector organizations to adopt IT governance frameworks. This thesis is interested in studying how Moroccan public organizations have governed their IT in a context of regionalization and administrative decentralization. Using an interpretivist posture, we conducted a qualitative multiple case study in which four Moroccan public organizations were explored in depth. Data collection was based primarily on semi-structured interviews with the heads of the IT functions, and on documentary sources relating to each case. For the data analysis, we used a thematic content analysis. Our analysis sheds light on the phenomenon of IT governance by putting into perspective the modes of organization of the IT function, IT decision-making processes, and by identifying a base of eleven governance mechanisms (structures, processes, and relational mechanisms) to be favored for public organizations in the Moroccan context in order to ensure alignment between IT / Business and in order to provide the expected IT value.
    Abstract: L'accroissement des investissements liés aux technologies de l'information (TI) et aux systèmes d'information (SI) a poussé les entreprises privées ainsi que les organisations du secteur public à adopter des cadres de gouvernance des TI. Cet article s'intéresse à étudier comment les organisations publiques marocaines ont gouverné leur TI dans un contexte de régionalisation et de décentralisation administrative. En s'inscrivant dans une posture interprétativiste, nous avons mené une étude qualitative par étude de cas multiple où quatre organisations publiques marocaines ont été explorées en profondeur. La collecte de données s'est basée principalement sur les entretiens semi-directifs réalisés avec les responsables des fonctions informatiques, et sur des sources documentaires relevant de chaque cas. Pour l'analyse de données, nous avons fait recours à une analyse de contenu thématique. Notre analyse fournit un éclairage sur le phénomène de la gouvernance des TI par la mise en perspective des modes d'organisation de la fonction informatique, des processus de prise de décision TI, et par l'identification d'une base de onze mécanismes de gouvernance (structures, processus, et mécanismes relationnels) à favoriser pour les organisations publiques dans le contexte marocain afin d'assurer l'alignement entre les objectifs TI et les objectifs métiers et afin d'apporter la valeur TI escomptée.
    Keywords: IT governance,Public organizations,Morocco,IT governance mechanisms,Decentralization.,Gouvernance des TI,Organisations publiques,Maroc,Mécanismes de gouvernance des TI,Décentralisation.
    Date: 2022
  4. By: Ahmet Faruk Aysan; Dilek Demirbaş (Istanbul University); José Luis Alberto Delgado
    Abstract: This paper analyses the fiscal performance of Turkey and Argentina during the period 2000-2021, when both countries faced rapid economic growth with the consequent impact on social welfare. This work explored two different systems: Centralization in Turkey and Federalism in Argentina and, in general, studied the decentralization impact of both systems on social welfare. This study intended to create new social welfare indexes in other to analyze the resource allocation in different regions of these countries. As a first step, we built a regional Human Development Index (HDI) for each region. This attempt is considered a new contribution to the literature and intended to fill the gap in this field. Afterward, this index was compared with the fiscal resources allocation (FRA), used as a proxy of fiscal decentralization in an econometric panel data model. By using this method, we concluded that the social welfare indexes have a positive relationship with the fiscal resource allocation in the Federal system, such as in Argentina, but not in the centralized system such as in Turkey during the period analyzed from 2000 to 2020.
    Keywords: Fiscal Centralization,Decentralization,HDI Index,Argentina,Turkey.
    Date: 2022–11–22
  5. By: Kalaitzi, Athanasia; Chamberlain, Trevor W.
    Abstract: This study investigates whether manufactured exports contribute to economic growth and whether imports can augment the role of exports in fostering export diversification. In the case of the latter, the study also examines which categories of imports are most likely to facilitate economic growth in the long run. In particular, the study focuses on the case of Kuwait over the period 1970–2019 and utilizes a Cobb–Douglas production function augmented with manufactured exports and primary and manufactured imports. The long-run relationships between the model variables are explored using two cointegration tests, namely the Johansen test and the dynamic ordinary least squares. The short-run causality is investigated utilizing the multivariate Granger approach in a vector autoregressive model, the parameters of which are assessed for stability using the CUSUM of squares test and recursive residuals plots. To examine the causal relationships in the long run, the Toda and Yamamoto test is applied. The cointegration tests show that the variables are cointegrated, while the Granger causality test shows that manufactured exports and disaggregated imports, together with the inputs of production, cause economic growth in the short run, which, in turn, leads to import growth. In the long run, the expansion of both primary and manufactured imports drives export diversification, whereas manufactured exports do not contribute to economic growth. These findings are very important for Kuwait’s policymakers to consider in their plans to implement Kuwait Vision 2035 as overseas demand for oil wanes.
    Keywords: causality; economic growth; export diversification; imports; Kuwait; Springer deal
    JEL: L81 N0
    Date: 2022–11–03
  6. By: Radi, Sherihan
    Abstract: Since behavioral economics became popular, it is considered a top tool that provides marketers with observations and understanding of consumers’ behavior and preferences. The purpose of this descriptive research is to examine the impact of behavioral economics on marketing, particularly at multinational consumer companies in Egypt. The study population consisted of 750 employees working in 3 multinational consumer companies in Egypt. Stratified random sampling technique was used to sample 100 respondents while the measure of reliability was tested using Cronbach’s alpha at 0.7. Primary data was collected using a questionnaire and frequency distribution tables and figures were used to present the findings. Interpretation was done in prose form and simple regression analysis was conducted by the researcher in order to examine the relationship between behavioral economics and marketing. The inferential results on the impact of behavioral economics on marketing was R=0.623 indicating a significant positive correlation and R 2=0.389 indicating a significant positive impact of behavioral economics on marketing (t=7.522, p
    Keywords: behavioral economics, marketing, multinational consumer companies, Egypt.
    JEL: M20 M21
    Date: 2022–11–11
  7. By: P. Ballester (Euridis - Euridis Business School, Ministère de l'Education Nationale)
    Abstract: Dubai 2020 ist die erste große globale Tourismusveranstaltung der Pandemie, die Besuchern aus der ganzen Welt offen steht. 191 Länder nehmen daran teil, und erwartete 25 Millionen Besucher aus der ganzen Welt werden während der sechs Monate, die die Weltausstellung dauern wird, in Dubai sein. Die Dubai Expo 2020 ist die erste große globale Veranstaltung seit Beginn der Pandemie, die jedoch trotz umfangreicher Investitionen aus den VAE Touristen und Investoren anzieht. Die meisten europäischen Länder sind vertreten, Frankreich hat 20 Millionen Euro für seinen Pavillon ausgegeben, der an das Zeitalter der Aufklärung erinnern will. Dies ist das erste Mal seit 1851, dass eine Weltausstellung in einem Golfstaat organisiert wird, und für Dubai steht viel auf dem Spiel. Analyse dieser Wette, aber auch dessen, was eine Universalausstellung jetzt mehr darstellt, mit Patrice Ballester, Lehrer-Forscher in Geographie und Tourismusmarketing, Spezialist für Universal- und internationale Ausstellungen.
    Abstract: Dubai 2020 is the first major global tourism event of the pandemic open to visitors from around the world, 191 countries are participating and an expected 25 million visitors from around the world are in Dubai during the six months that its World Expo will last. Dubai Expo 2020 is the first large-scale global event since the start of the pandemic but, despite large-scale investments from the UAE to attract tourists and investors. Most European countries are present, France having spent 20 million euros for its pavilion which wants to recall the Age of Enlightenment. This is the first time since 1851 that a universal exhibition has been organized in a Gulf country and for Dubai the stakes are high. Analysis of this bet but also of what a universal exhibition now represents more with Patrice Ballester, teacher-researcher in geography and tourism marketing, specialist in universal and international exhibitions, world's fair, world expo.
    Abstract: Dubái 2020 es el primer gran evento turístico global de la pandemia abierto a visitantes de todo el mundo, participan 191 países y se espera que 25 millones de visitantes de todo el mundo estén en Dubái durante los seis meses que durará su Expo Mundial. Dubai Expo 2020 es el primer evento mundial a gran escala desde el comienzo de la pandemia pero, a pesar de las inversiones a gran escala de los Emiratos Árabes Unidos para atraer turistas e inversores. La mayoría de los países europeos están presentes, Francia gastó 20 millones de euros en su pabellón que quiere recordar el Siglo de las Luces. Esta es la primera vez desde 1851 que se organiza una exposición universal en un país del Golfo y para Dubái hay mucho en juego. Análisis de esta apuesta pero también de lo que representa ahora más una exposición universal con Patrice Ballester, docente-investigador en geografía y marketing turístico, especialista en exposiciones universales e internacionales.
    Abstract: Dubai 2020 est le premier grand événement touristique mondial de la pandémie ouvert aux visiteurs du monde entier, 191 pays y participent et 25 millions de visiteurs venus du monde entier attendus sont à Dubaï pendant les six mois que durera son exposition universelle. Dubaï Expo 2020 est le premier événement mondial de grande ampleur depuis le début de la pandémie mais, malgré les investissements de grande ampleur des Émirats Arabes unis pour attirer les touristes et les investisseurs. La plupart des pays européens sont présents, la France ayant dépensé 20 millions d'euros pour son pavillon qui veut rappeler le siècle des Lumières. C'est la première fois depuis 1851 qu'une exposition universelle est organisée dans un pays du Golfe et pour Dubaï l'enjeu est grand. Analyse de ce pari mais aussi de ce que représente désormais plus une exposition universelle avec Patrice Ballester, enseignant chercheur en géographie et marketing du tourisme, spécialiste des expositions universelles et internationales.
    Abstract: Dubai 2020 è il primo grande evento turistico globale della pandemia aperto a visitatori da tutto il mondo, 191 paesi stanno partecipando e si prevede che 25 milioni di visitatori da tutto il mondo saranno a Dubai durante i sei mesi che durerà il suo World Expo. Dubai Expo 2020 è il primo evento globale su larga scala dall'inizio della pandemia ma, nonostante gli investimenti su larga scala degli Emirati Arabi Uniti, attrae turisti e investitori. La maggior parte dei paesi europei è presente, la Francia ha speso 20 milioni di euro per il suo padiglione che vuole rievocare il Secolo dei Lumi. È la prima volta dal 1851 che un'esposizione universale viene organizzata in un Paese del Golfo e per Dubai la posta in gioco è alta. Analisi di questa scommessa ma anche di cosa rappresenta oggi di più un'esposizione universale con Patrice Ballester, docente-ricercatore in geografia e marketing turistico, specialista in esposizione universali e internazionali.
    Abstract: Dubai 2020 é o primeiro grande evento de turismo global da pandemia aberto a visitantes de todo o mundo, 191 países estão participando e são esperados 25 milhões de visitantes de todo o mundo em Dubai durante os seis meses que durará sua Expo Mundial. A Dubai Expo 2020 é o primeiro evento global de grande escala desde o início da pandemia, mas apesar dos grandes investimentos dos Emirados Árabes Unidos para atrair turistas e investidores. A maioria dos países europeus está presente, tendo a França gastou 20 milhões de euros para o seu pavilhão que pretende recordar o Iluminismo. Esta é a primeira vez desde 1851 que uma exposição universal é organizada em um país do Golfo e para Dubai as apostas são altas. Análise desta aposta mas também do que uma exposição universal representa agora mais com Patrice Ballester, professor-investigador em geografia e marketing turístico, especialista em exposições universais e internacionais.
    Abstract: 迪拜 2020 年是第一個向來自世界各地的遊客開放的大流行全球旅遊盛會,有 191 個國家參加,預計在世博會持續的六個月內,來自世界各地的 2500 萬遊客將來到迪拜。儘管阿聯酋為吸引遊客和投資者進行了大規模投資,但 2020 年迪拜世博會是自大流行開始以來的第一次大型全球盛會。大多數歐洲國家都在場,法國花費了2000萬歐元建造了想要回憶啟蒙時代的展館。這是自 1851 年以來第一次在海灣國家舉辦世界性展覽,而對於迪拜來說,風險很大。帕特里斯·巴列斯特 (Patrice Ballester 巴利斯特 ) 不僅分析了這場賭注,而且還分析了環球展覽現在更多地代表了地理和旅遊營銷的教師研究 員、環球和國際展覽的專家。
    Keywords: Dubai,Weltausstellung,Tourismus,Architektur,Marketing,Kommunikation,Vereinigte Arabische Emirate,Landschaft,nachhaltige Entwicklung,Pandemie,Frankreich,world expo,tourism,architecture,marketing,communication,United Arab Emirates,landscape,sustainable development,pandemic,France,Exposición Universal,turismo,arquitectura,comunicación,Emiratos Árabes Unidos,paisaje,desarrollo sostenible,pandemia,Francia,Dubaï,exposition universelle,tourisme,Emirats arabes unis,paysage,développement durable,pandémie,Esposizione Universale,architettura,comunicazione,Emirati Arabi Uniti,paesaggio,sviluppo sostenibile,Exposição Universal,arquitetura,comunicação,Emirados Árabes Unidos,paisagem,desenvolvimento sustentável,França,迪拜,世界展覽,旅遊,建築,營銷,通訊,阿拉伯聯合酋長國,景觀,可持續發展,流行病,法國
    Date: 2021–09–30

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