nep-ara New Economics Papers
on MENA - Middle East and North Africa
Issue of 2022‒12‒19
seven papers chosen by
Paul Makdissi
Université d’Ottawa

  1. BRI as chance for regional cooperation: Iran - Armenia economic relations By Margaryan, Atom; Grigoryan, Emil; Minassian, Armen
  2. MENAdrought synthesis of drought vulnerability in Jordan: final report. Project report prepared by the International Water Management Institute (IWMI) for the Bureau for the Middle East of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) By Fragaszy, S.; Fraj, M. B.; McKee, M.; Jobbins, G.; Al-Karablieh, E.; Bergaoui, K.; Ghanim, A.; Lawrenson, L.; McDonnell, Rachael
  3. Applying Benford’s Law to detect accounting data manipulation in the pre-and post-financial engineering periods: Evidence from Lebanon By Etienne Harb; Nohade Nasrallah; Rim El Khoury; Khaled Hussainey
  4. Women’s economic empowerment in the Arab Region: advancing care economies By Sajoux, Muriel; Alsulaiman, Abdulsalam; Torossian, Lena; Attieh, Hala; Tabbah, Ghada
  5. War Does not Foster Cooperation when Neoclassical Mechanisms are Absent! Evidence from a Natural Experiment among Turkish Conscripts By Arzu Kibris; Resul Cesur
  6. Effects of Covid-19 Pandemic on Online Shopping Behavior in Iran By Ghaffari, Reza; Cheng, Kequn
  7. The impact of socio-demographic factors and entrepreneurial education on the emergence of the entrepreneurship idea among Moroccan students By Nabil Rizqi; Hajar EL HASSANI

  1. By: Margaryan, Atom; Grigoryan, Emil; Minassian, Armen
    Abstract: The Belt and Road Initiative is one of the platforms for regional cooperation that enables participating countries to develop and deepen economic ties. The South Caucasus has always had great historical, political, geographical and economic significance for Iran. Through the research, we tried to find out what is the level of infrastructure development of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Türkiye and Iran, and what is the role of Iran in the trade of South Caucasus countries and Türkiye in 2002 and 2021. Armenia-Iran economic relations have been the closest. However, Armenia and Iran have not realized the full potential of cooperation. Providing a proper infrastructural base is one of the priority steps in that direction.
    Keywords: Silk Road Economic Belt,Economic Cooperation,Infrastructure,South Caucasus,Iran,Transit Hub,Economic Corridors
    Date: 2022
  2. By: Fragaszy, S.; Fraj, M. B.; McKee, M.; Jobbins, G.; Al-Karablieh, E.; Bergaoui, K.; Ghanim, A.; Lawrenson, L.; McDonnell, Rachael
    Keywords: Agricultural Finance, Consumer/Household Economics, Farm Management, Food Security and Poverty, Labor and Human Capital, Research and Development/Tech Change/Emerging Technologies
    Date: 2022–03–23
  3. By: Etienne Harb (Essca School of Management, Angers); Nohade Nasrallah (LaRGE Research Center, Université de Strasbourg); Rim El Khoury (Lebanese American University, Lebanon); Khaled Hussainey (University of Portsmouth, United Kingdom)
    Abstract: Purpose: Lebanon has faced one of the most severe financial and economic crises since the end of 2019. The practices of the Lebanese banks are blamed for dangerously exposing economic agents and precipitating the current financial collapse. This paper examines the patterns of manipulation of the 10 biggest banks before and after implementing the financial engineering mechanism. Design/methodology/approach: We apply Benford Law (BL) for the first and second positions of the reports of condition and income and four out of the six aspects of the CAMELS rating system (Capital Adequacy, Assets Quality, Management expertise, Earnings Strength, Liquidity, and Sensitivity to the market) by excluding Management and Sensitivity. The deviations from BL frequencies are tested using Z-statistic and Chi-square tests. Findings: Banks seem to have manipulated their Capital Adequacy, Liquidity, and Assets Quality in the pre- and considerably in the post-financial engineering periods. Fraudulent manipulations in the banking sector can distort depositors, shareholders, and regulating authorities. Originality: The study is the first to examine the patterns of fraudulent manipulation in the Lebanese banking industry using BL. Research implications: This study has many implications for governmental authorities, commercial banks, depositors, businesses, accounting and auditing firms, and policymakers. The Lebanese government needs to implement corrective fiscal and monetary policies and apply amendments to the bank secrecy and capital control law. The central bank should revamp its organizational structure, improve its disclosure practices and significantly reduce its ties to the government and the political elite.
    Keywords: Benford law; Frauds; Financial engineering; Reports of condition and income; CAMELS; Lebanon.
    JEL: G01 G21 M42
    Date: 2022
  4. By: Sajoux, Muriel; Alsulaiman, Abdulsalam; Torossian, Lena; Attieh, Hala; Tabbah, Ghada
    Date: 2022
  5. By: Arzu Kibris; Resul Cesur
    Abstract: Exploiting a natural experiment and an innovative survey design, we study the social and political legacies of armed conflict exposure (ACE) among Turkish conscripts. Our empirical framework identifies the causal impact and the mediating pathways for the average male randomly picked from the population. Contrary to the arguments that ACE fosters prosociality and posttraumatic growth, we find little evidence that ACE promotes cooperative behaviors. As the study design eliminates the need for social insurance, security concerns, and community-level paradigm shifts, and our analysis rules out labor market outcomes from the list of the usual suspects, we conclude that violence exposure may not be sufficient to foster prosociality in the absence of favorable neoclassical mediating pathways boosting demand for cooperation. Moreover, we show that intense ACE increases opposition to peaceful means of conflict resolution and animosity towards minorities and promotes the tendency to support right-wing political parties. Auxiliary analysis nominates war-driven grievances and the normalization of violence in everyday life as the likely explanations. These findings are consistent with (i) evolutionary theories linking war exposure to out-group derogation and adherence to local social norms and (ii) the arguments that war-driven grievances may lead to the perpetuation of violence.
    JEL: D74 O17 Z13
    Date: 2022–11
  6. By: Ghaffari, Reza; Cheng, Kequn
    Abstract: Purpose - the main purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of Covid-19 pandemic on online shopping behavior in Iran. Design/methodology/approach - 484 customers of Digi Kala were selected by simple random sampling. The present study is applied objectively. The present study is a descriptive research in terms of how to collect data and it is a field research in terms of data collection. Structural equation modeling and SPSS 23 and SMARTPLS3 software were used to analyze the data. Findings - our results indicated that Covid-19 pandemic had a positive and significant effect on online shopping behavior in Iran. The level of health and economic fears during Covid-19 pandemic had a positive and significant effect on online shopping behavior in Iran. According to the moderating role of generational differences, Covid-19 pandemic and the level of health fears during the pandemic had a positive and significant effect on online shopping behavior in Iran. Nevertheless, the level of economic fears during Covid-19 pandemic had no significant effect on online shopping behavior in Iran according to the moderating role of generational differences. Originality/value - this work provides a guidance for the researchers and academicians in the field of marketing. Correspondingly, retailers and marketers should train themselves to survive during the global pandemics, and learn innovative approaches to supply the needs according to the changes in customers shopping behavior.
    Date: 2022–06–08
  7. By: Nabil Rizqi (MAE2D - Laboratory MAE2D, University of Abdelmalek Essaadi); Hajar EL HASSANI (MAE2D - Laboratory MAE2D, University of Abdelmalek Essaadi)
    Abstract: Some statistical patterns have been identified in the course of studying the idea of entrepreneurship among young Moroccan students while focusing on the demographic characteristics that determine the likelihood of becoming an entrepreneur. The elements studied include gender, age, level, and type of education pursued. The results showed/ that men are more likely to start a business than women (in a ratio of about ¾) and that entrepreneurs are generally of a higher educational level compared to the average citizen. However, this stream of research is subject to an important limitation that is common to the personality trait approach since both schools of thought assume that different psychological and demographic characteristics have the same consequences regardless of the context in which the potential entrepreneur is situated. Yet, being set in an environment that favors the founding of a business and being stimulated by external reasons to start a business can also have an influence on the individual who, with the same characteristics, wouldn't carry out the same actions. To address this topic, the adopted research methodology is of a hypothetico-deductive nature, as it is based on the verification of a range of hypotheses among 300 students with a predominantly entrepreneurial background.
    Keywords: Socio-demographic factors,Entrepreneurship,Entrepreneurial education
    Date: 2022–11–08

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