nep-ara New Economics Papers
on MENA - Middle East and North Africa
Issue of 2022‒12‒12
eleven papers chosen by
Paul Makdissi
Université d’Ottawa

  1. Analysis of water reuse potential for irrigation in Lebanon By Eid-Sabbagh, K.; Roukoz, S.; Nassif, Marie-Helene; Velpuri, Naga; Mateo-Sagasta, Javier
  2. A Comparative Analysis of Energy Subsidy in the MENA Region By Boudekhdekh, Karim
  4. Brothers in Arms: The Value of Coalitions in Sanctions Regimes By Sonali Chowdhry; Julian Hinz; Katrin Kamin; Joschka Wanner
  5. Eurocentric Supremacist Dependency And Eurasia Concept By Tulun, Teoman Ertuğrul; Tulun, Mehmet Oğuzhan
  6. Oman: 2022 Article IV Consultation-Press Release; and Staff Report By International Monetary Fund
  7. Towards a National Economy Based on Production in the Natural Syria Region. Antoun Saadeh's Theoretical Contributions By Wissam Samia; Nikolay Nenovsky
  8. Avrupa-Merkezci Üstüncülük Saplantısı Ve Avrasya Kavramı By Tulun, Teoman Ertuğrul; Tulun, Mehmet Oğuzhan
  10. pengaruh ekspor dan impor terhadap produk domestic bruto di iraq dan iran periode 2012-2021 By Nabila, Fikriyyatun

  1. By: Eid-Sabbagh, K.; Roukoz, S.; Nassif, Marie-Helene; Velpuri, Naga; Mateo-Sagasta, Javier
    Abstract: Water scarcity and pollution are major threats for human development in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, and Lebanon is no exception. Wastewater treatment and reuse in agriculture can contribute to addressing the increasing water crisis in the MENA region. However, what is the actual potential of water reuse as a solution for agriculture in Lebanon? This report addresses this question and provides the most comprehensive assessment of water reuse potential up to now. Using geographic information system (GIS) modelling and the best and most recent data available in the country, the report develops a detailed technical assessment of the quantities of treated water available for safe reuse in irrigation, and identifies the wastewater treatment plants that have the highest potential for that purpose. The report also examines the governance barriers that need to be overcome for the water reuse potential to materialize in practice. These barriers include structural shortcomings in the wastewater sector combined with challenges of governance and the lack of a regulatory framework for reuse management. Once the current economic, financial and political crisis in Lebanon eases, addressing these barriers will be key to achieving more and safer water reuse in the country.
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Demand and Price Analysis, Financial Economics, Institutional and Behavioral Economics, Land Economics/Use
    Date: 2022–09–02
  2. By: Boudekhdekh, Karim
    Abstract: This paper focuses on analyzing energy prices subsidies distribution in the MENA region among its seven components, according to the products that benefit from subsidized prices, and by per capita. As a nominal average of the years 2013, 2015, and 2017, both Iran and KSA had the higher nominal pre-tax subsidy averages estimated to $52.11 and $45.54 billion respectively, and also had higher post-tax subsidy averages estimated to $118.55 and $114.81 respectively. Global warming and local air pollution were the most important components after the pre-tax subsidies component in all MENA region countries. The “Congestion” component came after the level of the two environmental components averages in oilexporting countries, while the “accidents” component in almost all the oil-importing countries came after the level of the two environmental components averages. By products, petroleum products were the main products that benefited from energy prices subsidies in almost all MENA countries. The reform process must take into account the specifics of each country with regard to the details of energy subsidies at its level, as energy subsidies vary from one country to another, whether in terms of its value, the weight of its components, and the subsidy share of each energy products.
    Keywords: energy; energy subsidy; economic policy; MENA region.
    JEL: E62 H20 Q40 Q43
    Date: 2022
  3. By: Salma EL MAHDAOUI (Institut National d'Aménagement et d'Urbanisme, Rabat - Institut National d'Aménagement et d'Urbanisme, Rabat)
    Abstract: The members of the Special Commission on the Development Model have adopted an unprecedented approach to draw the outlines of the New Development Model: an approach of listening, of large-scale national consultation and of co-construction, rooted in the firm conviction that technical solutions to objective problems are not enough to weave the social bond and cannot guarantee on their own the commitment of all and that the solutions emanating from the field are of unparalleled creativity and relevance when they find the space to express themselves. An analysis of the health system in Morocco carried out in a very integrated way has made it possible to highlight the dysfunctions from which the health sector suffers through the consultations carried out with the various stakeholders. However, several recommendations have been made on the axes of reform of the health system in Morocco. It is necessary to analyze the various contributions of this report and compare them with the conceptual and theoretical framework on health systems developed by the World Health Organization.
    Abstract: Les membres de la Commission spéciale sur le modèle de développement ont adopté une démarche inédite pour dresser les contours du Nouveau Modèle de Développement : une démarche d'écoute, de consultation nationale de grande ampleur et de co-construction, ancrée dans la ferme conviction que les solutions techniques à des problèmes objectifs ne suffisent pas à tisser le lien social et ne peuvent garantir à elles seules l'engagement de tous et que les solutions émanant du terrain sont d'une créativité et d'une pertinence sans égales lorsqu'elles trouvent l'espace pour s'exprimer . Une analyse sur le système de santé au Maroc fait d'une façon très intégrée a permis de mettre l'accent sur les dysfonctionnements dont souffre le secteur de la santé à travers les consultations réalisées auprès des différentes parties prenantes. Or, plusieurs recommandations ont été faites sur les axes de réforme du système de santé au Maroc. Il est nécessaire d'analyser les différents apports dudit rapport et les confronter au cadre conceptuel et théorique sur les systèmes de santé élaboré par l'Organisation Mondiale de la Santé.
    Date: 2022–11–10
  4. By: Sonali Chowdhry; Julian Hinz; Katrin Kamin; Joschka Wanner
    Abstract: This paper examines the impact of coalitions on the economic costs of the 2012 Iran and 2014 Russia sanctions. By estimating and simulating a quantitative general equilibrium trade model under different coalition set-ups, we (i) dissect welfare losses for sanction-senders and target; (ii) compare prospective coalition partners and; (iii) provide bounds for the sanctions potential — the maximum welfare change attainable — when sanctions are scaled vertically, i.e. across sectors up to an embargo, or horizontally, i.e. across countries up to a global regime. To gauge the significance of simulation outcomes, we implement a Bayesian bootstrap procedure that generates confidence bands. We find that the implemented measures against Iran and Russia inflicted considerable economic harm, yielding 32 – 37% of the vertical sanctions potential. Our key finding is that coalitions lower the average welfare loss incurred from sanctions relative to unilateral implementation. They also increase the welfare loss imposed on Iran and Russia. Adding China to the coalition further amplifies the welfare loss by 79% for Iran and 22% for Russia. Finally, we quantify transfers that would equalize losses across coalition members. These hypothetical transfers can be seen as a sanctions-equivalent of NATO spending goals and provide a measure of the relative burden borne by coalition countries.
    Keywords: Sanctions, embargoes, alliances, sectoral linkages
    JEL: F13 F14 F17 F51
    Date: 2022
  5. By: Tulun, Teoman Ertuğrul; Tulun, Mehmet Oğuzhan
    Abstract: Eurocentric thought essentially reflects the tendency to interpret the world in terms of European or Anglo-American values and experiences and takes these values as a triangulation point for reading and analyzing worldwide developments. Rather than producing value-free and universalist theories of inter-state relations, this approach furnishes self-oriented analyses that fanatically promote western liberal and currently neo-liberal values, priorities, and interests as the subject of an ideal normative referent in world politics. It primarily prefers western over non-western, perceives the non-western as the "other," and often stigmatizes it. Contrary to this exclusionary approach, AVİM argues that Turkey must not position itself as a purely Western or Eastern, or European or Asian country. On the contrary, Turkey is and must be all of these simultaneously because such a stance reflects Turkey's true and rich nature. In such an understanding, we keep our distance from the Eurocentric supremacist dependency and follow a path that prioritizes Turkey's objective interests.
    Date: 2022–09–12
  6. By: International Monetary Fund
    Abstract: Strong policy actions helped mitigate the fallout from the COVID-19 pandemic, and the economic recovery is gaining traction, supported by revival in the hydrocarbon sector and the relaxation of social restrictions. CPI inflation has been contained thus far, partly reflecting administered prices and caps on selected fuel prices. Fiscal and external buffers have increased, supported by higher hydrocarbon revenues and substantial fiscal adjustment under the authorities’ Medium-Term Fiscal Plan (MTFP). The authorities remain committed to fiscal consolidation notwithstanding oil revenue windfalls and social pressures. Financial soundness indicators appear healthy, benefiting from the strong buffers before entering the crisis and prudent central bank oversight. A broad range of structural reforms are being implemented under Oman Vision 2040. However, downside risks, notably from global sources, dominate in the short run.
    Date: 2022–11–15
  7. By: Wissam Samia (LEFMI - Laboratoire d’Économie, Finance, Management et Innovation - UR UPJV 4286 - UPJV - Université de Picardie Jules Verne); Nikolay Nenovsky (LEFMI - Laboratoire d’Économie, Finance, Management et Innovation - UR UPJV 4286 - UPJV - Université de Picardie Jules Verne)
    Abstract: The chaos in the natural Syria region seems increasing. The factors of economic and social deterioration are various. "What brought on my people this woe?" the answer to this existential question posed by Antoun Saadeh in 1961? wasn't just for scientific knowledge, the answer was in order to discover the effective way to remove the causes of woe. After a regular preliminary study, he decided that the loss of national sovereignty was the primary cause of what had befallen his nation and what befell it. This was the beginning of the era of the study of the national issue, the question of groups in general, and social rights and how they emerged. Therefore, an original economical approach was indispensable to be developed, a social-nationalist economy. This national economy is based on production, a spiritual-material production, where the distribution of its profits is relative to the contribution of its producers. On this paper we present the theoretical economical conception of the Lebanese politician and social scholar Antoun Saadeh (1904 – 1949), and we discuss its originality and fundamental elements.
    Keywords: National Economy,Production,Syria,Social Nationalism,Antoun Saadeh
    Date: 2022
  8. By: Tulun, Teoman Ertuğrul (Center For Eurasian Studies (AVİM)); Tulun, Mehmet Oğuzhan
    Abstract: Avrupa-merkezci düşünce özünde dünyayı Avrupa veya Anglo-Amerikan değerler ve tecrübeler açısından yorumlama eğilimini yansıtmakta ve söz konusu değerleri, dünyadaki gelişmeleri okumak ve incelemek için bir saptama noktası olarak kullanmaktadır. Bu yaklaşım; devletler-arası ilişkiler konusunda değer yargısız ve evrensel nitelikte kuram üretmek yerine, fanatik bir biçimde Batılı liberal (ve günümüzde neo-liberal olan) değerleri, öncelikleri ve çıkarları dünya siyasetinde uygun normatif bir imlem kabul ederek çıkarcı incelemeler sunmaktadır. Ağırlıklı olarak Batılı'yı Batılı olmayana tercih etmekte ve Batılı olmayanı "öteki" olarak algılayıp, çoğu zaman onu yaftalamaktadır. Bu dışlayıcı yaklaşımın aksine AVİM; Türkiye'nin kendisini tamamen Batılı veya Doğulu, Avrupalı veya Asyalı bir ülke olarak konumlandırmaması gerektiğini savunmaktadır. Aksine, Türkiye bunların hepsidir ve bu niteliklere eşzamanlı bir şekilde sahip olmalıdır, çünkü böyle bir duruş Türkiye'nin gerçek ve zengin yapısını yansıtmaktadır. Bu anlayış çerçevesinde, Avrupa-merkezci üstüncü saplantıdan uzak durmakta ve Türkiye'nin nesnel çıkarlarını öne çıkaran tutan bir yol izlemekteyiz.
    Date: 2022–09–26
  9. By: Yuniarti, Alfia
    Abstract: Faktor penguat dari sebuah pertumbuhan Negara. Masyarakat di sebuah Negara sangat berpangku tangan dengan ekonomi, tanpa ekonomi manusia sulit melakukan aktifitas kehidupan. Ekspor dan Impor merupakan hubungan antar Negara yang terjadi dengan melakukan kerjasama perdagangan dua Negara atau lebih untuk menjalin kerjasama yang baik. Dan juga PDB sebagai jumlah nilai seluruh barang dan jasa yang diproduksi oleh suatu negara dalam periode tertentu atau setiap satu tahun termasuk barang dan jasa yang di produksi oleh perusahaan negara tersebut dan negara lain yang tinggal dinegara bersangkutan. Pada Penelitian ini menggunakan metode kuantitatif yang mana data yang diambil bersumber dari world bank data dan hasil Uji validitas dan Uji regresi linier berganda. Penelitian ini juga dimaksudkan untuk memaparkan dan menjelaskan mengenai: (1) Peran Ekspor-Impor untuk PDB Negara Arab Saudi (2) Peran Ekspor-Impor untuk pendapatan PDB Negara Qotar (3) Peran Ekspor dan Impor terhadap PDB negara Arab Saudi dan Qotar. Pada hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ekspor dan impor berperan penting dalam pertumbuhan ekonomi dinegara Arab Saudi dan Qotar.
    Date: 2022–09–26
  10. By: Nabila, Fikriyyatun
    Abstract: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis dan menjelaskan: pengaruh ekspor dan impor terhadap ekonomi di negara Iraq dan Iran periode 2012-2021, penelitian ini menggunakan data sekunder yang diambi dari World Bank Data dan menggunakan metode penelitian uji asumsi klasik dan regresi linier berganda dalam program SPSS untuk mengetahui variabel yang diambil normalitas atau tidak. Hasil dari uji tersebut pada Negara Iraq dan Iran dikatakan normalitas karena titik titik berada di anatara garis diagonal.
    Date: 2022–09–25
  11. By: Zamzam, Arfiani Nur
    Abstract: Perkembangan perekonomian suatu negara saat ini tidak dapat terlepas dari kondisi perekonomian global. Hubungan ekonomi antara negara dengan negara lain menjadikan faktor penting yang mempengaruhi terhadap perkembangan ekonomi masing-masing. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis dan menjelaskan: (1) pengaruh inflasi terhadap PDB di Oman dan United Arab Emirites tahun 2011-2021, (2) pengaruh ekspor terhadap PDB di Oman dan United Arab Emirites tahun 2011-2021, (3) pengaruh impor terhadap PDB di Oman dan United tahun 2011-2022, Dengan menggunakan jenis metode kuantiitatif. Data tersebut dan dapat diketahui bahwasanya angka Berdasarkan Uji-F diketahui bahwasannya nilai Signifikansi terhadap negara Oman 0,001 > 0,05, Dan nilai Signifikansi terhadap negara United Arab Emirates 0,074 > 0,05, Dengan demikian menunjukkan bahwa proporsi Investasi Asing Langsung, Inflasi, Ekspor, dan Impor Tidak Berpengaruh Terhadap PDB.
    Date: 2022–09–26

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